Brooklyn Heights

Brooklyn Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Originally referred to as Brooklyn Village, it has been a prominent area of Brooklyn since 1834. The neighborhood is noted for its low-rise architecture and its many brownstone rowhouses, most of them built prior to the Civil War. It also has an abundance of notable churches and other religious institutions. Brooklyn's first art gallery, the Brooklyn Arts Gallery, was opened in Brooklyn Heights in 1958.[4] In 1965, a large part of Brooklyn Heights was protected from unchecked development by the creation of the Brooklyn Heights Historic District, the first such district in New York City. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.

Directly across the East River from Manhattan and connected to it by subways and regular ferry service, Brooklyn Heights is also easily accessible from Downtown Brooklyn. The neighborhood stretches from Old Fulton Street near the Brooklyn Bridge south to Atlantic Avenue and from the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway to Court Street and Cadman Plaza West.[5] Adjacent neighborhoods are Dumbo, Downtown Brooklyn, Cobble Hill, and Boerum Hill. Columbia Heights, an upscale six-block-long street next to the Brooklyn Heights Promenade,[6] is sometimes considered to be its own neighborhood.

As of 2010, Brooklyn Heights had a population of 22,887 people. The neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community Board 2,[7] and is served by the 84th Precinct of the New York City Police Department at 301 Gold Street in nearby Downtown Brooklyn.[8] The New York City Fire Department operates two fire stations near Brooklyn Heights: Engine Company 205/Ladder Company 118 at 74 Middagh Street, and Engine Company 224 at 274 Hicks Street.[9]

Brooklyn Heights
62 Montague Street between Pierrepont Place and Hicks Street in Brooklyn Heights (2006)
62 Montague Street between Pierrepont Place and Hicks Street in Brooklyn Heights (2006)
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°41′46″N 73°59′42″W / 40.696°N 73.995°WCoordinates: 40°41′46″N 73°59′42″W / 40.696°N 73.995°W
Country United States
State New York
CityNew York City
BoroughBrooklyn
Languages[1]
Area
 • Total0.320 sq mi (0.83 km2)
Population
 • Total20,256
 • Density63,000/sq mi (24,000/km2)
Demographics 2010[2]
 • White77%
 • Black7%
 • Hispanic (of any race)8%
 • Asian5%
 • Other3%
ZIP Codes
11201
Area code(s)718, 347, 929, and 917
Median household income$119,999[3]

History

Early settlement

Brooklyn Heights occupies a palisade that rises sharply from the river's edge and gradually recedes on the landward side. Before the Dutch settled on Long Island in the middle of the seventeenth century, this promontory was called Ihpetonga ("the high sandy bank") by the native Lenape American Indians.[10]

New York from Brooklyn Heights (NYPL b13075520-422198)
The view of New York City from Brooklyn Heights, (1778-c.1880)
Brooklyn heights drawing 1854
Brooklyn Heights in 1854

Ferries across the East River were running as early as 1642, serving the farms in the area. The most significant of the ferries went between the current Fulton Street and Peck Slip in Manhattan, and was run by Cornelius Dirksen. The ferry service helped the lowland area to thrive, with both farms and some factories along the water, but the higher ground was sparsely used.[5]

The area was heavily fortified prior to the Battle of Long Island in the American Revolutionary War, After British troops landed on Long Island and advanced towards Continental Army lines, General George Washington withdrew his troops here after heavy losses, but was able to make a skillful retreat across the East River to Manhattan without the loss of any troops or his remaining supplies.

After the war, the 160-acre tract of land belonging to John Rapeljie, who was a Loyalist, was confiscated and sold to the Sands brothers, who tried to develop the part of the land on the palisade as a community they called "Olympia", but failed to make it come about, partly because of the difficulty of building there. They later sold part of their land to John Jackson, who created the Vinegar Hill community, much of which later became the Brooklyn Navy Yard.[11]

Development

Brooklyn Heights began to develop once Robert Fulton's New York and Brooklyn Steam Ferry Boat Company began regularly scheduled steam ferry service in 1814, with the financial backing of Hezekiah Beers Pierrepont, one of the area's major landowners.[12] Pierrepont had accumulated 60 acres of land, including 800 feet which directly overlooked the harbor, all of which he planned to sub-divide. Since his intention was to sell to merchants and bankers who lived in Manhattan, he needed easy access between Brooklyn Heights and New York City, which Fulton's company provided.[13] Pierrepont bought 60 acres (24 ha) – part of the Livingston estate, plus the Benson, De Bevoise and Reemsen farms[14] – on what was then called "Clover Hill", now Brooklyn Heights, and built a mansion there.[5] Pierrepont purchased and expanded Philip Livingston's gin distillery on the East River at what is now Joralemon Street, where he produced Anchor Gin.

Wishing to sub-divide and develop his property, Pierrepont realized the need for regularly scheduled ferry service across the East River, and to this end he became a prominent investor in Robert Fulton's New York and Brooklyn Steam Ferry Boat Company, using his influence on Fulton's behalf; he eventually became a part owner and a director of the company. Fulton's ferry began running in 1814, and Brooklyn received a charter as a village from the state of New York in 1816, thanks to the influence of Pierrepont and other prominent landowners.[12] The city then prepared for the establishment of a street grid, although there were competing plans for the size of the lots. John and Jacob Hicks, who also owned property on Brooklyn Heights, north of Pierrepont's, favored smaller lots, as they were pitching their land to tradesman and artisans already living in Brooklyn, not attempting to lure merchants and bankers from Manhattan as Pierrepont was. To counter the Hickses' proposal, Pierrepont hired a surveyor and submitted an alternative. In the end, the Hickses' plan was adopted north of Clark Street, and Pierrepont's, featuring 25 by 100 foot (8 by 30 meter) lots, south of it.

Thanks to the influence of Pierrepont and other landowners, Brooklyn received a charter from the state as a village in 1816, which led to streets being laid out in a regular grid pattern, sidewalks being laid, water pumps being installed and the institution of a watch.[13] After 1823, farms begin to be sub-divided into 25-by-100-foot (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots, which were advertised as suitable for a "country retreat" for Manhattanites, leading to a building boom that resulted in Brooklyn Heights becoming the "first commuter suburb,"[5][15] since it was easier and faster to get to Manhattan by ferry than it was to commute from upper Manhattan by ground transportation.[12] A resident of the Heights could leave the office at three o'clock, have dinner at home at four o'clock, and still have time for a "leisurely drive to the outskirts of town", a "middle class paradise."[16] The community's development was helped by the yellow fever epidemic of 1822, when many of the rich from the city abandoned it for an area that was advertised as "elevated and perfectly healthy at all seasons ... a select neighborhood and circle of society."[13]

Where there had been only seven houses in the Heights in 1807,[12] by 1860 there were over six hundred of them,[17] and by 1890 the area was almost completely developed.[12] The buildings were designed in a wide variety of styles; development started in the northern part, and moved southward, so the architecture general changes in that direction as the preferred style of the time changed over the decades.[9] Throughout the 19th century, Brooklyn Heights remained an elegant neighborhood,[5] and became Brooklyn's cultural and financial center.[9] Its development gave rise to offshoots such as Cobble Hill and, later, Carroll Gardens.[18]

