Brooklyn Bridge

The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City. It connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, spanning the East River. The Brooklyn Bridge has a main span of 1,595.5 feet (486.3 m) and a height of 276.5 ft (84.3 m) above mean high water. It is one of the oldest roadway bridges in the United States and was the world's first steel-wire suspension bridge, as well as the first fixed crossing across the East River.

The Brooklyn Bridge started construction in 1869 and was completed fourteen years later in 1883. It was originally called the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and the East River Bridge, but it was later dubbed the Brooklyn Bridge, a name coming from an earlier January 25, 1867 letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle[8] and formally so named by the city government in 1915. Over the years, the Brooklyn Bridge has undergone several reconfigurations; it formerly carried horse-drawn vehicles and elevated railway lines, but now carries vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic. Commercial vehicles are banned from the bridge.

Since opening, the Brooklyn Bridge has become an icon of New York City, ranking among the city's most popular tourist attractions. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964[7][9][10] and a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1972.[11]

Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge Postdlf
Seen from Manhattan in 2005
Coordinates40°42′22″N 73°59′49″W / 40.706°N 73.997°WCoordinates: 40°42′22″N 73°59′49″W / 40.706°N 73.997°W
Carries6 lanes of roadway (cars only)
Elevated trains (until 1944)
Streetcars (until 1950)
Pedestrians and bicycles
CrossesEast River
LocaleNew York City (Civic Center, Manhattan – Dumbo/Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn)
Maintained byNew York City Department of Transportation
ID number22400119[1]
Characteristics
DesignSuspension/Cable-stay Hybrid
Total length5,989 ft (1,825.4 m)[2]
Width85 ft (25.9 m)
Height276.5 ft (84.3 m) above mean high water[3]
Longest span1,595.5 ft (486.3 m)
Clearance below135 ft (41.1 m)
History
DesignerJohn Augustus Roebling
OpenedMay 24, 1883[4]
Statistics
Daily traffic105,679 (2016)[5]
TollFree both ways
Brooklyn Bridge
Pont de Brooklyn de nuit - Octobre 2008 edit
Built1869-1883
Architectural styleneo-Gothic
NRHP reference #66000523
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966[6]
Designated NHLJanuary 29, 1964[7]
Designated NYCLAugust 24, 1967
Location within New York City

Design

Although the Brooklyn Bridge is technically a suspension bridge,[12] it uses a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge design. The towers are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement. The limestone was quarried at the Clark Quarry in Essex County, New York.[13] The granite blocks were quarried and shaped on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, under a contract with the Bodwell Granite Company, and delivered from Maine to New York by schooner.[14]

The bridge was built with numerous passageways and compartments in its anchorages. New York City rented out the large vaults under the bridge's Manhattan anchorage in order to fund the bridge. Opened in 1876, the vaults were used to store wine, as they were always at 60 °F (16 °C).[15] This was called the "Blue Grotto" because of a shrine to the Virgin Mary next to an opening at the entrance. When New York magazine visited one of the cellars in 1978, it discovered on the wall a "fading inscription" reading: "Who loveth not wine, women and song, he remaineth a fool his whole life long."[16]

History

Construction

Brooklyn Museum - John Augustus Roebling
John Augustus Roebling
BrooklynBridgeSchematic
Early plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867
External video
Presentation by David McCullough on The Great Bridge, September 17, 2002, C-SPAN

The bridge was conceived by German immigrant John Augustus Roebling in 1852,[17] who spent part of the next 15 years working to sell the idea.[18] He had previously designed and constructed shorter suspension bridges, such as Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct in Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, and the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Covington, Kentucky.

In February 1867, the New York State Senate passed a bill that allowed the construction of a suspension bridge from Brooklyn to Manhattan.[19] Two months later, the New York and Brooklyn Bridge Company was incorporated. The company was tasked with constructing what was then known as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge.[20][21]

While conducting surveys for the bridge project, Roebling sustained a crush injury to his foot when a ferry pinned it against a piling. After amputation of his crushed toes, he developed a tetanus infection that left him incapacitated and soon resulted in his death in 1869. His 32-year-old son, Washington Roebling, was later designated to replace his father.[22] "After a week I had become sufficiently composed to take a sober look at my own situation," Washington later wrote. "Here I was at the age of 32 suddenly put in charge of the most stupendous engineering structure of the age! The prop on which I had hitherto leaned had fallen -- henceforth I must rely on myself -- How much better when this happens early in life, before we realize what it all implies."[23]

Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge began in 1869.[12] The bridge's two towers were built by floating two caissons, giant upside-down boxes made of southern yellow pine, in the span of the East River, and then beginning to build the stone towers on top of them until they sank to the bottom of the river. Compressed air was pumped into the caissons, and workers entered the space to dig the sediment, until the caissons sank to the bedrock. Once the caissons had reached the desired depth, the caissons were filled in with brick piers and concrete. The whole weight of the bridge still rests upon these constructions.[24]

Many workers became sick with the bends during this work.[25] This condition was unknown at the time and was first called "caisson disease" by the project physician, Andrew Smith.[26][27] Washington Roebling suffered a paralyzing injury as a result of "caisson disease" shortly after ground was broken for the Brooklyn tower foundation on January 3, 1870.[28] Roebling's debilitating condition left him unable to physically supervise the construction firsthand.

As chief engineer, Roebling supervised the entire project from his apartment with a view of the work, designing and redesigning caissons and other equipment. He was aided by his wife, Emily Warren Roebling, who provided the critical written link between her husband and the engineers on site.[29] Emily Warren Roebling understood higher mathematics, calculations of catenary curves, strengths of materials, bridge specifications, and intricacies of cable construction.[30][29][31] She spent the next 11 years helping to supervise the bridge's construction.

When iron probes underneath the caisson for the Manhattan tower found the bedrock to be even deeper than expected, Roebling halted construction due to the increased risk of decompression sickness. He later deemed the sandy subsoil overlying the bedrock 30 feet (9.1 m) below it to be firm enough to support the tower base, and construction continued.[32]

The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is detailed in The Great Bridge (1972), the book by David McCullough,[29] and in Brooklyn Bridge (1981), the first PBS documentary film by Ken Burns.[33] Burns drew heavily on McCullough's book for the film and used him as narrator.[34] It is also described in Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a BBC docudrama series with an accompanying book, as well as the book Chief Engineer: Washington Roebling, The Man Who Built the Brooklyn Bridge (2017).[35]

Opening

Thomas A. Edison, Inc.: "New Brooklyn to New York Via Brooklyn Bridge", 1899
1883 Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper Brooklyn Bridge New York City
Newspaper headline announcing opening

The New York and Brooklyn Bridge was opened for use on May 24, 1883. Thousands of people attended the opening ceremony, and many ships were present in the East Bay for the occasion. President Chester A. Arthur and Mayor Franklin Edson crossed the bridge to celebratory cannon fire and were greeted by Brooklyn Mayor Seth Low when they reached the Brooklyn-side tower. Arthur shook hands with Washington Roebling at the latter's home, after the ceremony. Roebling was unable to attend the ceremony (and in fact rarely visited the site again), but held a celebratory banquet at his house on the day of the bridge opening. Further festivity included the performance of a band, gunfire from ships, and a fireworks display.[36][37] Since the New York and Brooklyn Bridge was the only one across the East River at that time, it was also called East River Bridge.[38]

Currier and Ives Brooklyn Bridge2
Chromolithograph of the "Great East River Suspension Bridge", (Brooklyn Bridge), by Currier and Ives, 1883.

On that first day, a total of 1,800 vehicles and 150,300 people crossed what was then the only land passage between Manhattan and Brooklyn. Emily Warren Roebling was the first to cross the bridge. The bridge's main span over the East River is 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m). The bridge cost US$15.5 million in 1883 dollars (about US$403,339,000 in today's dollars) to build, and an estimated 27 men died during its construction.[39]

On May 30, 1883, six days after the opening, a woman falling down the stairway caused a stampede, which was responsible for at least twelve people being crushed and killed.[40] On May 17, 1884, P. T. Barnum helped to squelch doubts about the bridge's stability—while publicizing his famous circus—when one of his most famous attractions, Jumbo, led a parade of 21 elephants over the Brooklyn Bridge.[41][42][43][44]

At the time it opened, and for several years, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world—50% longer than any previously built—and it has become a treasured landmark. Since the 1980s, it has been floodlit at night to highlight its architectural features. The architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. The paint scheme of the bridge is "Brooklyn Bridge Tan" and "Silver", although it has been argued that the original paint was "Rawlins Red".[45]

At the time the bridge was built, engineers had not yet discovered the aerodynamics of bridge construction. Bridges were not tested in wind tunnels until the 1950s, well after the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge, known as Galloping Gertie, in 1940. It is therefore fortunate that the open truss structure supporting the deck is by its nature less subject to aerodynamic problems. Roebling designed a bridge and truss system that was six times as strong as he thought it needed to be. Because of this, the Brooklyn Bridge is still standing when many of the bridges built around the same time have vanished or been replaced. This is also in spite of the substitution of inferior quality wire in the cabling supplied by the contractor J. Lloyd Haigh—by the time it was discovered, it was too late to replace the cabling that had already been constructed. Roebling determined that the poorer wire would leave the bridge four rather than six times as strong as necessary, so it was eventually allowed to stand, with the addition of 250 cables.

