Bronzed cowbird

The bronzed cowbird (once known as the red-eyed cowbird), (Molothrus aeneus), is a small icterid.

It breeds from the southern U.S. states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Louisiana south through Central America to Panama. They tend to be found in farmland, brush, and feedlots. Outside the breeding season, they are found in very open habitats, and roost in thick woods. They forage in open areas, often nearby cattle in pastures. Their diet mostly consists of seeds and insects, along with snails during breeding season for a calcium source.[2]

Bronzed Cowbird 2
Laguna Atascosa Nat'l Wildlife Refuge - Texas

There are three subspecies and an isolated population on the Caribbean coast of Colombia that is sometimes treated as a separate species, the bronze-brown cowbird (M. armenti):[3]

  • M. a. loyeiParkes & Blake, 1965: found in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico
  • M. a. assimilis(Nelson, 1900): found in southwestern Mexico
  • M. a. aeneus(Wagler, 1829): nominate, found in southern Texas (south central USA) and from eastern Mexico to central Panama

The male bronzed cowbird is 20 cm (7.9 in) long and weighs 68 g (2.4 oz), with green-bronze glossed black plumage. Their eyes are red in breeding season and brown otherwise. The female is 18.5 cm (7.3 in) long and weighs 56 g (2.0 oz). She is a dull black with a brown underbelly, and has brown eyes. Young birds have coloring similar to the females, with the exception of grey feather fringes.[4]

Like all cowbirds, this bird is an obligate brood parasite; it lays its eggs in the nests of other birds. The young cowbird is fed by the host parents at the expense of their own young. Hosts include Prevost's ground-sparrow and White-naped brush finch. They develop rapidly, leaving the nest after 10–12 days.

Bronzed cowbird
Bronzed Cowbird
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Icteridae
Genus: Molothrus
M. aeneus
Binomial name
Molothrus aeneus
(Wagler, 1829)
Molothrus aeneus map
Range of M. aeneus      Breeding range     Year round range


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Molothrus aeneus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Bronzed Cowbird". Guide to North American Birds. Audubon. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  3. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2016). "IOC World Bird List (v 6.3): New World warblers & oropendolas". doi:10.14344/IOC.ML.6.3. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  4. ^ "Bronzed cowbird". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  • Stiles, G.; Skutch, A.F. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Comstock. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4.

Further reading

  • Lowther, P.E. (1995). Poole, A.; Gill, F. (eds.). Bronzed Cowbird (Molothrus aeneus). The Birds of North America. Philadelphia and Washington, DC: The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists’ Union.

External links

Altamira oriole

The Altamira oriole (Icterus gularis) is a New World oriole. The bird is widespread in subtropical lowlands of the Mexican Gulf Coast and northern Central America, the Pacific coast and inland. They have since spread to southern Texas, but this was not until 1939.At 25 cm (9.8 in) and 56 g (2.0 oz), this is the largest oriole in genus Icterus. The bird nests in open woodland, with the nest being a very long woven pouch, attached to the end of a horizontal tree branch, sometimes to telephone wires.

This bird forages high in trees, sometimes in the undergrowth. They mainly eat insects and berries.

These birds are permanent residents, and unlike the migratory orioles that breed in the US, the species is sexually monomorphic—both the males and the females have elaborate coloration and patterning.

Aransas Bay

Aransas Bay is a bay on the Texas gulf coast, approximately 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Corpus Christi, and 173 miles (278 km) south of San Antonio. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by San José Island (also referred to as St. Joseph Island). Aransas Pass is the most direct navigable outlet into the Gulf of Mexico from the bay. The cities of Aransas Pass and Port Aransas are located at the southern end, and Rockport is found on the central western shore. The bay is oriented laterally northeast-southwest, and is extended by Redfish Bay to the southwest, Copano Bay to the west, Saint Charles Bay to the north, and Mesquite Bay to the northeast. Aransas Bay is part of the Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve.

There is a rich history of settlements on the bay, including: ancient Native American campgrounds dating back millennia; 19th-century European immigrant towns such as Lamar and Aransas; and the present day cities of Rockport, Fulton and Aransas Pass. Resources such as shrimp, fish, oysters and oil are found in or near the bay, and contribute to the local economies.