Prior to the Civil War, Brooklyn Heights was a locus of the Abolitionist movement, due to the speeches and activities of Henry Ward Beecher, the pastor of Plymouth Church, now the Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims. Beecher was a nationally known figure famous on the lecture circuit for his novel oratorical style, in which he employed humor, dialect, and slang. Under Beecher, so many slaves passed through Plymouth Church on their way to freedom in Canada that later generations have referred to the church as the "Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad." To dramatize the plight of those held in captivity, Beecher once brought a female slave to the church and held an auction, with the highest bidder purchasing not the slave, but her freedom. Beecher also raised money to buy other slaves out of captivity, and shipped rifles to abolitionists in Kansas and Nebraska in crates labelled "Bibles", which gave the rifles the nickname "Beecher's Bibles".[9]

BHpromenade6012
The Brooklyn Heights Promenade

20th century

The completion of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883, the Brooklyn end of which was near Brooklyn Heights' eastern boundary, began the process of making the neighborhood more accessible from places such as Manhattan. The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT)'s Lexington Avenue subway line, which reached Brooklyn Heights in 1908, was an even more powerful catalyst in the neighborhood's development. The resulting ease of transportation into the neighborhood and the perceived loss of the specialness and "quality" began to drive out the merchants and patricians who lived there; in time their mansions were divided to become apartment houses and boarding houses. Artists began to move into the neighborhood, as well as writers, and a number of large hotels – the St. George (1885), the Margaret (1889), the Bossert (1909), Leverich Towers (1928), and the Pierrepont (1928), among others[9][12] – were constructed. By the beginning of the Depression, most of the middle class had left the area. Boarding houses had become rooming houses, and the neighborhood began to have the appearance of a slum.[5][9]

During the 1940s and '50s, the building of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (BQE) badly affected the neighborhood, as it took away the neighborhood's northwest corner, destroying whole rows of brownstones.[9] At about the same time, plans began to be developed by New York's "master builder", Robert Moses, wielding the Housing Act of 1949,[17] to replace brownstone row houses which were the typical building form in the neighborhood with large luxury apartment buildings.[5] A prominent example of the intended outcome is the Cadman Plaza development of housing cooperatives in the northern part of the neighborhood, located on the site where the Brooklyn Bridge trolley terminal once stood.[9] In 1959, the North Heights Community Group was formed to oppose destroying cheap low-rise housing in order to build the high-rise Cadman Plaza towers. Architect Percival Goodman presented an alternate plan to maintain all sound structures, which garnered 25,000 supporters. In early 1961, a compromise proposal came from City Hall calling for two 22 story towers with over 1,200 luxury and middle income units. The Brooklyn Heights Association fully supported the compromise plan despite strong opposition from the preservation community, including the North Heights Community Group. As a result, 1,200 residents were removed from their houses and apartments in late 1961/early 1962 as construction began on the modified plan.[19][20]

One positive development came about when community groups – prominently the Brooklyn Heights Association, founded in 1910[9] – joined with Moses in the creation of the Brooklyn Heights Promenade, also called the Esplanade, which was cantilevered over the BQE. It became a favorite spot among locals, offering magnificent vistas of the Statue of Liberty, the Manhattan skyline across the East River, the Brooklyn Bridge, the Manhattan Bridge, and spectacular fireworks displays over the East River. Moses originally proposed to build the BQE through the heart of Brooklyn Heights. Opposition to this plan led to the re-routing of the expressway to the side of the bluff, allowing creation of the Promenade.[21]

By the mid-1950s, a new generation of property owners had begun moving into the Heights, pioneering the "Brownstone Revival" by buying and renovating pre-Civil War period houses, which became part of the preservationist movement which culminated in the passage in 1965 of the Landmarks Preservation Law.[22] In 1965, community groups which later became the Brooklyn Heights Association, succeeded in having the neighborhood designated the Brooklyn Heights Historic District by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, the first such district in the city. This was followed in the following decades by the further gentrification of the neighborhood into a firmly middle-class area, which became "one of New York City's most pleasant and attractive neighborhoods."[5]

Brooklyn Historical Society
The Brooklyn Historical Society, 128 Pierrepont Street on the corner of Clinton Street, founded by Henry Pierrepont in 1863 as the "Long Island Historical Society". The building was constructed in 1878-81 and was designed by George B. Post

Architecture and places of interest

Brooklyn Heights was the first neighborhood protected by the 1965 Landmarks Preservation Law of New York City. The neighborhood is largely composed of blocks of picturesque rowhouses and a few mansions. A great range of architectural styles is represented, including Greek Revival, Italianate, Second Empire, Victorian Gothic, Romanesque, Neo-Grec, and Classical Revival, as well as a few 2/1/2-story late Federal houses from the early 19th century in the northern part of the neighborhood.[23] Some houses were constructed of brick, but the dominant building material was brownstone or "Jersey freestone", a reddish-brown stone from Passaic County, New Jersey.[17]

A typical brownstone rowhouse was three or four stories tall, with the main floor above the street level and reached by stairs, referred to as a "stoop", a word derived from Dutch. The basement is typically a half-flight down from the street, and was used as the work area for servants, including the kitchen. The first floor would be the location of the public rooms, bedrooms were on the second floor, and servants quarters were on the top floor. The rear of the lot would feature a private garden.[17] Aside from rowhouses, a number of houses, particularly along Pierrepont Street and Pierrepont Place, are authentic mansions.

The concentration of over 600 pre-Civil War houses, one of the largest ensembles of such housing in the nation, and the human scale of the three, four- and five-story buildings creates a neighborly atmosphere.

Brooklyn Heights has very few high-rise buildings. Among these buildings are 75 Livingston Street, Hotel St. George, and the Concord Village co-op development on Adams Street. Additionally, Jehovah's Witnesses had their world headquarters in the northern part of Brooklyn Heights at 25 Columbia Heights. The organization restored a number of historic buildings to house their staff, including the former Hotel Bossert, once the seasonal home of many Dodgers players, on Montague Street. In 2010, the organization announced plans to begin selling off their numerous properties in the Heights and nearby downtown Brooklyn since they plan to relocate themselves in upstate New York.[24]

The executive offices of the Brooklyn Dodgers were, for many years, located in the Heights, near the intersection of Montague and Court Streets. A plaque on the office building that replaced the Dodgers' old headquarters at 215 Montague Street identifies it as the site where Jackie Robinson signed his major league contract.

Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims and Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Catholic Cathedral are located in Brooklyn Heights, as are the First Unitarian Congregational Society, the Long Island Historical Society, Packer Collegiate Institute, and St. Ann's and the Holy Trinity Church, among other historically notable buildings.[23]

USA- NYC- Brooklyn 24 Middagh Street

Middagh Street, one of the oldest streets in Brooklyn Heights, contains most of the remaining wood houses; this is #24, the best preserved of the group (all c.1817)[12]

Willow Street Brooklyn Heights 2006

155–159 Willow Street, early 19th-century Federal houses (c.1826)[12]

32 & 34 Remsen Street

Rowhouses on Remsen Street
(c.1860)[12]

Leverich Towers Hotel tower from roof of 15 Clark Street

A detail from the Leverich Towers Hotel (Starrett & van Vleck, 1928)[12]

Grace Episcopal Church Brooklyn

Grace Episcopal Church
(Richard Upjohn, 1847-49)[12]

Plymouth Congregationalist Ch snow jeh crop

Plymouth Church, now Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims
(Joseph C. Wells, 1849-50)[12]

St. Ann's and the Holy Trinity Church Brooklyn

St. Ann's and the Holy Trinity Church, formerly Holy Trinity Church
(Minard Lefever, 1844-47)[12]

Appellate Division New York State Supreme Court Brooklyn

Appellate Division Courthouse
(Slee & Bryson, 1938)[12]

Demographics

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Brooklyn Heights was 22,887, a change of 339 (1.5%) from the 22,548 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 235.86 acres (95.45 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 97 inhabitants per acre (62,000/sq mi; 24,000/km2).[25]

The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 75.2% (17,210) White, 5.5% (1,259) African American, 0.2% (37) Native American, 8.8% (2,003) Asian, 0% (3) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (82) from other races, and 2.7% (618) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.3% (1,675) of the population.[26]

The entirety of Community Board 2, which comprises Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene, had 117,046 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 80.6 years.[27]:2, 20 This is slightly lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[28]:53 (PDF p. 84)[29] Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 15% are between the ages of 0–17, 44% between 25–44, and 20% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 12% respectively.[27]:2

As of 2016, the median household income in Community Board 2 was $56,599.[30] In 2018, an estimated 22% of Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in twelve residents (8%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 39% in Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene, lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.[27]:7

Police and crime

Brooklyn Heights is patrolled by the 84th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 301 Gold Street.[31] The 84th Precinct ranked 60th safest out of 69 city precincts for per-capita crime in 2010. This was attributed to a high rate of property crimes in the neighborhood.[32] With a non-fatal assault rate of 40 per 100,000 people, Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 401 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[27]:8

The 84th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 82.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 2 murders, 18 rapes, 147 robberies, 184 felony assaults, 126 burglaries, 650 grand larcenies, and 31 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[33]

74 Middagh St BH Engine 205 H&L 118 jeh
The firehouse for FDNY Engine Co. 205/Ladder Co. 118

Fire safety

Brooklyn Heights is served by two New York City Fire Department (FDNY) fire stations.[34][9] Engine Co. 205/Ladder Co. 118 is located at 74 Middagh Street, serving the northern part of the neighborhood,[35] while Engine Co. 224 is located at 274 Hicks Street, serving the southern part of the neighborhood.[36]

A third fire station, Engine Co. 207/Ladder Co. 210/Satellite 6/Battalion 7/Division 11, is located at 172 Tillary Street in nearby Fort Greene.[37][9]

Health

Preterm and teenage births are less common in Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene than in other places citywide. In Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene, there were 74 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 11.6 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).[27]:11 Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene have a relatively low population of residents who are uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid.[38] In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 4%, which is lower than the citywide rate of 12%. However, this estimate was based on a small sample size.[27]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene is 0.0088 milligrams per cubic metre (8.8×10−9 oz/cu ft), lower than the citywide and boroughwide averages.[27]:9 Eleven percent of Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene residents are smokers, which is slightly lower than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[27]:13 In Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene, 24% of residents are obese, 6% are diabetic, and 25% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[27]:16 In addition, 14% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[27]:12

Eighty-eight percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is slightly higher than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 86% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," more than the city's average of 78%.[27]:13 For every supermarket in Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene, there are 12 bodegas.[27]:10

Post offices and ZIP code

Brooklyn Heights is covered by ZIP Code 11201.[39] The United States Post Office operates three locations nearby: the DUMBO Automated Postal Center at 84 Front Street,[40] the Cadman Plaza Station at 271 Cadman Plaza East,[41] and the Municipal Station at 210 Joralemon Street.[42]

Education

Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene generally have a higher ratio of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. The majority of residents (64%) have a college education or higher, while 11% have less than a high school education and 25% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 40% of Brooklynites and 38% of city residents have a college education or higher.[27]:6 The percentage of Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene students excelling in math rose from 27 percent in 2000 to 50 percent in 2011, and reading achievement rose from 34% to 41% during the same time period.[43]

Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is about equal to the rest of New York City. In Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene, 20% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, the same as the citywide average.[28]:24 (PDF p. 55)[27]:6 Additionally, 75% of high school students in Brooklyn Heights and Fort Greene graduate on time, equal to the citywide average.[27]:6

Schools

St. Ann's School, a K–12 school, is located in the neighborhood, with the main campus at 129 Pierrepont Street. Packer Collegiate Institute, a K-12 school, has also been located in the neighborhood, at 170 Joralemon Street, since its 1845 founding.

St. Francis College is located on Remsen Street and occupies half a city block. It was founded as St. Francis Academy in 1859 by the Franciscan Brothers and was originally located on Baltic Street. St. Francis College was the first private school in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn. As of 2010, 2,000 full-time students and more than 400 part-time students from 80 countries attend the College. St. Francis College has been ranked by The New York Times as one of the more diverse colleges in the United States.[44] The college has also been ranked by both Forbes magazine and U.S. News & World Report as one of the top baccalaureate colleges in the north.[45][46]

Brooklyn Heights is also the location of Brooklyn Law School, founded in 1901, which, as of 2012, had 1,400 students.

Brooklyn Heights BPL jeh
The former Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) Brooklyn Heights branch at 280 Cadman Plaza West, now demolished

Libraries

The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL)'s Brooklyn Heights branch is located at 109 Remsen Street.[47] The branch was formerly located at 280 Cadman Plaza West, which was shared with the Business & Career Library, but that site was sold to a developer and demolished.[48]

Brooklyn Heights' first library was founded in 1857 by the Mercantile Library Association of the City of Brooklyn. The first BPL branch in the neighborhood, the Montague Street branch, was opened in 1903. The Brooklyn Heights branch building at 280 Cadman Plaza West opened in 1962 and originally contained an auditorium and children's room. It was renovated and expanded from 1990 to 1993, and upon the completion of the renovation, the Brooklyn Heights branch shared the site with the Business & Career Library.[49] In 2013, BPL announced its intent to sell 280 Cadman Plaza West, and as part of this announcement, the Business and Career Library's functions were relocated to BPL's Central Branch.[50] BPL then sold the Brooklyn Heights branch to developer Hudson Companies.[51][52] Hudson Companies then demolished the structure and replaced it with a 34-story condominium, which would contain a smaller library at its base when it is completed in 2020.[48] In the interim, the BPL branch moved to the temporary 109 Remsen Street location.[53]

Transportation

Brooklyn Heights is serviced by numerous subway services, specifically the A, ​C​, F​, N, R, and ​W trains at Jay Street–MetroTech; the 2 and ​3 trains at Clark Street; and the 2, ​3​, 4, ​5​, N, R, and ​W trains at Borough Hall/Court Street.[54]

Although no bus routes actually stop in Brooklyn Heights, many MTA Regional Bus Operations bus routes are located nearby in Downtown Brooklyn. The B25 also stops in Dumbo/Fulton Ferry, while the B61 and B63 serve Cobble Hill.[55]

In June 2017, NYC Ferry's South Brooklyn route started stopping at Brooklyn Bridge Park Piers 1 and 6 in Brooklyn Heights.[56][57]

Street names

Many of the streets in Brooklyn Heights are named after people who figured prominently in the neighborhood's history.[58]