Later years

Brooklynbridge tablet 200907
Dedication and renovation plaque, at Manhattan tower
New York City 03
New York City designated landmark plaque

In 1915, the city government officially named the structure the "Brooklyn Bridge",[46] a name first mentioned in print in a January 1867 letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.[47]

During the Cold War, a fallout shelter was constructed beneath the Manhattan approach. The abandoned space in one of the masonry arches still contained the emergency survival supplies for a potential nuclear attack by the Soviet Union when rediscovered in 2006 during a routine inspection.[48]

In 1964, the bridge was designated a National Historic Landmark, having become an icon of New York City since its opening,[9][10] and a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1972.[11]

The centennial celebrations on May 24, 1983, saw a cavalcade of cars crossing the bridge, led by President Ronald Reagan. A flotilla of ships visited the harbor, parades were held, and in the evening the sky over the bridge was illuminated by Grucci Fireworks.[49] The Brooklyn Museum exhibited a selection of the original drawings made for the bridge's construction, some by Washington Roebling. Media coverage of the centennial was declared "the public relations triumph of 1983" by Inc.[50]

Beginning on May 22, 2008, five days of festivities celebrated the 125th anniversary of the bridge's opening. The events kicked off with a live performance of the Brooklyn Philharmonic in Empire–Fulton Ferry State Park, followed by special lighting of the bridge's towers and a fireworks display.[51] Other events held during the 125th anniversary celebrations, which coincided with the Memorial Day weekend, included a film series, historical walking tours, information tents, a series of lectures and readings, a bicycle tour of Brooklyn, a miniature golf course featuring Brooklyn icons, and other musical and dance performances.[52] Just before the anniversary celebrations, artist Paul St George installed the Telectroscope, a video link between New York City and London, on the Brooklyn side of the bridge. The installation lasted for a few weeks and permitted viewers in New York City to see people looking into a matching telectroscope near London's Tower Bridge.[53] A newly renovated pedestrian connection to the DUMBO neighborhood was also unveiled before the anniversary celebrations.[54]

Renovation

Brooklyn Bridge-New York
Renovation of the Brooklyn Bridge in progress

After the 2007 collapse of the I-35W highway bridge in Minneapolis, public attention focused on the condition of bridges across the U.S. The New York Times reported that the Brooklyn Bridge approach ramps received a rating of "poor" during its inspection in 2007.[55] According to a NYC Department of Transportation spokesman, the poor rating did not indicate a dangerous state but rather implied it required renovation. A US$508 million project (equivalent to US$584 million in 2018)[56] to renovate the approaches began in 2010, with the full bridge renovation beginning in early 2011 which was originally scheduled to run until 2014, however the project did not finish until April 2015.[57][58] Work included widening two approach ramps from one to two lanes by re-striping a new prefabricated ramp; raising clearance over the eastbound Interstate 278 at York Street, on the double-deck Brooklyn-Queens Expressway; seismic retrofitting; replacement of rusted railings and safety barriers; and road deck resurfacing.[59] The nature of the work necessitated detours for four years.[60]

In August 2016, after the renovation of the bridge deck had been completed, the New York City Department of Transportation announced that it would conduct a seven-month, $370,000 study to verify if the bridge could support a heavier upper deck that consisted of an expanded bicycle and pedestrian path. As of 2016, about 10,000 pedestrians and 3,500 bikers use the pathway on an average weekday.[61] Work on the pedestrian entrance on the Brooklyn side was underway by 2017.[62]

In July 2018, the Landmarks Preservation Commission approved a further renovation of the Brooklyn Bridge's suspension towers, with construction scheduled to begin in mid-2019.[63] That December, the federal government gave the city $25 million in funding. This would pay for a $337 million rehabilitation of the bridge approaches and the suspension towers.[64]

