The Brooklyn Eagle, originally The Brooklyn Eagle, and Kings County Democrat, was a daily newspaper published in the city and later borough of Brooklyn, in New York City, for 114 years from 1841 to 1955. At one point, it was the afternoon paper with the largest daily circulation in the United States. Walt Whitman, the 19th-century poet, was its editor for two years. Other notable editors of the Eagle included Thomas Kinsella, St. Clair McKelway, Cleveland Rogers, Frank D. Schroth, and Charles Montgomery Skinner.
The paper, added "Daily" to its name as The Brooklyn Daily Eagle and Kings County Democrat on June 1, 1846. The banner name was shortened on May 14, 1849 to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, but the lower masthead retained the political name  until June 8. On September 5, 1938, the name was further shortened, to Brooklyn Eagle, with The Brooklyn Daily Eagle continuing to appear below the masthead of the editorial page, through the end of its original run in 1955. The paper ceased publication in 1955 due to a prolonged strike. It was briefly revived from the bankrupt estate between 1960 and 1963.
A new version of the Brooklyn Eagle as a revival of the old newspaper's traditions began publishing in 1996. It has no business relation to the original Eagle (the name having lost trademark protection). The new paper publishes a daily historical/nostalgia feature called "On This Day in History", made up of much material from the pages of the old original Eagle.
The Brooklyn Eagle's Washington, D.C. bureau office, street view from 1916.
|Owner(s)||Frank D. Schroth|
|Editor-in-chief||Thomas N. Schroth|
|Founded||October 26, 1841|
|Ceased publication||January 29, 1955|
(Archived issues maintained by the Brooklyn Public Library)
The Brooklyn Public Library maintained an online archive of the original Brooklyn Daily Eagle issues encompassing the years 1841 through 1955, a virtual encyclopedic survey of the history of the city and the later borough of Brooklyn for more than a century. The archive was purchased by Ancestry.com for their newspapers.com website. A provision of their contract with BPL requires the material to be provided to site visitors without a subscription, unlike most newspapers.com content.
The Brooklyn Daily Eagle was first published on October 26, 1841. Its address at this time, and for many years afterwards, was at 28 Old Fulton Street, Brooklyn (today the site of a landmark building known as the "Eagle Warehouse"). A few days after it started, the paper suspended publication for a month due to a printing press fire. From 1846 to 1848, the newspaper's editor was the poet Walt Whitman.
The paper started as a combination of objective news and Democratic party organ. During the American Civil War, the Eagle supported the Democratic Party; as such, its mailing privileges through the United States Post Office Department were once revoked due to a forged letter supposedly sent by the 16th President Abraham Lincoln. The Eagle played an important role in shaping Brooklyn's civic identity. The once-independent city became the third-largest city in America at that time, across the water from old New York City. In the 1898, it became a borough as part of the annexation and merger campaign that formed the City of Greater New York. The Eagle had editorially tried to forestall and stop this process, claiming that Brooklyn would go from being a great city on its own to a hinterland of the bigger city.
In August 1938, Frank D. Schroth bought the newspaper from M. Preston Goodfellow. In addition to dropping the word "Daily" from the paper's front page, Schroth increased the paper's profile and readership with more active local coverage focused on the borough as opposed to the other competing dailies at that time in Manhattan, such as The New York Times, New York Herald-Tribune, New York Journal-American, New York Daily News, New York Post, New York World-Telegram & Sun, New York Daily Mirror, and, later, Newsday, further out in the Long Island suburbs.
The newspaper received the 1951 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for its "crime reporting during the year." Investigative journalist Ed Reid in an eight-part series exposed the activities of bookmaker Harry Gross and corrupt members of the New York City Police Department. This exposé led to an investigation by the Brooklyn District Attorney, and resulted in the eventual resignation of Mayor of New York City William O'Dwyer.
On June 22, 1953, a newspaper boy, collecting for the Brooklyn Eagle, at an apartment building at 3403 Foster Avenue in Brooklyn, was paid with a nickel that felt funny to him. When he dropped it on the ground, it popped open and contained microfilm inside. The microfilm contained a series of numbers. He told the New York City Police Department, which in two days told a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent about the strange nickel. The FBI was not able to link the nickel to KGB agents until a KGB (Committee on State Security of the Soviet Union) agent, Reino Häyhänen, wanted to defect to the West and America in May 1957, including Vilyam Genrikhovich Fisher (aka Rudolph Ivanovich Abel) in the Hollow Nickel Case.
