Broadcatching

Broadcatching is the downloading of digital content that has been made available over the Internet using RSS.

The general idea is to use an automated mechanism to aggregate various web feeds and download content for viewing or presentation purposes.

History

Fen Labalme describes coining the term 'broadcatch' in 1983.[1] It refers to an automated agent that aggregates and filters content from multiple sources for presentation to an individual user.

Stewart Brand later used the term independently in his 1987 book The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT to describe artificial-intelligence technology (in one application) to assist content selection ('hunting') and viewing ('grazing' or 'browsing').[2]

RSS+BitTorrent

In December 2003 Steve Gillmor described combining RSS and BitTorrent peer-to-peer file sharing as a method for subscribing to an ongoing series of media files, in an article for Ziff-Davis.[3] Scott Raymond described its specific application for gathering scheduled programming in an article entitled Broadcatching with BitTorrent.[4] The combination of these technologies allows a computer connected to the Internet to act like a digital video recorder (DVR) such as TiVo connected to cable.

One of the first practical implementations was released in 2004. Programmer Andrew Grumet announced the release of a beta version of an RSS and BitTorrent integration tool for the Radio Userland news aggregator here.

Today, content can be delivered to large groups at low cost through RSS-and-BitTorrent-based broadcatching. Large groups can be notified of new content through RSS, and bulky content can be distributed inexpensively through BitTorrent. Recipients subscribe to an RSS feed through which a content provider notifies recipients' software of new content, and that software uses BitTorrent to retrieve the content. Tags, be they applied by one user or many users, are also used to topically drive syndication of torrents.

Uses

Although broadcatching can be classified as a method independent of technology and implementation, today broadcatching finds much use with Internet television and Internet radio (also called podcasting or IPradio).

Broadcatching is often used in situations where multicasting may be used but is cost prohibitive.

Broadcatching television broadcasts

Perhaps the most popular use of broadcatching is using a BitTorrent client with inbuilt RSS support to automatically download television episodes as they are 'released'—internet users capture the broadcast as it is transmitted, then transcode it (typically after removing advertisements) and send it on to others.

The practice has become quite popular, particularly in countries such as Australia and the United Kingdom where television programs produced in the US tend to be aired more than six months after US broadcasts, if at all.

As of 2010, there has been no legal action taken against sharers of TV episodes (compared to distribution of copyrighted movies and music which the MPAA and RIAA have taken a strong stance against).

Measurement Study

Zhang et al. have evaluated Broadcatching using PlanetLab testbed in 2008. About 200 PlanetLab nodes all over the world were used in their study.[5] Their results have demonstrated Broadcatching can greatly improve the performance of the BitTorrent system. Through this mechanism, every node is able to complete the file downing much faster.

Clients

Players with broadcatching functions

See also

References

  1. ^ Broadcatch Definition company website, (2001 archive)
  2. ^ - The Media Lab Review. L. McGuff. Beyond Cyberpunk, Gareth Branwyn, ed., 1991. Retrieved 2007-04-22
  3. ^ Gillmor, Steve. BitTorrent and RSS Create Disruptive Revolution EWeek.com, December 13, 2003. Retrieved on 2016-02-21.
  4. ^ Raymond, Scott: Broadcatching with BitTorrent. scottraymond.net: 2003-12-16.
  5. ^ Zengbin Zhang; Yuan Lin; Yang Chen; Yongqiang Xiong; Jacky Shen; Hongqiang Liu; Beixing Deng; Xing Li (2009). "Experimental Study of Broadcatching in BitTorrent" (PDF). Proc. of 6th IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC'09).
  6. ^ "KTorrent's syndication plugin". Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  7. ^ Tixati.com - Home

External links

BitTorrent

BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet.

BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files, such as digital video files containing TV shows or video clips or digital audio files containing songs. Peer-to-peer networks have been estimated to collectively account for approximately 43% to 70% of all Internet traffic (depending on location) as of February 2009. In February 2013, BitTorrent was responsible for 3.35% of all worldwide bandwidth, more than half of the 6% of total bandwidth dedicated to file sharing.To send or receive files, a person uses a BitTorrent client on their Internet-connected computer. A BitTorrent client is a computer program that implements the BitTorrent protocol. Popular clients include μTorrent, Xunlei, Transmission, qBittorrent, Vuze, Deluge, BitComet and Tixati. BitTorrent trackers provide a list of files available for transfer, and allow the client to find peer users known as seeds who may transfer the files.