Grace Court Alley No.19 & No.21
Grace Court Alley, a mews converted into residences
Brooklyn - Heights Casino pano 01 (9423259630)
The Heights Casino at 75 Montague Street, built in 1905 and designed by Boring & Tilton. Next to it, where the club's former outdoor tennis courts stood, is the Casino Mansion Apartments (1910, William A. Boring)[12]
  • Adams StreetJohn Adams, second President of the United States; originally named "Congress Street"
  • Aitken Place – Monsignor Ambrose Aitken of St. Charles Borromeo Roman Catholic Church
  • Cadman Plaza – Dr. Samuel Parkes Cadman, pastor of the Central Congregational Church
  • Clark Street – William Clark, ship's captain
  • Clinton StreetDeWitt Clinton, mayor of New York City, governor of New York state, three time Presidential candidate
  • College Place – named after the Brooklyn Collegiate Institute for Young Ladies (1829-1842); the building became the Mansion House Hotel in 1875
  • Court Street – renamed from "George Street" in 1835, even though there were no courts nearby
  • Doughty Street – Charles Doughty, 18th century lawyer, helped create the Village of Brooklyn
  • Elizabeth Place – Elizabeth Cornell, built the first Pierrepont mansion
  • Fulton Street, Old Fulton StreetRobert Fulton, introduced steam ferry service between Brooklyn Heights and Manhattan; Old Fulton Street was originally to have been named "Kings Highway", and Fulton Street was "Main Street"
  • Furman Street – William Furman, state legislator
  • Garden Place – originally part of Philip Livingston's garden
  • Grace Court, Grace Court Alley – named after Grace Church
  • Henry Street – Dr. Thomas Henry, president of the Kings County Medical Society
  • Hicks Street – John and Jacob Hicks, 17th century ferry operators
  • Hunts Lane – John Hunt, early purchaser of land from Hezekiah Pierrepont
  • Joralemon Street – Teunis Joralemon, saddle maker
  • Livingston StreetPhilip Livingston, the only signer of the Declaration of Independence who was from Brooklyn
  • Middagh Street – the Middaghs, a pre-Revolutionary War family
  • Monroe PlaceJames Monroe, fifth President of the United States; the widest street in Brooklyn Heights
  • Montague StreetLady Mary Wortley Montagu, English feminist and activist for smallpox inoculation, a member of the Pierrepont family; originally named "Constable Street" after Anna Marie Constable Pierrepoint
  • Pierrepont Street, Pierrepont Place – Hezekiah Pierrepoint, the "founder" of Brooklyn Heights
  • Remsen Street – Henry Remsen, son of Ram Jensen Vanderbeeck, a 17th-century blacksmith
  • Schermerhorn Street – Peter and Andrew Schermerhorn, merchants and landowners
  • Sidney PlaceSir Philip Sidney; originally "Monroe Place" until 1853
  • Tillary Street – Dr. James Tillary, who worked on finding a cure for yellow fever

Concerning the "fruit streets" in Brooklyn Heights – Cranberry, Orange and Pineapple Streets – the WPA Guide to New York City reports that before the Civil War, these streets, along with Poplar and Willow Streets, were named after prominent families, but that a member of the Middagh family expressed her dislike of these families by replacing the street signs with botanical names. The city would restore the proper names, and Middagh would put back her own signs. Several iterations of this game ended when Middagh's new names were given official status by a resolution of the alderman.[10] In Historically Speaking, Brooklyn borough historian John B. Manbeck says only that these street names "have questionable origins," as does Love Lane, which reputedly gets its name from the meetings that took place there between a pretty girl who lived nearby and her suitors.[58]

Notable people

There have been many noted residents of Brooklyn Heights. The dates listed are their respective birth and death dates. Famous residents include:

In popular culture

  • The 1960s TV show The Patty Duke Show was set at 8 Remsen Street, Brooklyn Heights, and the neighborhood received a name check in the theme song, in which "Patty's only seen the sights a girl can see from Brooklyn Heights."[9][102] The area was also the main setting of The Cosby Show (1984–1992) where the Huxtable family resided in a two-story brownstone at 10 Stigwood Avenue, a fictional address in Brooklyn Heights.[103]
  • The 1975 movie Three Days of the Condor, directed by Sydney Pollack and starring Robert Redford and Faye Dunaway, had the fictional residence of Dunaway's character located at 9 Cranberry Street in Brooklyn Heights.[104]
  • The 1977 horror film The Sentinel featured exterior shots along the Promenade, most notably of the southernmost building at 13 Remsen Street. The neighborhood is a popular destination for many TV and film producers, and has been used both for interior and exterior shoots in projects that included Boardwalk Empire, St. James Place, White Collar, and Hostages.[105]
  • The 1987 romantic comedy film Moonstruck, starring Cher and Nicolas Cage, is set in the neighborhood.[106]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Census data
  2. ^ "Brooklyn Heights Demographics Data". 2012.
  3. ^ "Brooklyn Heights Income in 2011". Retrieved 2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. ^ Walton, Richard J. (January 22, 1958) "One Painting Leads to Birth of Gallery". New York World-Telegram
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Fletcher, Ellen. "Brooklyn Heights" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2, pp.177-178
  6. ^ Weichselbaum, Simone. "It’s Brooklyn’s $10 million street: Brooklyn Heights strip boasts homes with eight-figure prices", New York Daily News (February 7, 2012)
  7. ^ Community Boards, New York City. Accessed May 23, 2008.
  8. ^ 84th Precinct, NYPD
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jackson, Kenneth T.; Manbeck, John B., eds. (2004), The Neighborhoods of Brooklyn (2nd ed.), New Haven, Connecticut: Citizens for NYC and Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10310-7, pp.34-39
  10. ^ a b c d Federal Writers' Project (1939), New York City Guide, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-403-02921-X (Reprinted by Scholarly Press, 1976; often referred to as WPA Guide to New York City), pp. 442-47
  11. ^ Manbeck (2008), pp.99-102
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195383867, pp.591-610
  13. ^ a b c Burroughs & Wallace (1999), pp.450-51
  14. ^ Rizzo, Joanna. "Pierrepont: Seeing great potential across the river in Brooklyn" The Real Deal (July 30, 2008)
  15. ^ Rizzo, Joanna. "Pierrepont: Seeing great potential across the river in Brooklyn" The Real Deal (July 30, 2008)
  16. ^ Burroughs & Wallace (1999), p.972
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Manbeck (2008), pp.95-99
  18. ^ Burroughs & Wallace (1999), p.933
  19. ^ Salzman, Lorna. "Brooklyn Heights Blows It," Brooklyn Rail (July-August 2015), pp.28-29
  20. ^ Osman, Suleiman. (2011) The Invention of Brownstone Brooklyn: Gentrification and the Search for Authenticity in Postwar New York New York: Oxford University Press. p.150 ISBN 0195387317
  21. ^ Krogius, Henrik. The Brooklyn Heights Promenade Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press, 2011. ISBN 1609495292
  22. ^ See Schneider, Martin L. Battling for Brooklyn Heights: The Fight for New York's First Historic District Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn Heights Press, 2010; and Schneider, Martin L. and Junkersfeld, Karl. "Brooklyn Is My Neighborhood: The Story of New York’s First Historic District" (video) Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn Heights Press, 2010
  23. ^ a b New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009), Postal, Matthew A., ed., Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1, pp.230-235
  24. ^ Associated Press (December 14, 2015). "Jehovah's Witnesses could get $1 billion for NYC properties". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
  25. ^ Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  26. ^ Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Fort Greene and Brooklyn Heights (Including Boerum Hill, Brooklyn Heights, Clinton Hill, Downtown Brooklyn, DUMBO, Fort Greene and Vinegar Hill)" (PDF). nyc.gov. NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
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  60. ^ "How a New Generation of Designers Is Shaking Up Storied Fashion Houses", Vogue (magazine), February 13, 2018. Accessed June 3, 2018. "Back in Brooklyn Heights with her rescue dog, River, Bennett’s personal goal is about 'transforming and decorating my house. I have 60 pairs of shoes—and no forks.'"
  61. ^ a b Plitt, Amy. "Björk Nabs Brooklyn Heights Penthouse From Her Ex for $1.6M", Curbed New York, January 5, 2016. Accessed June 20, 2017. "In 2009, Icelandic singer-songwriter Björk and her now ex-husband, artist Matthew Barney, snagged the penthouse apartment at 160 Henry Street on a quiet stretch in Brooklyn Heights. But the couple has since split up, and now Luxury Listings NYC reports that the delightfully kooky musician has bought her ex out of the 3,000-square-foot pad, to the tune of $1,611,325."
  62. ^ Rasmussen, Fred. "John Bartels, 99, nation's oldest sitting federal judge", The Baltimore Sun, February 20, 1997. Accessed January 6, 2019. "John R. Bartels, a senior federal judge of the Eastern District of New York and former Baltimorean, died Feb. 13 of heart failure in Brooklyn, N.Y.... He made his home in Brooklyn Heights."
  63. ^ Huget, Jennifer LaRue. "On the trail of Henry Ward Beecher in Brooklyn, with stuffed doll in tow", The Washington Post, October 24, 2013. Accessed October 22, 2017. "This year marks the 200th anniversary of Beecher’s birth and the 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, for which he fervently pressed. So we Hugets decided to pay homage to 'The Great Divine' by visiting his spiritual home base in leafy, brownstone-lined Brooklyn Heights."
  64. ^ "The Truth About Vincent Kartheiser". BlackBook. June 20, 2013.
  65. ^ a b Walker, Ameena. "Emily Blunt and John Krasinski buy $11M Brooklyn Heights condo 13 The couple purchased two adjacent units that can be combined to create a full-floor residence", [[Curbed|]] New York, January 9, 2019. Accessed January 17, 2019.
  66. ^ Grode, Eric. "Pigs, Ants, Karma, Dogs, Love and LossLee Breuer Prepares La Divina Caricatura", The New York Times, December 5, 2013. Accessed October 22, 2017. "The hallway leading into Lee Breuer’s Brooklyn Heights studio apartment isn’t particularly wide, but room has been made for an entire bookcase devoted to travel guides."
  67. ^ Polsky, Sara. "Gabriel Byrne's $4.7M Brooklyn Heights Townhouse in Contract", Curbed, April 8, 2010. Accessed October 22, 2017. "Is Brooklyn Heights resident, In Treatment star, and Dock Street Dumbo hater Gabriel Byrne planning a move out of the neighborhood? Maybe so! Brooklyn Heights Blog notices that Byrne's on-the-market townhouse at 14 Garden Place has gone into contract."
  68. ^ a b Manbeck (2008), p.107
  69. ^ Taylor, Chuck. "Brooklyn Heights Resident & Pulitzer Winner Ron Chernow Receives BIO Award", Brooklyn Heights Blog, May 20, 2013. Accessed June 20, 2017. "Brooklyn Heights resident Ron Chernow, who won a 2011 Pulitzer Prize for his biography Washington: A Life, as well as a place in the Brooklyn Heights Blog’s Top 10 that year, has received the BIO award from the non-profit Biographers International Organization."
  70. ^ Shone, Tom. "Jennifer Connelly: A Beautiful MindShe may not submit to Hollywood's sunny, mostly blond formula for stardom, but maybe that's because after her years at Saint Ann's and Yale, Jennifer Connelly knows better.", Variety (magazine), May 14, 2015. Accessed October 22, 2017. "Something similar, one suspects, is true of Connelly herself, who grew up primarily in Brooklyn Heights, where she attended the prestigious Saint Ann's School."
  71. ^ Crary, Scott (November 14, 2014). Kill Your Idols 10th Anniversary Q&A (Speech). Nitehawk Cinema. New York City. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  72. ^ Mason, Wyatt. "Adam Driver Is A Force To Be Reckoned With", Esquire (magazine), November 20, 2017. Accessed January 6, 2019. "On a summery afternoon in late September, I arranged to meet Adam Driver near his home in Brooklyn Heights."
  73. ^ Staff. "W. E. B. DuBois Dies in Ghana; Negro Leader and Author, 95", The New York Times, October 23, 1963. Accessed October 22, 2017. "Dr. DuBois' home in this country was at 31 Grace Court, Brooklyn."
  74. ^ Staff. "Girls creator Lena Dunham's guide to New York City", AM New York, February 20, 2016. Accessed June 20, 2017. "The quaint neighborhood spot Iris Cafe in Brooklyn Heights is a favorite brunch spot for locals. Dunham has long ties to the Heights: She lived in the neighborhood in her youth, went to school at nearby St. Ann's and moved into the neighborhood in 2012."
  75. ^ O'Neill, Gail. "Miss Piggy’s creator, Bonnie Erickson, speaks about her work as a woman of The Muppets", ArtsATL, February 27, 2018. accessed January 6, 2019. "In advance of the event, ArtsATL reached out to Erickson at her home in Brooklyn Heights, New York, to discuss her work as a female creator in the Muppet Workshop and to learn more about the origins of her most famous female creation, Miss Piggy."
  76. ^ via CNN Wire. "Former CDC head Tom Frieden charged with forcibly touching woman", WTVR-TV, August 24, 2018. Accessed January 6, 2019. "Dr. Thomas Frieden, the former director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was arrested Friday and charged with forcible touching, according to the New York Police Department. A law enforcement official told CNN that authorities filed three charges against Frieden stemming from an alleged incident in his home in Brooklyn Heights in October."