Pedestrian and vehicular access

Spiderweb BB jeh
View from the pedestrian walkway. The bridge's cable arrangement forms a distinctive weblike pattern.
DwntwnNYC1885.jpeg
Street map of lower Manhattan and downtown Brooklyn dated 1885, two years after completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, showing street approaches to the bridge as they were

The Brooklyn Bridge originally carried horse-drawn and rail traffic, with a separate elevated walkway along the centerline for pedestrians and bicycles. Since 1950, the main roadway has carried six lanes of automobile traffic. Because of the roadway's height (11 ft (3.4 m) posted) and weight (6,000 lb (2,700 kg) posted) restrictions, commercial vehicles and buses are prohibited from using this bridge. The two inside traffic lanes once carried elevated trains of the BMT from Brooklyn points to a terminal at Park Row via Sands Street. Streetcars ran on what are now the two center lanes (shared with other traffic) until the elevated lines stopped using the bridge in 1944, when they moved to the protected center tracks. In 1950, the streetcars also stopped running, and the bridge was rebuilt to carry six lanes of automobile traffic.

The Brooklyn Bridge is accessible to vehicles from the Brooklyn entrances of Tillary/Adams Streets, Sands/Pearl Streets, and Exit 28B of the eastbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. In Manhattan, cars can enter from either direction of the FDR Drive, Park Row, Chambers/Centre Streets, and Pearl/Frankfort Streets. Pedestrian and bicycle access to the bridge from the Brooklyn side is from either Tillary/Adams Streets (in between the vehicular entrance/exit) or a staircase on Prospect Street between Cadman Plaza East and West. In Manhattan, the pedestrian walkway is accessible from the end of Centre Street or through the unpaid south staircase of Brooklyn Bridge – City Hall / Chambers Street subway station complex.

Brooklyn Bridge cross section
Cross-section diagram of the bridge

The Brooklyn Bridge has a wide walkway open to pedestrians and cyclists in the center of the bridge above the automobile lanes. In 1971, a center line was painted to separate cyclists from pedestrians, creating one of the city's first dedicated bike lanes.[65] More than 4,000 pedestrians and 3,100 cyclists cross the Brooklyn Bridge each day.[66] While the bridge has always permitted the passage of pedestrians across its span, its role in allowing thousands to cross takes on a special importance in times of difficulty when usual means of crossing the East River have become unavailable.

During transit strikes by the Transport Workers Union in 1980 and 2005, people commuting to work used the bridge joined by Mayors Ed Koch and Michael Bloomberg who crossed as a gesture to the affected public.[67][68]

Following the 1965, 1977, and 2003 blackouts and most famously after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, people leaving Manhattan used the bridge after MTA suspended subway service. During the 2003 event, many crossing the bridge reported a swaying motion.[69] The higher than usual pedestrian load caused this swaying coupled with the tendency of pedestrians to synchronize their footfalls with a sway, amplifying the motion.[70] Several engineers expressed concern about how this would affect the bridge, although others noted that the bridge did withstand the event and that the redundancies in its design—the inclusion of the three support systems (suspension system, diagonal stay system, and stiffening truss)—make it "probably the best secured bridge against such movements going out of control".[69] Bridge designer John Roebling had stated that due to such redundancies, the bridge would sag, yet not fall, even if one of these structural systems were to fail altogether.[29]

Exits and entrances

Access to the bridge is provided by a complex series of ramps on both the Manhattan and Brooklyn sides of the bridge.

BoroughLocationmi[71]kmDestinationsNotes
BrooklynBrooklyn Heights0.00.0Tillary Street / Adams Street southAt-grade intersection; no bridge access from eastbound Tillary Street
0.30.48Sands StreetNorthbound entrance only
0.40.64 I-278 (Brooklyn–Queens Expressway) / Cadman Plaza WestSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; exit 28B on I-278
East River0.7–
1.0
1.1–
1.6
Suspension span
ManhattanFinancial District1.32.1 FDR Drive / Pearl StreetNorthbound exit and southbound entrance; exit 2 on FDR Drive
1.42.3Park Row southNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
1.52.4NY-9A.svg Chambers Street / Centre Street to NY 9A / Church Street
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge, with the Manhattan Bridge behind it, and the Williamsburg Bridge visible farther in the background
Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge, with the Manhattan Bridge behind it, and the Williamsburg Bridge visible farther in the background

Notable events

Feats

In 1919, Giorgio Pessi piloted what was then one of the world's largest airplanes, the Caproni Ca.5, under the bridge.[72]