Programmer Bram Cohen, a former University at Buffalo student, designed the protocol in April 2001 and released the first available version on 2 July 2001, and the most recent version in 2013. BitTorrent clients are available for a variety of computing platforms and operating systems including an official client released by BitTorrent, Inc.

As of 2013, BitTorrent has 15–27 million concurrent users at any time.

As of January 2012, BitTorrent is utilized by 150 million active users. Based on this figure, the total number of monthly BitTorrent users may be estimated to more than a quarter of a billion.

Comparison of feed aggregators

The following is a comparison of RSS feed aggregators. Often e-mail programs and web browsers have the ability to display RSS feeds. They are listed here, too.

Many BitTorrent clients support RSS feeds for broadcatching (see Comparison of BitTorrent clients).

With the rise of Cloud computing, some cloud based services offer feed aggregation. They are listed here as well.

Data feed

Data feed is a mechanism for users to receive updated data from data sources. It is commonly used by real-time applications in point-to-point settings as well as on the World Wide Web. The latter is also called web feed. News feed is a popular form of web feed. RSS feed makes dissemination of blogs easy. Product feeds play increasingly important role in e-commerce and internet marketing, as well as news distribution, financial markets, and cybersecurity. Data feeds usually require structured data that include different labelled fields, such as "title" or "product".

Electronic journal

Electronic journals, also known as ejournals, e-journals, and electronic serials, are scholarly journals or intellectual magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission.

Escribitionist

An escribitionist is a person who keeps a diary or journal via electronic means, and in particular, publishes their entries on the world wide web. The word was coined in June 1999 by Erin Venema, an online diarist, in the course of a discussion on a mailing list for web journalers. At issue was how to distinguish web journal authors from keepers of traditional paper-and-ink diaries.

The word comes from a combination of the English word "exhibitionist" and the Spanish word "escribir", meaning "to write". (The latter is cognate to the English "scribe"; both come from the Latin scribere.) It also evokes the marketing gimmick of using the letter "e" as a prefix to imply a link to technology and electronics, although that was not intended.

Coined before the widespread use of weblogs, the word escribitionist is often used to distinguish diary keepers on the web from weblog authors, whose writing often involve far more diverse styles, perspectives and subjects than those used in personal journals. While a weblog author may engage in journaling, or reporting, or political commentary, an escribitionist is focused on personal experiences and reflection.

Feed URI scheme

The feed URI scheme was a suggested uniform resource identifier (URI) scheme designed to facilitate subscription to web feeds; specifically, it was intended that a news aggregator be launched whenever a hyperlink to a feed URI was clicked in a web browser.

The scheme was intended to flag a document in a syndication format such as Atom or RSS. The document would be typically served over HTTP.by open wave and sms http based html Uri as feed.

Media RSS

Media RSS (MRSS) is an RSS extension that adds several enhancements to RSS enclosures, and is used for syndicating multimedia files (audio, video, image) in RSS feeds. It was originally designed by Yahoo! and the Media RSS community in 2004, but in 2009 its development has been moved to the RSS Advisory Board. One example of enhancements is specification of thumbnails for each media enclosure, and the possibility to enclose multiple versions of the same content (e.g. different file formats).

The format can be used for podcasting, which uses the RSS format as a means of delivering content to media-playing devices, as well as Smart TVs. Media RSS allows for a much more detailed description of the content to be delivered to the subscriber than the RSS standard. The standard is also used by content publishers to feed media files into Yahoo! Video Search, which is a feature of Yahoo! Search that allows users to search for video files.

News aggregator

In computing, a news aggregator, also termed a feed aggregator, feed reader, news reader, RSS reader or simply aggregator, is client software or a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as online newspapers, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs (vlogs) in one location for easy viewing. RSS is a synchronized subscription system. RSS uses extensible markup language (XML) to structure pieces of information to be aggregated in a feed reader that displays the information in a user-friendly interface. The updates distributed may include journal tables of contents, podcasts, videos, and news items.