  77. ^ Patalano, Heidi. "The Subway is One of Paul Giamatti's 'Favorite Things'" Archived 2016-01-01 at the Wayback Machine, DNAinfo.com, October 3, 2013. Accessed June 30, 2017. "How did you settle on Brooklyn Heights? I think it was just something pretty mellow and different from where I had lived, which was in the Lower East Side.... I had had a kid at that point, so it was just somewhere more mellow for the kid."
  78. ^ Rosenblum, Constance. "'Hetty': Scrooge in Hoboken", The New York Times, December 19, 2004. Accessed October 22, 2017. "Through it all she lived in small apartments in Brooklyn Heights and even -- horror of horrors! -- Hoboken."
  79. ^ Agresta, Michael. "Peter Hedges in Real LifeThe writer/director returns to his roots with new novel The Heights", The Austin Chronicle, March 19, 2010. Accessed October 22, 2017. "[AC]: You live in Brooklyn Heights. Did you find yourself borrowing details from your own life? More or less than in your Iowa novels? [PH]: No, actually. My second novel, An Ocean in Iowa, is the closest thing I've written to my own life. There may be little details – descriptions of what's in a sock drawer, or the architecture of an apartment, the smell of a meal – but no, I was very determined to not write about the people in my neighborhood."
  80. ^ Kan, Elianna. "My Lost Poet", The Paris Review, February 23, 2015. Accessed January 17, 2019. "In the spring of 2012, Philip Levine delivered a lecture at the Library of Congress called “My Lost Poets,” marking the end of his tenure as the eighteenth U.S. poet laureate.... I arrived at his home on Willow Street in Brooklyn Heights just as he and his wife, Franny, were finishing lunch."
  81. ^ Rose, Joel. "New York's Next Mayor, Bound To Be A Brooklynite", WNPR, September 21, 2013. Accessed January 6, 2019. "On Thursday, Republican candidate Joe Lhota shook hands with voters pouring out of the subway a few blocks from his home in Brooklyn Heights."
  82. ^ "Litchfield, Grace Denio (1849-1944)", Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore. Accessed January 17, 2019. "Grace Denio Litchfield was born in Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn."
  83. ^ Kiemer, Cynthia A. "Philip Livingston", New York State Museum. Accessed January 17, 2019. "Livingston also speculated heavily in real estate, accumulating more than 120,000 acres of unimproved land in New York and lesser holdings in New Jersey and Connecticut. He owned urban property in Albany and New York City, including his Manhattan home on Duke Street and a country estate in Brooklyn Heights."
  84. ^ "H. P. Lovecraft’s Brooklyn Heights Home", Poets & Writers. Accessed January 17, 2019. "Novelist H. P. Lovecraft moved to the first-floor apartment at 169 Clinton Street in 1925 after separating from his wife Sonia Greene."
  85. ^ Lawson, Carol (January 30, 1981). "Leach to direct musical on orphans going west by rail". The New York Times. Section C, Page 2. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  86. ^ Berger, Joseph. "Norris Church Mailer, Artist and Ally, Dies at 61", The New York Times, November 21, 2010. Accessed January 6, 2019. "Norris Church Mailer, a woman bred in the rural poverty of Arkansas who married Norman Mailer and managed his career and family life over three decades while carving out her own niche as a writer, died on Sunday at her home in Brooklyn Heights."
  87. ^ Tippins, Sherill (February 6, 2005). "Genius and High Jinks at 7 Middagh Street". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
  88. ^ Sengupta, Somini (April 14, 1996). "Brooklyn's Girl Next Door?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2007. Whether she ever made a pilgrimage to Ebbets Field or sipped an egg cream beside an open fire hydrant isn't clear, but the mere fact that she was born in Brooklyn Heights is enough for the organizers of Welcome Back to Brooklyn Day on June 9. On that day, Brooklyn Borough President Howard Golden will crown Ms. Moore Homecoming Queen in a rose garden ceremony at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
  89. ^ Plitt, Amy. "Director Errol Morris lists his lovely Brooklyn Heights duplex for $2M; The duplex, located in a 19th-century townhouse, has quite the artistic pedigree", Curbed New York, August 5, 2016. Accesssed January 17, 2019. "The listing for this Brooklyn Heights co-op touts that it was "once owned by an important artist," but it’s unclear if the broker is referring to its former occupant, Nobel Prize-winner and former Poet Laureate Joseph Brodsky, or the current seller: director Errol Morris, the mind behind such films as The Thin Blue Line, The Fog of War, and Standard Operating Procedure."
  90. ^ Morris, Bob. "Mary-Louise Parker on Life With and Without Men", The New York Times, November 15, 2015. Accessed January 6, 2018. "The other day in the Brooklyn Heights duplex Mary-Louise Parker shares with her two children and Mrs. Roosevelt, a cocker spaniel in a red diaper, the actress was stroking one of the oyster shells she keeps in a bowl in her living room."
  91. ^ Kelly, Brendan. "Heavy Montréal: Marky Ramone pays tribute to his fallen brothers with Blitzkrieg", Montreal Gazette, August 5, 2015. Accessed January 6, 2019. "On the phone from his home in Brooklyn Heights this week, Marky said he knew the band had it from the very first time he saw them at the Manhattan punk hot spot CBGB in 1974."
  92. ^ Lohrer, Fred E. "John A. Roebling, II (1867-1952), Builder of the Red Hill Estate (1929-1941), Lake Placid, Florida", Archbold Biological Station, October 2, 2006, last updated July 17, 2017. Accessed October 24, 2018.
  93. ^ Price, Lydia. "Keri Russell & Matthew Rhys: Inside Their Love Story", People (magazine), January 16, 2016. Accessed June 20, 2017. "Evidence began to pile up in favor of the former when the twosome was spotted walking around Russell’s neighborhood in Brooklyn Heights a few days before Christmas 2013."
  94. ^ Anderson, Jack. "Oliver Smith, Set Designer, Dead at 75", The New York Times, January 25, 1994. Accessed October 22, 2017. "Oliver Smith, one of the most prolific and imaginative designers in the history of the American theater and a former co-director of American Ballet Theater, died on Sunday at his home in Brooklyn Heights."
  95. ^ Roberts, Sam. "William C. Thompson, Pioneering Black Legislator and Judge, Dies at 94", The New York Times, January 3, 2019. Accessed January 6, 2019. "William C. Thompson, a former Brooklyn legislator and judge who was in the vanguard of the black Democrats who staked their claim to elective office beginning in the mid-1960s, died on Dec. 24 at his home in Brooklyn Heights."
  96. ^ "Brooklyn Cultural Institutions Celebrate Walt Whitman, Brooklyn's Poet Laureate, on the 150th Anniversary of Leaves of Grass" (Press release). Brooklyn Public Library. March 24, 2005. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  97. ^ Pollak, Michael. "Dancing in the Street", The New York Times, February 12, 2010. Accessed January 6, 2019. "Not exactly, but close. The town house at 182 Clinton Street in Brooklyn Heights, which is for sale for just under $3 million, was the birthplace and childhood home of Lois B. Wilson, and it was where she and her husband, Bill Wilson, moved back in with her parents when his drinking had left him unable to support his family. In his speeches and writings, Mr. Wilson, known as Bill W. until his death in 1971, traced the history of the movement to 1934 and 'the kitchen table at Clinton Street,' where he and a former drinking buddy discussed the principles that led to the program’s influential 12 steps to health."
  98. ^ Kaminer, Ariel. "Pace Picks Yassky, Ex-Taxi Chief, as Its Law School Dean", The New York Times, February 26, 2014. Accessed January 6, 2019. "Starting in April, its law school will be led by David S. Yassky, who served as taxi commissioner under Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and greeted all riders from their seat-back televisions.... He plans to commute to his new job by subway from his home in Brooklyn Heights."
  99. ^ Carlson, Jen. "Adam 'MCA' Yauch Will Get Brooklyn Heights Playground Named After Him On Friday" Archived 2015-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, Gothamist, May 1, 2013. Accessed May 25, 2017. "This Saturday will mark one year since Adam 'MCA' Yauch died at 47-years-old, following a three year battle with cancer. After his death, word spread that Squibb Park in Brooklyn Heights (where Yauch grew up) may be renamed for him, but Kathleen Hanna soon stopped that rumor."
  100. ^ Kell, Jennifer Gould. "Nets star Thaddeus Young buys home court in Brooklyn Heights", New York Post, September 20, 2015. Accessed May 25, 2017. "Welcome to Brooklyn! Thaddeus Young may be from Memphis, but ritzy Brooklyn Heights is the Nets star’s new home."
  101. ^ Scroggins, Mark. "A Biographical Essay on Louis Zukofsky", University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Accessed May 25, 2017. "The 'matter' of the movement is the daily life of the Zukofsky family, including a walk by Paul and Louis across the Brooklyn Bridge to the Duane Street Fire Museum and back to their Brooklyn Heights apartment."
  102. ^ "The Patty Duke Show" TV.com
  103. ^ Carlson, Jen. "TV Flashback: The Cosby Show" Archived 2010-03-29 at the Wayback Machine, Gothamist, February 21, 2010. Accessed October 22, 2017. "On the show, the Huxtable family lived in a brownstone at 10 Stigwood Avenue in Brooklyn Heights—however, exterior shots of their home were taken at 10 Leroy Street in Greenwich Village."
  104. ^ Freudenheim, Ellen. The Brooklyn Experience: The Ultimate Guide to Neighborhoods & Noshes, Culture & the Cutting Edge, p. 110. Rutgers University Press, 2016. ISBN 9780813577449 Accessed October 22, 2017. "A scene in Robert Redford's film Three Days of the Condor was shot at 9 Cranberry Street."
  105. ^ Fink, Homer. "Give the Gift of Movies Filmed in Brooklyn Heights" Brooklyn Heights {November 23, 2014)
  106. ^ Sullivan, J. Courtney. "Moonstruck House Sells, Recalling Fight for Preservation", The New York Times, August 30, 2008. Accessed October 22, 2017. "The locals know the four-story Federal-style brownstone at Cranberry and Willow Streets in Brooklyn Heights as the Moonstruck House because it was the setting for the 1987 movie starring Cher and Nicolas Cage."

