Brodmann area 7 is one of Brodmann's cytologically defined regions of the brain. It is involved in locating objects in space. It serves as a point of convergence between vision and proprioception to determine where objects are in relation to parts of the body.
|Brodmann area 7|
Image of brain with Brodmann area 7 shown in red
Image of brain with Brodmann area 7 shown in yellow
|Latin||Area parietalis superior|
|Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy|
Brodmann area 7, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. Situated posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex (Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2), and superior to the occipital lobe, this region is believed to play a role in visuo-motor coordination (e.g., in reaching to grasp an object). In addition, area 7 along with area 5 has been linked to a wide variety of high-level processing tasks, including activation in association with language use. This function in language has been theorized to stem from how these two regions play a vital role in generating conscious constructs of objects in the world.
Brodmann area 7 spans both the medial and lateral walls of the parietal cortex. Medially, the area corresponding to Brodmann area 7 is called precuneus. Laterally, it is called the superior parietal lobule (SPL). At the base of the SPL is the intraparietal sulcus, below which is the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), which in turn divides into Brodmann areas 39 (angular gyrus) and 40 (supramarginal gyrus).
Brodmann area 7 is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined parietal region of cerebral cortex in Guenon primates. It occupies most of the parietal lobe excluding the postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule. This layer is distinguished by a lack of large ganglion cells in cortical layer V, slightly larger layer III pyramidal cells, and a multiform layer VI that is sharply bounded by white matter tracts.
Area 7 may refer to:
Area 7 (NTS) one of the areas inside the Nevada Test Site
Area 7 (novel), thriller by Matthew Reilly
Area-7, Australian band
Area 7, Peruvian band
Brodmann area 7Brodmann area 5
Brodmann area 5 is one of Brodmann's cytoarchitectural defined regions of the brain. It is involved in somatosensory processing and association.Gain-field encoding
Gain field encoding is a hypothesis about the internal storage and processing of limb motion in the brain. In the motor areas of the brain, there are neurons which collectively have the ability to store information regarding both limb positioning and velocity in relation to both the body (intrinsic) and the individual's external environment (extrinsic). The input from these neurons is taken multiplicatively, forming what is referred to as a gain field. The gain field works as a collection of internal models off of which the body can base its movements. The process of encoding and recalling these models is the basis of muscle memory.Multisensory integration
Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences. Indeed, multisensory integration is central to adaptive behavior because it allows us to perceive a world of coherent perceptual entities. Multisensory integration also deals with how different sensory modalities interact with one another and alter each other's processing.Posterior parietal cortex
The posterior parietal cortex (the portion of parietal neocortex posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex) plays an important role in planned movements, spatial reasoning, and attention.
Damage to the posterior parietal cortex can produce a variety of sensorimotor deficits, including deficits in the perception and memory of spatial relationships, inaccurate reaching and grasping, in the control of eye movement, and inattention. The two most striking consequences of PPC damage are apraxia and hemispatial neglect.Secondary somatosensory cortex
The human secondary somatosensory cortex (S2, SII) is a region of cortex in the parietal operculum on the ceiling of the lateral sulcus.
Region S2 was first described by Adrian in 1940, who found that feeling in cats' feet was not only represented in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) but also in a second region adjacent to S1. In 1954, Penfield and Jasper evoked somatosensory sensations in human patients during neurosurgery by electrically stimulating the ceiling of the lateral sulcus, which lies adjacent to S1, and their findings were confirmed in 1979 by Woolsey et al. using evoked potentials and electrical stimulation. Experiments involving ablation of the second somatosensory cortex in primates indicate that this cortical area is involved in remembering the differences between tactile shapes and textures. Functional neuroimaging studies have found S2 activation in response to light touch, pain, visceral sensation, and tactile attention.In monkeys, apes and hominids, including humans, region S2 is divided into several "areas". An area at the entrance to the lateral sulcus, adjoining the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), is called the parietal ventral (PV) area. Posterior to PV is the secondary somatosensory area (area S2, which must not be confused with "region S2" which designates the entire secondary somatosensory cortex, of which area S2 is a part). Deeper in the lateral sulcus lies the ventral somatosensory (VS) area, whose outer edge adjoins areas PV and S2 and inner edge adjoins the insular cortex.
In humans, the secondary somatosensory cortex includes parts of Brodmann area (BA) 40 and 43.Areas PV and S2 both map the body surface. Functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed that in areas PV and S2 the face is represented near the entrance to the lateral sulcus, and the hands and feet deeper in the fissure. Individual neurons in areas PV and S2 receive input from wide areas of the body surface (they have large "receptive fields"), and respond readily to stimuli such as wiping a sponge over a large area of skin.Area PV connects densely with BA 5 and the premotor cortex. Area S2 is interconnected with BA 1 and densely so with BA 3b, and projects to PV, BA 7b, insular cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Areas S2 in the left and right hemispheres are densely interconnected, and stimulation on one side of the body will activate area S2 in both hemispheres.