In June 1993, following 13 reconnoiters inside the metal structure, and with the help of a mountain guide, Thierry Devaux illegally performed eight acrobatic bungee jumps above the East River close to the Brooklyn-side pier, in the early morning. He used an electric winch between each acrobatic figure.[73]

Odlum jumps
Odlum jumps from the bridge

There have been several notable jumpers as well. The first person to jump from the bridge was Robert Emmet Odlum, brother of women's rights activist Charlotte Odlum Smith, on May 19, 1885.[74][75] He struck the water at an angle and died shortly thereafter from internal injuries.[76] Steve Brodie dropped from underneath the bridge in July 1886, although there is some doubt about this. Larry Donovan made a slightly higher jump from the railing a month later and went on to an international bridge jumping career. Cartoonist Otto Eppers jumped and survived in 1910, and was then tried and acquitted for attempted suicide.[77] A lesser known early jumper was James Duffy of County Cavan, Ireland, who, on April 15, 1895, asked several men to watch him jump from the bridge. Duffy jumped and was not seen again.[78]

Crime

On March 1, 1994, Lebanese-born Rashid Baz opened fire on a van carrying members of the Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish Movement, striking 16-year-old student Ari Halberstam and three others traveling on the bridge.[79] Halberstam died five days later from his wounds. Baz was apparently acting out of revenge for the Hebron massacre of 29 Palestinian Muslims by Baruch Goldstein that had taken place a few days earlier on February 25, 1994. Baz was convicted of murder and sentenced to a 141-year prison term. After initially classifying the murder as one committed out of road rage, the Justice Department reclassified the case in 2000 as a terrorist attack. The entrance ramp to the bridge on the Manhattan side was named the Ari Halberstam Memorial Ramp in memory of the victim.[80]

Aerial view looking down at Manhattan Tower. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York HAER NY,31-NEYO,90-37
Aerial view, looking down at tower

In 2003, truck driver Iyman Faris was sentenced to about 20 years in prison for providing material support to Al-Qaeda, after an earlier plot to destroy the bridge by cutting through its support wires with blowtorches was thwarted through information the National Security Agency uncovered through wiretapped phone conversations and interrogation of Al-Qaeda militants.[81]

On October 1, 2011, police arrested more than 700 protesters with the Occupy Wall Street movement who attempted to march across the bridge on the roadway.[82]

Early in the morning on July 22, 2014, the two American flags attached to poles atop each tower were found to have been replaced by American flags that had been bleached white. It is believed that several individuals covered the lights that illuminate the flags, then climbed the cables to the top of the two bridge towers.[83][84] Authorities reviewed evidence including surveillance footage and DNA taken from the bridge, and by August 1, 2014, they found up to nine "persons of interest" with a possible motive being cannabis activism.[85][86][87] However, on August 12, 2014, two Berlin artists claimed responsibility for hoisting the two white flags, causing the security panic and investigation by New York police. Mischa Leinkauf and Matthias Wermke said the flags were meant to celebrate "the beauty of public space" and the anniversary of the death of German-born John Roebling, who designed the bridge. The artists say they hand-sewed the two flags into all-white replicas of an American flag and had the original flags ready to return. "This was not an anti-American statement," Wermke said.[88][89][90]

Cultural significance

Brooklyn Museum - Bird's-Eye View of the Great New York and Brooklyn Bridge and Grand Display of Fire Works on Opening Night
"Bird's-Eye View of the Great New York and Brooklyn Bridge and Grand Display of Fire Works on Opening Night"

Contemporaries marveled at what technology was capable of, and the bridge became a symbol of the optimism at the time of construction. John Perry Barlow wrote in the late 20th century of the "literal and genuinely religious leap of faith" embodied in the Brooklyn Bridge — "the Brooklyn Bridge required of its builders faith in their ability to control technology".[91]

Albert Gleizes, 1915, Brooklyn Bridge, oil and gouache on canvas, 102 x 102 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Albert Gleizes, 1915, Brooklyn Bridge (Pont de Brooklyn), Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. This was the most abstract painting of the bridge to date

References to "selling the Brooklyn Bridge" abound in American culture, sometimes as examples of rural gullibility but more often in connection with an idea that strains credulity. For example, "If you believe that, I've got a bridge to sell you." George C. Parker and William McCloundy are two early 20th-century con-men who had successfully perpetrated this scam on unwitting tourists.[92] The 1949 Bugs Bunny cartoon "Bowery Bugs" is also a joking reference to Bugs "selling" a story of the Brooklyn Bridge to a naive tourist.