In the face of the continued economic pressure brought on by a strike by the local reporters' trade union, the Newspaper Guild, and later attempting to sell the Eagle, the paper published its last edition on January 28, 1955, and shut down for good on March 16, 1955. Thomas N. Schroth, the publisher's son, served as the newspaper's managing editor in the last three years of its existence, before moving on to become editor of the Congressional Quarterly and founder of The National Journal in Washington, DC, which covered the activities and actions of the United States Congress in the Quarterly, and national capital political events in the Journal which endure into the 21st Century.
This occurred around the same time as the National League baseball team, the Brooklyn Dodgers (formerly the "Trolley Dodgers"), who played at Flatbush's Ebbets Field, shocked the city and joined the rival New York Giants at the old Polo Grounds in Manhattan in moving to the West Coast and becoming the Los Angeles Dodgers and the San Francisco Giants. The loss of both primary national icons of the town's identity within two and a half years sent Brooklyn into a psychological slump, which even the replacement New York Mets in 1962 could not quite resurrect.
In 1960, former comic book publisher Robert W. Farrell acquired the Eagle's assets in bankruptcy court, five years later after its closing, publishing five Sunday editions of the paper in 1960. In 1962–1963, under the corporate name Newspaper Consolidated Corporation, Farrell and his partner Philip Enciso briefly revived the Brooklyn Eagle newspaper as a daily. During the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike, the paper had circulation grow from 50,000 to 390,000 until the strike ended.
The final edition appeared on June 25, 1963.
|Owner(s)||Everything Brooklyn Media|
|Publisher||J. Dozier Hasty|
|Headquarters||Brooklyn, New York City, New York|
A smaller newspaper also focused on the borough; The Brooklyn Daily Bulletin began publishing when the original Eagle folded in 1955. In 1996, it merged with a newly revived Brooklyn Daily Eagle, and now publishes a morning paper five days a week under the Brooklyn Daily Eagle name. This revived Brooklyn Eagle has no business relationship with the original Eagle; it adopted the Eagle name (adding it to its Bulletin title) after the Eagle name fell into the public domain, and following a dispute with another Brooklyn publisher over ownership of the Eagle name. As of 2014, it is one of three English-language daily newspapers published in the borough of Brooklyn (the others are the New York Daily Challenge and Hamodia).
As an homage to the original Eagle, it publishes a daily feature called "On This Day in History", made up of much material from the original Eagle.
It is published by J. Dozier Hasty under the auspices of Everything Brooklyn Media. The Eagle editorial staff includes 25 full-time reporters, writers, and photographers. Its coverage has grown to include the Bay Ridge section in western Brooklyn, where a weekly version of the paper, The Bay Ridge Eagle, is published.
Several exhibits have been held regarding the role of the paper in creating the identity of Brooklyn and its citizens at the Brooklyn Historical Society, including extensive mention and documentation in several histories published.
The Wednesday, January 2, 1856 edition mistakenly retained the previous edition's year of 1855. This was corrected for the next edition.
Similarly, a few weeks later on January 23, the edition number of Vol 14 No 18 was retained instead of advancing to No 19. This error (being one edition number behind) continued to March 31, which displayed as No 76 instead of No 77, and then compounded in the next edition, which retained 76, now two out of synchronization. On April 28, instead of correcting the error and advancing from 98 to 101, the printer backtracked to 97, now leaving a four number error. An accidental partial correction occurred on Jul 5; the paper does not publish on Independence Day, but the printed volume number jumped from 153 to 155, which was now 3 numbers behind. The error continued to the end of the year, showing a 306th edition, when there were actually 309 editions published that year.