Peercasting

Peercasting is a method of multicasting streams, usually audio and/or video, to the Internet via peer-to-peer technology. It can be used for commercial, independent, and amateur multicasts. Unlike traditional IP Multicast, peercasting can facilitate on-demand content delivery.

Photoblog

A photoblog (or photolog) is a form of photo sharing and publishing in the format of a blog. It differs from a blog through the predominant use of and focus on photographs rather than text. Photoblogging (the action of posting photos to a photoblog) gained momentum in the early 2000s with the advent of the moblog and cameraphones.

Photofeed

A photofeed is a web feed that features image enclosures. They provide an easy, standard way to reference a list of images with title, date and description.

Photofeeds are RSS enclosures of image file formats, similar to podcasts (enclosures of audio file formats).

Project diary

A project diary, history, journal or log is a record of a project which is compiled while it is being done.

RSS editor

An RSS editor is a software application for writing and editing RSS feeds offline (i.e. on the local computer). These applications are also often called desktop RSS editors. Usually RSS feeds are automatically generated out of databases from Content Management Systems (CMS). Some other typical sources for RSS feeds are blogs and websites like Digg. However, there are also several, manually edited RSS feeds (mostly with editorial content), which are maintained offline. After the development and creation of such feeds in an RSS editor application, the feed file is usually transmitted via FTP to the web server. Most RSS editors offer a corresponding, integrated functionality for that.

RSS enclosure

RSS enclosures are a way of attaching multimedia content to RSS feeds by providing the URL of a file associated with an entry, such as an MP3 file to a music recommendation or a photo to a diary entry. Unlike e-mail attachments, enclosures are merely hyperlinks to files. The actual file data is not embedded into the feed (unless a data URL is used). Support and implementation among aggregators varies: if the software understands the specified file format, it may automatically download and display the content, otherwise provide a link to it or silently ignore it.

The addition of enclosures to RSS, as first implemented by Dave Winer in late 2000 [1], was an important prerequisite for the emergence of podcasting, perhaps the most common use of the feature as of 2012. In podcasts and related technologies enclosures are not merely attachments to entries, but provide the main content of a feed.

RSS tracking

RSS tracking is a methodology for tracking RSS feeds.

Reverse blog

A reverse blog is a type of blog that is characterized by the lack of a single, specific blogger. In a traditional blog a blogger will write his or her comments about a given topic and other users may view and sometimes comment on the bloggers work. A reverse blog is written entirely by the users, who are given a topic. The blog posts are usually screened and chosen for publication by a core group or the publisher of the blog.

Rollback (data management)

In database technologies, a rollback is an operation which returns the database to some previous state. Rollbacks are important for database integrity, because they mean that the database can be restored to a clean copy even after erroneous operations are performed. They are crucial for recovering from database server crashes; by rolling back any transaction which was active at the time of the crash, the database is restored to a consistent state.

The rollback feature is usually implemented with a transaction log, but can also be implemented via multiversion concurrency control.

Slidecasting

A slidecast is a type of podcast that combines audio with a slideshow or diaporama presentation. It is similar to a video podcast in that it combines dynamically-generated imagery with audio synchronization, but it is different in that it uses presentation software, such as PowerPoint, to create the imagery and the sequence of display separately from the time of the audio podcast's original recording.

Slidecasting may be useful for the display of relevant photographs or text, and are an alternative to camera video recordings.

An alternative definition of the slidecast is the online distribution and syndication of video recordings of live slideshow presentations and accompanying narrations.

Video aggregator

A video aggregator is a website that collects and organizes online videos from other sources. Video aggregation is done for different purposes, and websites take different approaches to achieve their purpose.

Some sites try to collect videos of high quality or interest for visitors to view. The collection may be made by editors or may be based on community votes. Another method is to base the collection on those videos most viewed, either at the aggregator site or at various popular video hosting sites.Some sites exist to allow users to collect their own sets of videos, for personal use as well as browsing and viewing by others. These sites can develop online communities around video sharing. Other sites allow users to create a personalized video playlist, for personal use as well as for browsing and viewing by others.

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