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Applegate, Debby. The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher. Doubleday, 2006.
  • Capote, Truman. A House On the Heights, with a new introduction by George Plimpton. Little Bookroom, 2002.
  • Lancaster, Clay. Old Brooklyn Heights: New York's First Suburb. Dover Books, 1979.
  • Tippins, Sherill. February House: The Story of W.H. Auden, Carson McCullers, Jane and Paul Bowles, Benjamin Britten, and Gypsy Rose Lee, Under One Roof in Wartime America. Houghton Mifflin, 2005.

External links

58 Joralemon Street

58 Joralemon Street, in Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn, New York, United States, is a Greek Revival structure built in 1847 as a private residence, but is now a New York City Subway vent. The property was acquired by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company in 1908, who gutted the interior and converted the structure to "the world’s only Greek Revival subway ventilator". The ventilator also serves as an emergency exit from the eastern end of the New York City Subway's Joralemon Street Tunnel, which carries the IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 and ​5 trains) between Bowling Green and Borough Hall, where it becomes the IRT Eastern Parkway Line (2, ​3, ​4, and ​5 trains).

Through acquisitions, the property passed through to the New York City Board of Transportation in 1940, and to New York City Transit Authority in 1953, its current owner. As of 2010 it was valued at $2.8 million.

The exterior facade and black Lexan windows are the result of a 1999 agreement with the Landmarks Preservation Commission to help the facility blend into the neighborhood.

Battle of Long Island

The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights. The victory over the Americans gave the British control of strategically important New York City. It was fought on August 27, 1776, and was the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War to take place after the United States declared its independence on July 4, 1776. In troop deployment and combat, it was the largest battle of the entire war.

After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, commander-in-chief General George Washington brought the Continental Army to defend the port city of New York, located at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Washington understood that the city's harbor would provide an excellent base for the Royal Navy, so he established defenses there and waited for the British to attack. In July, the British under the command of General William Howe landed a few miles across the harbor from Manhattan on the sparsely-populated Staten Island, where they were reinforced by ships in Lower New York Bay during the next month and a half, bringing their total force to 32,000 troops. Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city with the British fleet in control of the entrance to the harbor at the Narrows, and he moved the bulk of his forces to Manhattan, believing that it would be the first target.

On August 22, the British landed on the shores of Gravesend Bay in southwest Kings County, across the Narrows from Staten Island and more than a dozen miles south from the established East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked U.S. defenses on the Guan Heights. Unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, resulting in twenty percent losses through casualties and capture, although a stand by 400 Maryland troops prevented a more substantial portion of the army from being lost. The remainder of the army retreated to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of supplies or a single life. Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.

Boyle Heights, Los Angeles

Boyle Heights is a neighborhood of almost 100,000 residents east of Downtown Los Angeles in the City of Los Angeles, California. The district has more than 20 public schools and 10 private schools.

Brooklyn Community Board 2

Brooklyn Community Board 2 is a New York City community board that encompasses the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Downtown Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, DUMBO, Vinegar Hill, Fulton Mall, Boerum Hill, Fort Greene, Brooklyn Navy Yard, Fulton Ferry, and Clinton Hill. It is delimited by East River on the west and the north, by Kent and Classon Avenues on the east, and by Atlantic Avenue, Pacific Street, Fourth Avenue, Warren and Court Streets on the south.

As of the United States Census, 2000, the Community Board had a population of 98,620, up from 94,534 in 1990 and 92,732 in 1980. 39,916 (40.5%) residents were African-American, 33,931 (34.4%) were White non-Hispanic, 4,629 (4.7%) were Asian or Pacific Islander, 213 (0.2%) were American Indian or Native Alaskan, 473 (0.5%) were of some other race, 2,923 (3%) were of two or more races, and 16,535 (16.8%) were of Hispanic origins.

In 2004, 17.4% of the population benefited from public assistance, down from 22.5% in 2000.

The land area is 1,910.1 acres (7.730 km2).

Its current chair is Shirley McRae, and its district manager is Robert Perris.

Brooklyn Heights, Missouri

Brooklyn Heights is a village in Jasper County, Missouri, United States. The population was 100 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Joplin, Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Brooklyn Heights, Ohio

Brooklyn Heights is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. The population was 1,543 at the 2010 census.

Brooklyn Heights Promenade

The Brooklyn Heights Promenade, also called the Esplanade, is a 1,826-foot (557 m)-long platform and pedestrian walkway cantilevered over the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278) in Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn, New York City, United States. With views of Lower Manhattan's skyline and the New York Harbor, it came about as the unplanned byproduct of competing proposals for the highway’s route that were resolved in the midst of World War II. Actual construction came after the war. As a structure constructed over a roadway, the Promenade is owned by the NYCDOT and is not considered a park; however, NYC Parks maintains the entire Promenade.The Promenade runs between the Brooklyn Bridge and the ramp north of Atlantic Avenue. The walkway itself is curtailed at both ends. Due to the area's topography, the Promenade is four stories; from top to bottom, they are the walkway, eastbound I-278, westbound I-278, and Furman Street.

Brooklyn Heights Railroad

The Brooklyn Heights Railroad was a street railway company in the U.S. state of New York. It leased and operated the streetcar lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, but started out with the Montague Street Line, a short cable car line connecting the Wall Street Ferry with downtown Brooklyn along Montague Street. Eliphalet Williams Bliss owned the railroad.