50 Years after the Eagle: How City Papers Cover Brooklyn
Bridge Plaza is the northeastern corner of the downtown area of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Its borders are Flatbush Avenue Extension and Manhattan Bridge on the west, Tillary Street on the south, and the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (BQE) on the north and east.The neighborhood was connected to Vinegar Hill until the 1950s, when construction of the BQE effectively isolated it from surrounding areas. Following this change, the "area shifted more towards auto shops, garages and warehouses, and its zoning only allowed industrial uses." Brooklyn real estate blog Brownstoner describes the area as "a time warp, a Brigadoon-like enclave of early to mid-19th century buildings surrounded by the boom of the 21st century."The name RAMBO, an acronym for "Right Around the Manhattan Bridge Overpass", is sometimes applied to the area, though it is largely unpopular and derided.One of the most notable homes in Bridge Plaza is 167 Concord Street, called the "most photogenic house in Downtown Brooklyn" by the Brooklyn Eagle. The miniature house features a candy apple red Citicar parked in the front yard. The cottage was built in 1762 and was surrounded by a stone wall dating to about 1820.Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes
Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes (Hebrew: בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַנְשֵׁי אֱמֶת, "House of Israel – People of Truth"), more commonly known as the Kane Street Synagogue, is an egalitarian Conservative synagogue located at 236 Kane Street in Cobble Hill, Brooklyn, New York City, United States. It is currently the oldest continuously operating synagogue in Brooklyn.Founded as Baith Israel in 1856, the congregation constructed the first synagogue on Long Island, and hired Aaron Wise for his first rabbinical position in the United States. Early tensions between traditionalists and reformers led to the latter forming Congregation Beth Elohim, a Reform synagogue, in 1861.The synagogue nearly failed in the early 20th century, but the 1905 hiring of Israel Goldfarb as rabbi, the purchase of its current buildings, and the 1908 merger with Talmud Torah Anshei Emes re-invigorated the congregation. The famous composer Aaron Copland celebrated his Bar Mitzvah there in 1913, and long-time Goldman Sachs head Sidney Weinberg was married there in 1920.Membership peaked in the 1920s, but with the onset of the Great Depression declined steadily, and by the 1970s the congregation could no longer afford to heat the sanctuary. Membership has recovered since that low point; the congregation renovated its school/community center in 2004, and in 2008 embarked on a million-dollar capital campaign to renovate the sanctuary.Congregation Beth Elohim
Congregation Beth Elohim (Hebrew: בֵּית אֱלֹהִים), also known as the Garfield Temple and the Eighth Avenue Temple, is a Reform Jewish congregation located at 274 Garfield Place and Eighth Avenue, in the Park Slope neighborhood of Brooklyn in New York City, United States.
Founded in 1861 as a more liberal breakaway from Congregation Baith Israel, for the first 65 years it attempted four mergers with other congregations, including three with Baith Israel, all of which failed. The congregation completed its current Classical Revival synagogue building in 1910 and its "Jewish Deco" (Romanesque Revival and Art Deco) Temple House in 1929. These two buildings were contributing properties to the Park Slope historic district, listed as a New York City Landmark district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.The congregation went through difficult times during the Great Depression, and the bank almost foreclosed on its buildings in 1946. Membership dropped significantly in the 1930s because of the Depression, grew after World War II, and dropped again in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of demographic shifts. Programs for young children helped draw Jewish families back into the neighborhood and revitalize the membership.By 2006, Beth Elohim had over 1,000 members, and, as of 2009, it was the largest and most active Reform congregation in Brooklyn, the "oldest Brooklyn congregation that continues to function under its corporate name", and its pulpit was the oldest in continuous use in any Brooklyn synagogue. In 2009, it was listed by Newsweek as one of America's 25 "Most Vibrant" Jewish congregations.Congregation Beth Jacob Ohev Sholom
Congregation Beth Jacob Ohev Sholom (also known as "Congregation Beth Jacob Ohev Shalom") ("House of Jacob Lover of Peace") is an Orthodox synagogue located at 284 Rodney Street in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York. It is the oldest Orthodox congregation on Long Island (including Brooklyn and Queens), and one of the last remaining non-Hasidic Jewish institutions in Williamsburg.The congregation was formed in 1869 by German Jews as an Orthodox breakaway from an existing Reform congregation. It constructed its first building on Keap Street in 1870. In 1904 it merged with Chevra Ansche Sholom, and took the name Congregation Beth Jacob Anshe Sholom. The following year it constructed a new building at 274–276 South Third Street, designed by George F. Pelham.The congregation's building was expropriated and demolished to make way for the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway in the 1950s. It combined with another congregation in a similar situation, and, as Congregation Beth Jacob Ohev Sholom, constructed a new building at 284 Rodney Street, just south of Broadway, in 1957.Joshua Fishman became rabbi in 1971. With changing demographics, attendance at services, which had been 700 in the 1970s, fell to two dozen by 2010.Don Carlos Seitz
Don Carlos Seitz was an American newspaper manager, born at Portage, Ohio in 1862.
In 1880 he graduated from the Liberal Institute at Norway, Maine. He served as Albany correspondent (1887–89) and as city editor (1889–91) of the Brooklyn Eagle, was assistant publisher of the New York Recorder (1892–93) and managing editor of the Brooklyn World (1893–94), and thenceforth was connected with the New York World as advertising manager (1895–97) and as business manager after 1898. He died in 1935.