Black catbird

The black catbird (Melanoptila glabrirostris) is a songbird species in the monotypic genus Melanoptila, part of the family Mimidae. At 19–20.5 cm (7.5–8.1 in) in length and 31.6–42 g (1.11–1.48 oz) in mass, it is the smallest of the mimids. Sexes appear similar, with glossy black plumage, black legs and bill, and dark brownish eyes. The species is endemic to the Yucatán Peninsula, and is found as far south as Campeche, northern Guatemala and northern Belize. Although there are historical records from Honduras and the US state of Texas, the species is not now known to occur in either location. It is found at low elevations in semi-arid to humid habitats ranging from shrubland and abandoned farmland to woodland with thick understory, and is primarily sedentary.

Although it is a mimid, the black catbird is not known to imitate any other species. Its song is a mix of harsh notes and clear flute-like whistles, with the phrases repeated. It builds a cup nest in low bushes or trees, and lays two bluish eggs. It is threatened by habitat loss, and has been assessed as near threatened by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

Clay-colored thrush

The clay-colored thrush (Turdus grayi) is a common Middle American bird of the thrush family (Turdidae). It is the national bird of Costa Rica, where it is well known as the yigüirro (Spanish: [ʝi'ɣwiro]). Other common names include clay-colored robin.It ranges from South Texas (where it is rapidly expanding its range) to northern Colombia; west and north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. It is limited to the Atlantic slope, except for a population around Oaxaca City, Mexico that probably originates from escaped cage birds.

Common blackbird

The common blackbird (Turdus merula) is a species of true thrush. It is also called Eurasian blackbird (especially in North America, to distinguish it from the unrelated New World blackbirds), or simply blackbird where this does not lead to confusion with a similar-looking local species. It breeds in Europe, Asia, and North Africa, and has been introduced to Australia and New Zealand. It has a number of subspecies across its large range; a few of the Asian subspecies are sometimes considered to be full species. Depending on latitude, the common blackbird may be resident, partially migratory, or fully migratory.

The adult male of the nominate subspecies, which is found throughout most of Europe, is all black except for a yellow eye-ring and bill and has a rich, melodious song; the adult female and juvenile have mainly dark brown plumage. This species breeds in woods and gardens, building a neat, mud-lined, cup-shaped nest. It is omnivorous, eating a wide range of insects, earthworms, berries, and fruits.

Both sexes are territorial on the breeding grounds, with distinctive threat displays, but are more gregarious during migration and in wintering areas. Pairs stay in their territory throughout the year where the climate is sufficiently temperate. This common and conspicuous species has given rise to a number of literary and cultural references, frequently related to its song.


Cowbirds are birds belonging to the genus Molothrus in the family Icteridae. They are of New World origin. They are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species.

The genus Molothrus contains:

The non-brood parasitic baywing was formerly placed in this genus; it is now classified as Agelaioides badius.

Fauna of Colombia

The fauna of Colombia is characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide.

Geographic range limit

A geographic range limit is the geographic boundary beyond which a species does not occur, the limit or limits of the range of a species. "Core populations" are populations of individuals occurring within the center of the range, and "peripheral" or "edge populations" are groups of individuals near the boundary of the range.

The inability of a species to expand its range beyond these limits is because of some factor or factors that constrain the species from adapting to overcome the factors that are imposing limits on its distribution. In some cases, geographical range limits are entirely predictable, such as the physical barrier of an ocean for a terrestrial species. In other cases, reasons why species do not pass these boundaries are unknown, however the main determinants of the distribution of a species across its range are ecological and evolutionary processes.For many species of invertebrate animals, the exact geographic range limits have never been precisely ascertained, because not enough scientific field work has been carried in many parts of the world to map distribution more precisely, therefore finding a range extension for species, especially marine species, is not an uncommon occurrence.

LeConte's thrasher

LeConte's thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) is a pale bird found in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It prefers to live in deserts with very little vegetation, where it blends in with the sandy soils. LeConte's thrashers are nonmigratory birds that reside in the same territory annually. Although the species has been decreasing in certain areas of its range, in particular California, it still is abundant enough to not be considered for vulnerable status.

These birds are terrestrial and only fly occasionally. Both sexes are heavily involved in the nest building, incubating, and brooding process, though each alternates with primary responsibility of the tasks. LeConte's thrashers frequently compete with species such as the northern mockingbird, loggerhead shrike and greater roadrunner, as well as being potential prey for the latter.

List of birds of Colorado

In the U.S. state of Colorado 507 species of birds have been documented as of January 2019. Unless otherwise noted below, the list is that of the Colorado Bird Records Committee (CBRC) of Colorado Field Ornithologists.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Six of the documented birds are introduced species that are not native to North America, but were brought to this continent by humans. They are marked on this list as (I). Birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free in Colorado, are not included.