A bronze plaque is attached to one of the bridge's anchorages, which was constructed on a piece of property occupied by a mansion, the Samuel Osgood House, at 1 Cherry Street in Manhattan. It served as the first Presidential Mansion, housing George Washington, his family, and household staff from April 23, 1789 to February 23, 1790, when New York City was the national capital. Its owner, Samuel Osgood, a Massachusetts politician and lawyer, married Maria Bowne Franklin, widow of Walter Franklin, the New York merchant who built it in 1770.[93] Washington occupied the structure a week before his 1789 inauguration as first President of the United States. In addition to living quarters, the Osgood House contained the President's private office and the public business office, making it the first seat of the executive branch of the federal government.

Love locks of the Brooklyn Bridge
Love locks on the Brooklyn Bridge

"Love locks" is a practice by which a couple inscribes a date and their initials onto a lock, attach it to the bridge, and throw the key into the water as a sign of their "everlasting love". Although the origin of the practice is unknown, it is more popular in Europe, where more than 20 countries have at least one city with a similar location. It has reportedly caused damage to certain bridges and is officially illegal in New York City. Workers periodically remove the love locks from the bridge.[94]

The bridge is often featured in wide shots of the New York City skyline in television and film. American Modernist poet Hart Crane used the Brooklyn Bridge as a central metaphor and organizing structure for his second and most important book of poetry, The Bridge. This book takes the form of a long poem spanning eight parts, beginning with an ode ("Proem: To Brooklyn Bridge") and ending with a transfigured vision of the bridge as the unifying symbol of America ("Atlantis"). Crane briefly lived in an apartment overlooking the bridge that, he later learned, once housed Washington Roebling. American playwright Mark Violi[95] penned the drama Roebling: The Story of the Brooklyn Bridge.[96] This stage play focuses on the dramatic events of the Roebling family as they endeavor to build the Brooklyn Bridge. Tagline for the play reads: "A drama about the men who built the Brooklyn Bridge–and the woman who finished it."[96]

Gallery

Construction of Brooklyn Bridge, ca. 1872-1887. (5832930865)

Under construction, c. 1872 – c. 1887

Brainerd, From Bridge Tower. 1996.164.2-1425

George Bradford Brainerd, From Bridge Tower, c.1872 Brooklyn Museum

View from Tower to Tower, 1877

"From Tower to Tower—the suspension bridge over the East River—view from the Brooklyn Tower" (1877)

1996.164.1-974 glass bw SL1

Brooklyn Bridge, looking west from Brooklyn, July 1899

1996.164.1-973 glass SL1

Brooklyn Bridge, looking east from Manhattan, July 1899

East River Bridge, New York City 1902 (24905020583)

Brooklyn Bridge, photographed by Irving Underhill, 1902

Painters suspended on cables of the Brooklyn Bridge, on 07 October 1914

Painters working on the bridge, October 1914 (Eugene de Salignac)

Base of Brooklyn Tower. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York, New York County, NY HAER NY,31-NEYO,90-26

Base of Brooklyn tower

NY Brooklyn Bridge IMG 2425

Flag atop the bridge

Bridging Brooklyn (2553059935)

Pedestrian walkway

Traffic on the Brooklyn Bridge (5896405392)

Westbound roadway, looking east at the bridge

NYCBrooklynBridge

View from Brooklyn

5.2.11BrooklynBridgeByLuigiNovi1

View from Manhattan

Brooklyn Bridge at Night taken from Brooklyn Bridge Park

Brooklyn Bridge at night taken from Brooklyn Bridge Park

Brooklyn Bridge NYC August 16, 2010

A bird soars over the Brooklyn Bridge

Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge and Lower Manhattan at night
Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge and Lower Manhattan at night
Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge in the daytime
Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge in the daytime
The Brooklyn Bridge with Manhattan in the background.
The Brooklyn Bridge with Manhattan in the background.
Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge
Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge
Panoramic view of Brooklyn Bridge
Panoramic view of Brooklyn Bridge