Brooklyn Historical Society

The Brooklyn Historical Society (BHS), founded in 1863, is a museum, library, and educational center preserving and encouraging the study of Brooklyn's 400-year history. The society's Romanesque Revival building, located at Pierrepont and Clinton Streets in Brooklyn Heights, was designed by George B. Post and built in 1878-81, is a National Historic Landmark and part of New York City's Brooklyn Heights Historic District. The Brooklyn Historical Society houses materials relating to the history of Brooklyn and its people, and hosts exhibitions which draw over 9,000 members a year. In addition to general programming, BHS serves over 70,000 public school students and teachers annually by providing exhibit tours, educational programs and curricula, and making its professional staff available for instruction and consultation.

Cadman Plaza

Cadman Plaza is a park located on the border of the historic Brooklyn Heights neighborhood and Downtown Brooklyn in New York City. Named for Reverend Doctor Samuel Parkes Cadman (1864-1936), a renowned minister in the Brooklyn Congregational Church, it is built on land reclaimed by condemnation in 1935 and was named as a park in 1939. The park borders Cadman Plaza West and Cadman Plaza East and the west and east sides of the plaza, respectively. Popular usage sometimes shortens the name to simply, "Cadman Plaza".

Clark Street (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line)

Clark Street is a station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. It is located at Clark Street and Henry Street in Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn. It is served by the 2 train at all times and the 3 train at all times except late nights.

Golden Hill, San Diego

Golden Hill is a neighborhood of San Diego, California. It is located south of Balboa Park, north of Sherman Heights/Highway 94 (M. L. King, Jr. Freeway), and east of Downtown.

Golden Hill is one of San Diego's most historic and architecturally eclectic zones, with many pre-1900 homes and apartments. In the 1910s, it became one of the many San Diego neighborhoods connected by the Class 1 streetcars and an extensive San Diego public transit system that was spurred by the Panama-California Exposition of 1915 and built by John D. Spreckels. These streetcars became a fixture of this neighborhood until their retirement in 1939. Street cars, the number 2 line operated until the mid-1950s

This neighborhood is also in walking distance of Downtown, City College and much of Balboa Park. Auto access is direct from freeways 5 and 94, The major through streets and bus routes are Broadway (East and West), and 25th Street and 30th Street (North and South). The Zip code is a portion of 92102. Pedestrianism, like in other urban mesa neighborhoods surrounding Balboa Park, is high relative to the rest of San Diego.

The now wealthier neighborhood of South Park is occasionally but incorrectly considered to be part of the Golden Hill neighborhood, but rather, it is part of the Greater Golden Hill Community. The South Park name dates back to 1870.Artists and musicians have long favored the area, especially after being priced out of areas like Little Italy, Eastern Downtown and Hillcrest. Golden Hill is home to Black Box Recording Studios, The Habitat Recording Studios, Humberto's Taco Shop, Influx Cafe, Turf Supper Club, Krakatoa & Pizzeria Luigi (which was featured on the Food Network show Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives).

The first Gay Center in San Diego, and second in the nation was located at 2250 B St in the early 1970s. The original 1908 house is still there to this day.

Golden Hill is also host to two outdoor concerts a year, the Golden Hill Block Party and Kate Sessions Fest. The Golden Hill Block Party happens the last Saturday prior to Halloween. In 2006, the Kate Sessions Fest made its debut in Golden Hill Park. Both outdoor concerts are free, all-ages events, organized by local artists and musicians, featuring local bands.

Golden Hill was also the original home to the Women's History Museum and Educational Center, now located at Liberty Station, in Point Loma, which recently celebrated its 25th year as one of the only comprehensive women's history museums in the country. Portions of the area now known as Golden Hill were originally known as Brooklyn Heights. This area included the area from Fern and 28th street on the South to Fern and Grape street on the north, and from 30th Street on the west, east to the canyons. The school at 30th and Beech Streets was originally called Brooklyn School. The Presbyterian Church at 30th and Fir was originally called Brooklyn Heights Presbyterian Church. This name went out of usage in 1981 when an invitation was extended to two churches—Brooklyn Heights Presbyterian, established in 1921 and Golden Hill Presbyterian, established in 1956 (at 22nd and Market Streets)—to merge as Christ United Presbyterian Church of San Diego and each church accepted.

Haley Bennett

Haley Loraine Keeling (born January 7, 1988), known professionally as Haley Bennett, is an American actress and singer. She made her film debut as pop star Cora Corman in the romantic comedy Music and Lyrics (2007) and has since appeared in the films The Haunting of Molly Hartley (2008), College (2008), The Hole (2009), Kaboom (2010), The Equalizer (2014), Kristy (2014), Hardcore Henry (2015), The Magnificent Seven (2016), The Girl on the Train (2016) and Thank You for Your Service (2017).

Joe Wright

Joseph Wright (born 25 August 1972) is an English film director. His motion pictures include the romance film Pride & Prejudice (2005), the romantic war drama Atonement (2007), the action thriller Hanna (2011), his adaptation of Anna Karenina (2012), Peter Pan origin story Pan (2015), and World War II political drama Darkest Hour (2017).

Lucas Hedges

Lucas Hedges (born December 12, 1996) is an American actor. Born to poet-actress Susan Bruce and writer-director Peter Hedges, he studied theater at the University of North Carolina School of the Arts.

Hedges began his acting career by playing supporting roles in Wes Anderson's comedy-drama Moonrise Kingdom (2012) and the crime biopic Kill the Messenger (2014). He made his breakthrough in 2016 by playing a sardonic teenage orphan in Kenneth Lonergan's drama Manchester by the Sea, which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Hedges went on to star as an aggressive youth in an off-Broadway production of Yen, and had supporting roles in the coming-of-age film Lady Bird and the drama film Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri in 2017.

In 2018, Hedges played the lead roles of a teenager forced into a gay conversion therapy program in Boy Erased and a drug addict in Ben Is Back, both drama films. The latter was written and directed by his father, and the former earned him a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Drama. Hedges also made his Broadway debut in a revival of Lonergan's drama The Waverly Gallery.

Marky Ramone

Marc Steven Bell (born July 15, 1952) is an American musician best known by his stage name Marky Ramone. He is best known for being the drummer of the punk rock band the Ramones, from May 1978 until February 1983, and August 1987 until August 1996. He has also played in other notable bands, Dust, Estus, Richard Hell and the Voidoids and Misfits.

Marky Ramone's tenure with the Ramones lasted 15 years. He is the only living member inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and the only living member to receive the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

In 2015 Marky released his autobiography Punk Rock Blitzkrieg: My Life as a Ramone.He lives in Brooklyn Heights with his wife, Marion Flynn.

Mia Sara

Mia Sarapochiello (born June 19, 1967) better known as Mia Sara, is an American former actress. She is best known for her role as Sloane Peterson in the 1986 comedy film Ferris Bueller's Day Off, and other films such as Legend (1985) and Timecop (1994).

Norris Church Mailer

Norris Church Mailer (born Barbara Jean Davis; January 31, 1949 in Atkins, Arkansas – November 21, 2010 in Brooklyn Heights, New York City, New York) was author of the memoir, A Ticket to the Circus, and of several novels. In 1980, she married American novelist, Norman Mailer.

Vincent Kartheiser

Vincent Paul Kartheiser (born May 5, 1979) is an American actor. He played Connor on The WB television series Angel and as Pete Campbell on the AMC television series Mad Men, for which he received six Screen Actors Guild Award nominations for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series and won twice along with the cast.

Places adjacent to Brooklyn Heights

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