His publications include:
Discoveries in Everyday Europe (1907)
Writings by and about James McNeill Whistler (1910)
Elba and Elsewhere (1910)
Surface Japan (1911)
Letters from Francis Parkman to E. G. Squier (1911)
The Buccaneers (1912)
Whistler Stories (1913)
Braxton Bragg, general of the Confederacy (1924)
Joseph Pulitzer; HIs Life and Letters (New York, NY: Simon & Shuster, 1924)
Under the Black Flag: Exploits of the Most Notorious Pirates (1925)
The Great Island: Some observations in and about the Crown Colony of Newfoundland (1926)Dyker Heights, Brooklyn
Dyker Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood in the southwest corner of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City, US. It is on a hill between Bay Ridge, Bensonhurst, Borough Park, and Gravesend Bay. The neighborhood is officially bounded by 7th and 14th Avenues, 65th Street, and the Belt Parkway on the west, east, north, and south, respectively.Dyker Heights has a suburban character with detached and semi-detached one-and two-family homes, many of which have driveways and private yards, which are uncommon in parts of New York City. The neighborhood contains tree-lined streets, and there are very few apartment buildings. Dyker Heights can be divided in roughly three sections. The southernmost section, south of 86th Street and east of 7th Avenue, contains Dyker Beach Park and Golf Course. The central section between Bay Ridge Parkway and 86th Street, and between 14th Avenue and Fort Hamilton Parkway, is more exclusive in character. The northern border of the neighborhood is more closely integrated with surrounding areas. The Dyker Heights Civic Association, founded in 1928, is a civic group that represents the community's interests. The area as a whole is known for its Christmas lighting displays, which are often elaborate.Dyker Heights originated as a speculative luxury housing development in October 1895 when Walter Loveridge Johnson developed a portion of woodland into a suburban community. It maintained its status as a wealthy neighborhood through the 20th century. During the height of his development, the boundaries were primarily between Tenth Avenue and Thirteenth Avenue and from 79th Street to 86th Street. The finest homes of the development were situated along the top of the 110-foot (34 m) hill, at about Eleventh Avenue and 82nd Street.Frank D. Schroth
Frank D. Schroth (October 18, 1884 – June 10, 1974) was an American newspaper publisher who owned and operated the Brooklyn Eagle from 1938 until its demise in 1955 after a strike by The Newspaper Guild.Fulton Ferry, Brooklyn
Fulton Ferry is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is named for Fulton Ferry, a prominent ferry line crossing the East River between Manhattan and Brooklyn, and is also the name of the ferry slip on the Brooklyn side. The neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community Board 2. The Fulton Ferry District is a national historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. It consists of 15 contributing buildings built between 1830 and 1895. They are an assortment of commercial and commercial / residential brick buildings ranging from two to four stories in height, with one eight story building. That building is the Eagle Warehouse, a Romanesque Revival style building built by The Brooklyn Eagle in 1893. The district is bisected overhead by the Brooklyn Bridge. Today the area holds many popular attractions such as Pier One of Brooklyn Bridge Park and Grimaldi's Pizzeria. Bargemusic, a concert venue, is moored there today; the Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory sits on the pier. Manhattan ferry service returned in 2006 at the next pier to the north.Henry George Jr.
Henry George Jr. (November 3, 1862 – November 14, 1916) was a United States Representative from New York and the son of the American political economist Henry George (1839—1897).John B. Manning
John Baker Manning (1833–1908) was Mayor of the City of Buffalo, New York, serving during January 1883 – 1884, in the aftermath of the resignation of Grover Cleveland. He was born July 13, 1833, in Albany, New York. When a child, he served as a page in the New York State Assembly and New York State Senate. He married Elizabeth House on January 14, 1856; after her death in 1894, in 1897 he married Marie Schrewnk. In 1860–1862, he was the Albany correspondent for the Brooklyn Eagle. Several years later, he moved to Buffalo and established his commission and malting businesses there.Manning was elected mayor in a special election held on January 9, 1883, as the Democratic candidate. He continued the string of vetoes begun by Mayor Grover Cleveland; they saved the city a great financial loss. Manning retired from politics after losing his campaign for re-election.He continued to grow and expand the malting business and built several grain elevators in the 1890s, each with a large storage capacity. On May 30, 1902, the largest fire Black Rock had ever seen consumed Manning's Frontier Canada plant. He died on April 28, 1908 at Brooklyn, New York and is buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery.John Ball (author)
John Dudley Ball (July 8, 1911 – October 15, 1988) was an American writer best known for mystery novels involving the African-American police detective Virgil Tibbs. Tibbs was introduced in the 1965 novel In the Heat of the Night, which won the Edgar Award for Best First Novel from the Mystery Writers of America and was made into an Oscar-winning film of the same name, starring Sidney Poitier and Rod Steiger.