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "NYC DOT Bridges & Tunnels Annual Condition Report 2015" (pdf). New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  2. ^ "NYCDOT Bridges Information". New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
  3. ^ "Brooklyn Bridge". Nycroads.com. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  4. ^ Feuerstein, Gary (May 29, 1998). "Brooklyn Bridge Facts, History and Information". Endex Engineering, Inc. Archived from the original on February 8, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  5. ^ "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  6. ^ National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  7. ^ a b "Brooklyn Bridge". National Park Service. Archived from the original on November 28, 2002.
  8. ^ E.P.D. (January 25, 1867). "The East River Bridge". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 27 (22). p. 2. Archived from the original on October 19, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  9. ^ a b Armstrong, James B.; Bradford, S. Sydney (February 24, 1975). "The Brooklyn Bridge". National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. National Park Service.
  10. ^ a b "The Brooklyn Bridge—Accompanying three photos, from 1975". National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. National Park Service. February 24, 1975.
  11. ^ a b "Brooklyn Bridge". American Society of Civil Engineers Metropolitan Section. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  12. ^ a b "Brooklyn Bridge", Encyclopædia Britannica
  13. ^ *"Cultural Resource Information System (CRIS)". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original (Searchable database) on July 1, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  14. ^ McLane, Charles B.; McLane, Carol Evarts (1997). Islands of the Mid-Maine Coast. I. Tilbury House & Island Institute. p. 134. ISBN 978-0884481850.
  15. ^ "Brooklyn Bridge Champagne". ediblegeography.com.
  16. ^ Van Luling, Todd (April 17, 2014). "8 Things Even New Yorkers Don't Know About New York City". The Huffington Post.
  17. ^ Mann, Elizabeth. "The Brooklyn Bridge". Retrieved April 22, 2018. Describes the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, from its conception by John Roebling in 1852 through, after many setbacks, its final completion under the direction of his son, Washington, in 1883.
  18. ^ Eagle, David Christy | Enid News &. "COLUMN: The bridging of America". Enidnews.com. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  19. ^ "NEW-YORK.; AFFAIRS AT THE STATE CAPITAL. Consitutional Convention--New-York and Brooklyn Bridge--New-York Parks--Recess--Homoeopathy. NEW-YORK LEGISLATURE. SENATE... ASSEMBLY. Revision of the State Constitutlon. The State Agricultural Society". The New York Times. April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  20. ^ An act to incorporate the New York Bridge Company, for the purpose of constructing and maintaining a bridge over the East River, between the cities of New York and Brooklyn. Brooklyn Savings Bank. April 16, 1867. Retrieved April 23, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  21. ^ "THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE.; Report of the Subcommittee of Fifty Important Facts and Figures The New-York and Brooklyn Bridge". The New York Times. April 10, 1872. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  22. ^ "The Building Of The Bridge.; Its Cost And The Difficulties Met With-- Details Of The History Of A Great Engineering Triumph". The New York Times. May 24, 1883. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
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Further reading

External links

'Neath Brooklyn Bridge

'Neath Brooklyn Bridge is a 1942 film released by Monogram Pictures. The film is the eleventh installment in the East Side Kids series and one of the more dramatic films of the series, released at a time when they were making lighter, more humorous fare. The film is now in public domain and can be downloaded legally from numerous public domain sites.

6 (New York City Subway service)

The 6 Lexington Avenue Local and <6> Pelham Bay Park Express are two rapid transit services in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Their route emblems, or "bullets", are colored forest green since they use the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan.Local service is denoted by a (6) in a circular bullet, and express service is denoted by a <6> in a diamond-shaped bullet; on the R62A rolling stock, this is often indicated by LED signs around the service logo to indicate local or express service to riders; a green circle for 6 local trains, and a red diamond for <6> trains. This was inherited from the 7, the line the 6 received most of its R62As from.

6 trains operate local at all times between Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx and Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall in Lower Manhattan. During weekdays in the peak direction, <6> Pelham Express trains replace 6 local ones north of Parkchester, and run express between that station and Third Avenue–138th Street. During this time, 6 Pelham Local trains short turn at Parkchester (except for peak-direction <6> Express trains that return in the opposite direction as 6 Local trains). Weekdays from 9:00 to 11:00 a.m., select Manhattan-bound <6> trains run local from Parkchester to Hunts Point Avenue while select Parkchester-bound 6 trains run express in that section.

The 6 in its current format has run since the implementation of the IRT "H" system in 1918. Since 1920, it has remained largely unchanged, running between Pelham Bay Park and City Hall with a peak-express variant in the Bronx. In 1945, the city closed the City Hall Loop station, the 6's former southern terminal in Manhattan. Since then, most 6 trains have terminated at Brooklyn Bridge, with a few exceptions in later years.

Brooklyn Bridge (TV series)

Brooklyn Bridge is an American television program which aired on CBS between 1991 and 1993. It is about a Jewish American family living in Brooklyn in the middle 1950s. The premise was partially based on the childhood of executive producer and creator Gary David Goldberg.Brooklyn Bridge won a Golden Globe for Best Television Comedy or Musical and was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1992.