List of birds of Missouri

This list of birds of Missouri includes species documented in the U.S. state of Missouri and accepted by The Audubon Society of Missouri (ASM). As of August 2018, there are 435 species included in the official list. Of them, 50 are classed as accidental, 31 are classed as casual, 12 are classed as provisional (see below), seven have been introduced to North America, four are extinct and one might be, and three have been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Missouri as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to designate some species:

(A) Accidental - "1-4 records; occasionally observed" per the ASM

(C) Casual - "5-15 records; occasionally observed" per the ASM

(I) Introduced - Species established in North America as a result of human action

(E) Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(Ex) Extirpated - a species no longer found in Missouri but which continues to exist elsewhere

(P) Provisional - "one or more records that meet acceptance criteria, but either (a) no definitive state record (i.e., specimen, diagnostic photograph or audio, or multiple acceptable documentations); or (b) provenance uncertain" per the ASM

List of birds of Nova Scotia

This is a list of bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the Nova Scotia Bird Society (NSBS) as of March 2014. The Society's checklist contains 308 commonly-found species. To that list are added an additional 119 species from eBird records through July 2018 and two extinct species. Of the resulting 435 species presented here, 189 are accidental and seven were introduced to North America.

Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free, are not included.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nova Scotia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Nova Scotia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Oklahoma

This list of birds of Oklahoma includes species documented in the U.S. state of Oklahoma and accepted by the Oklahoma Ornithological Society's Bird Records Committee (OBRC). As of October 2017, there were 480 species on the official list. Of them, 120 are classified as accidental, seven have been introduced to North America, two are known to be extinct, and two others might be extinct. An additional 16 species are classed as either hypothetical or of uncertain origin; 13 of them are also classed as accidental.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Oklahoma as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(A) Accidental - Species considered rare or accidental by Bird Checklists of the World (the OBRC does not annotate its list with this category)

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to North America by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly

(E) Extinct - a species that no longer exists

(H) Hypothetical - "species seen in the state and supported only by written documentation" per the OBRC

(UO) Uncertain Origin - species whose provenance is unknown

List of brood parasitic passerines

This is the list of the brood parasites in order Passeriformes, the perching birds. Instead of making nests of their own, and feeding their young, brood parasites deposit their eggs in the nests of other birds.

Note that the vampire finch is a parasite, but is not brood parasitic.

List of icterid species

The avian family Icteridae, commonly called icterids, comprise the New World blackbirds, New World orioles, grackles, cowbirds, oropendolas, and several smaller groups. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 109 species distributed among 30 genera, 14 of which have only one species.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

Long-billed thrasher

The long-billed thrasher (Toxostoma longirostre) is a medium-sized resident songbird of South Texas and eastern Mexico. It bears a strong resemblance to its close relative the brown thrasher in appearance, calls, and various other behaviors; however, the two species do not overlap in range except in the winter when the brown thrasher will temporarily reside in the northern range of the long-billed.The bird is a large sized mimid that is not especially wary, but it will take precautionary measures to prevent itself from being potential prey. Like other thrashers, it is named after its sweeping methods when searching for food, not for thrashing predators, although they are aggressive defenders of their territories.

Olive sparrow

The olive sparrow (Arremonops rufivirgatus) is a species of American sparrow in the family Passerellidae. (Other names include green finch and Texas sparrow.) Its range includes Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and southern Texas (including the counties of Val Verde, Atascosa, and Nueces).

It is 14–15.5 centimetres (5.5–6.1 in) long, and is the only sparrow with an olive back. It has a prominent brown eye streak and a brown-striped crown, with a buff breast, some white belly feathers, and a conical beak. The sexes are similar, while the juvenile is more buff with some streaking on the belly. The olive sparrow looks similar to the green-tailed towhee but is smaller and lacks a rusty cap.

The olive sparrow does not migrate, and is resident in thickets, chaparral, and undergrowth near forests, from sea level to 6,000 feet (1,800 m). Males sing unmusical chip notes similar to the swamp sparrow.

The nest is built two to five feet above ground, and is large, made of straws, twigs, bark, leaves, and stems. Two to five eggs are laid each season (March to September) and are white and unspotted.

Prevost's ground sparrow

Prevost's ground sparrow (Melozone biarcuata), also known as the white-faced ground sparrow, is an American sparrow.

Yellowish flycatcher

The yellowish flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens) is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in highlands from southeastern Mexico south to western Panama.



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