Ball was born in Schenectady, New York, grew up in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and attended Carroll College in Waukesha, Wisconsin. He wrote for a number of magazines and newspapers, including the Brooklyn Eagle. For a time he worked part-time as a Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy, was trained in martial arts, and was a nudist. In the mid-1980s, he was the book review columnist for Mike Shayne Mystery Magazine. Ball lived in Encino, California, and died there in 1988. He was a member of the exclusive The Baker Street Irregulars, a society of ardent Sherlock Holmes fans. He was invested in the BSI in 1960 as "The Oxford Flier."
Ball's Last Plane Out consists of two stories which share characters and then meld together. The first involves a group of travelers in a troubled Third World country, waiting for the last plane out, which they hope will carry them to safety. The second story is shared by an aviation buff who is given his chance to increase his flying skills by the airline that has been built by the pilot of the first story.
He died in 1988 and was buried at the Forest Lawn, Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles.John T. Bergen
John Teunis Bergen (1786 – March 9, 1855) was an American politician and a United States Representative from New York.Nelson Harding
Nelson Harding (October 31, 1879 – December 30, 1944) was an American editorial cartoonist for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He won the annual Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in both 1927 and 1928, and as of 2018 was the only cartoonist so honored in consecutive years. The particular cartoon cited in 1928, "May His Shadow Never Grow Less", was a tribute drawn at the end of the 1927 calendar year to flier Charles Lindbergh.Harding was born in New York City. His work was often politically conservative by the standards of his day. He took a leading role in opposition to what some New Yorkers considered to be a threat from Bolshevism in the late 1910s, during the so-called First Red Scare. His cartoons portrayed political radicals as bomb-throwers and terrorists.Queens Village, Queens
Queens Village is a mostly residential middle class neighborhood in the eastern part of the New York City borough of Queens. The Queens Village Post Office serves the ZIP codes of 11427 (Hollis Hills and Bellaire), 11428 (central Queens Village), and 11429 (Southern Queens Village south of the LIRR Main Line). The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 13.Shopping in the community is located along Braddock Avenue, Hillside Avenue, Hempstead Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue (NY 25), as well as on Springfield Boulevard. Located just east of Queens Village, in Nassau County, is the Belmont Park race track.
Close to the neighborhood are Cunningham Park and Alley Pond Park, as well as the historic Long Island Motor Parkway (LIMP), home of the turn of the century racing competition, the Vanderbilt Cup. The LIMP was built by William Kissam Vanderbilt, a descendant of the family that presided over the New York Central Railroad and Western Union; it is now part of the Brooklyn-Queens Greenway used by bicyclists, joggers and nature trail lovers.Samuel J. Tilden High School
Samuel J. Tilden High School is a New York City public high school in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn, New York City. It was named for Samuel J. Tilden, the former governor of New York State and presidential candidate who, although carrying the popular vote, lost to Rutherford B. Hayes in the disputed election of 1876.
In order to save the New York City government money during the Great Depression, Samuel J. Tilden High School, Bayside High School, Abraham Lincoln High School, John Adams High School, Walton High School, Andrew Jackson High School, and Grover Cleveland High School were all built from one set of blueprints.Thomas Kinsella (New York)
Thomas Kinsella (December 31, 1832 – February 11, 1884) was a United States Representative from New York. Born in County Wexford, Ireland, he immigrated to the United States and settled in New York City, where he attended the common schools. He moved to Cambridge, New York in 1851 and learned the printer's trade; he worked for the Cambridge Post, and moved to Brooklyn in 1858, becoming editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle on September 7, 1861. He was postmaster of Brooklyn in 1866, and was a member of the city water commission and board of education.
Kinsella was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-second Congress, holding office from March 4, 1871 to March 3, 1873. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1872. He established the Brooklyn Sunday Sun in 1874; it afterward combined with the Daily Eagle, which he edited until his death in Brooklyn, 1884. He was interred in Holy Cross Cemetery.Tommy Holmes (sportswriter)
Thomas Holmes (November 5, 1903 – March 25, 1975) was an American sports writer who covered the Brooklyn Dodgers for the Brooklyn Eagle and the New York Herald-Tribune from 1924 to 1957.
Holmes, who only had one arm, died in March 1975 at age 71; he was survived by his wife and a son.He was posthumously awarded the J. G. Taylor Spink Award by the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, announced in 1979 and inducted in 1980.William Poole
William Poole (July 24, 1821 – March 8, 1855), also known as Bill the Butcher, was a founder of the street gang the Bowery Boys and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement in mid-19th century New York City.