Throughout the TV show there are various references betraying the fact that the family are from Poland/Russia and that they are Jews. Also, there are various references and actions showing how much the young boys feel as Americans.

The cast was led by Marion Ross; Art Garfunkel performed the theme song, which was titled "Just Over the Brooklyn Bridge."In 1997, "When Irish Eyes Are Smiling" was ranked #46 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.

Brooklyn Bridge Park

Brooklyn Bridge Park is an 85-acre (34 ha) park on the Brooklyn side of the East River in New York City. Designed by landscape architecture firm Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, the park has revitalized 1.3-mile (2.1 km) of Brooklyn's post-industrial waterfront from Atlantic Avenue in the south, under the Brooklyn Heights Promenade and past the Brooklyn Bridge, to Jay Street north of the Manhattan Bridge. The site includes Brooklyn Piers 1–6, the historic Fulton Ferry Landing, and the preexisting Empire–Fulton Ferry and Main Street Parks. Two Civil War-era structures, Empire Stores and the Tobacco Warehouse, will also be integrated into the park. After the city and state signed a joint agreement in 2002, site planning and project funding proceeded, with construction started in 2008 using land reclaimed using soil from the new World Trade Center site.Brooklyn Bridge Park is overseen by Brooklyn Bridge Park Corporation, a not-for-profit entity responsible for the planning, construction, maintenance, and operation of the park. The Corporation's mission is to "create and maintain a world class park that is a recreational, environmental and cultural destination enjoyed by residents of, and visitors to, New York City".

Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall/Chambers Street (New York City Subway)

Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall/Chambers Street is a New York City Subway station complex in Lower Manhattan. The complex is served by trains of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line and the BMT Nassau Street Line. The following services stop at this station:

4, 6, and J trains at all times

5 train at all times except late nights

<6> train on weekdays in the peak direction

Z skip-stop train during rush hours in the peak direction

Dumbo, Brooklyn

Dumbo (or DUMBO, short for Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass) is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The area known as DUMBO used to be known as Gairville. It encompasses two sections: one located between the Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridges, which connect Brooklyn to Manhattan across the East River, and another that continues east from the Manhattan Bridge to the Vinegar Hill area. The neighborhood is bounded by Brooklyn Bridge Park to the north, the Brooklyn Bridge to the west, Brooklyn Heights to the south and Vinegar Hill to the east. Dumbo is part of Brooklyn Community Board 2.

The area was originally a ferry landing, characterized by 19th- and early 20th-century industrial and warehouse buildings, Belgian block streets, and its location on the East River by the imposing anchorage of the Manhattan Bridge. The entirety of Dumbo was bought by developer David Walentas and his company Two Trees Management in the late 20th century, and remade into an upscale residential and commercial community—first becoming a haven for art galleries, and currently a center for technology startups.

The large community of tech startups earned DUMBO the nickname of "the center of the Brooklyn Tech Triangle". In that time, Dumbo had become Brooklyn's most expensive neighborhood, as well as New York City's fourth-richest community overall; this is owing in part to its large concentration of technology startups, its close proximity to Manhattan, and its large number of former industrial buildings that have been converted into spacious luxury residential lofts. The neighborhood is the corporate headquarters for e-commerce retailer Etsy and home furnishing stores company West Elm.

High Street (IND Eighth Avenue Line)

High Street, also labeled as High Street–Brooklyn Bridge, and also referred to as "Brooklyn Bridge Plaza" and "Cranberry Street", is a station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. It is located at Cadman Plaza East near Red Cross Place and the Brooklyn Bridge approach in Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn. Its name comes from older street names; its original location was at the intersection of High Street and Washington Street. It is served by the A train at all times and the C train at all times except late nights.

Live from Under the Brooklyn Bridge

Live from Under the Brooklyn Bridge is a digital EP by the Irish rock band U2, released exclusively through the iTunes Store in the United States and Canada on 8 December 2004. The four tracks have only been released digitally as AAC .m4p files. As of 12 May 2009, this EP is no longer available from the iTunes store.

All the tracks were recorded live on 22 November 2004, at a "surprise" concert held in Brooklyn, New York under the Brooklyn Bridge at Empire-Fulton Ferry State Park. The concert was performed after a full day of filming the music video for "All Because of You" in New York City. The concert itself was filmed for an MTV special.

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