Broadcast programming

Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media programs (Internet, television, radio, etc. ) in a daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or season-long schedule. Modern broadcasters use broadcast automation to regularly change the scheduling of their programs to build an audience for a new show, retain that audience, or compete with other broadcasters' programs. In the United Kingdom, this is known as TV listings. Most broadcast television programs are presented weekly in prime time or daily in other dayparts, though exceptions are not rare.

Television scheduling strategies are employed to give programs the best possible chance of attracting and retaining an audience. They are used to deliver programs to audiences when they are most likely to want to watch them and deliver audiences to advertisers in the composition that makes their advertising most likely to be effective.[1] Digitally based broadcast programming mechanisms are known as electronic program guides (EPG).

At a micro level, scheduling is the minute planning of the transmission; what to broadcast and when, ensuring an adequate or maximum utilization of airtime.


With the beginning of scheduled television in 1936, television programming was initially only concerned with filling a few hours each evening – the hours now known as prime time. Over time, though, television began to be seen during the day time and late at night, as well on the weekends. As air time increased so did the demand for new material. With the exception of sports television, variety programs became much more important in prime time.

Scheduling strategies

Block programming

Block programming occurs when the television network schedules similar programs back-to-back. The concept is to provide similar programming to retain viewership.


Bridging is being used when a station tries to prevent the audience from changing channels during a junction point - the main evening breaks where all channels stop programs and shift gear.[2] This is achieved in a number of ways including: having a program already underway and something compelling happening at a junction point, running a program late so that people ‘hang around’ and miss the start of other programs, or using a television advertisement of the next program during the credits of the previous.


Crossprogramming involves the interconnection of two shows. This is achieved by extending a storyline over two episodes of two different programs.


Counterprogramming is the practice of offering television programs to attract an audience from another television station airing a major event. It is also referred when programmers offer something different from the rival’s program as an alternative, to increase the audience size,[3] and is used when a time period is filled with a program whose appeal is different from the opponent program because it is a different genre or appeals to a different demographic.


Dayparting is the practice of dividing the day into several parts, during each of which a different type of radio programming or television programming appropriate for that time is aired. Daytime television programs are most often geared toward a particular demographic, and what the target audience typically engages in at that time.


Hammocking is a technique used by broadcasters whereby an unpopular program is scheduled between two popular programs in the hope that viewers will watch it. Public television uses this as a way of promoting serious but valuable content.


In hotswitching, the programmers eliminate any sort of commercial break when one program ends and another begins; this immediately hooks the audience into watching the next program without a chance to change the television channel between programs.

Season splitting

Season splitting is the practice of broadcasting one season of a series in two parts, with a scheduled break in between. This allows for the second half of the season to be programmed strategically separately from the first.


Spoiling tactics are used to grab audience share, when broadcasters have similar products going head to head. In such cases broadcasters may jostle in getting a slightly earlier airing date or time, in the hope that once viewers have become committed to a program they will not switch channels.[4][5]


Stacking is a technique used to develop audience flow by grouping together programs with similar appeals to "Sweep" the viewer along from one program to the next.[6]


Stripping is running a syndicated television series every day of the week. It is commonly restricted to describing the airing of shows which were weekly in their first run; The West Wing could be stripped, but not Jeopardy!, as the latter is already a daily show. Shows that are syndicated in this way generally have to have run for several seasons (the rule of thumb is usually 100 episodes) in order to have enough episodes to run without significant repeats.


In tent pole programming, the programmers bank on a well-known series having so much audience appeal that they can place two unknown series on either side, and it is the strength of the central program that will draw viewers to the two other shows.


Another strategem is having special theme days, such as for a holiday, or theme weeks such as Discovery Channel's Shark Week.

Time slot

A show's time slot or place in the schedule could be crucial to its success or failure (see tentpoling above). It may affect casting; for example, ABC replaced Robert Lansing's character on Twelve O'Clock High because the show moved from 10 pm to 7:30 pm.[7] Promising new series would often be premiered behind hits to help build an audience. Conversely, failing shows could be consigned to unfavorable times, such as the Friday night death slot.

By country


A typical scheduling strategy used in Argentinian radio and television is called "pase" (Spanish for a "pass" as in a player passing the ball to another player of the same team). A few minutes before the end of a live broadcast show, followed by another live broadcast show, people from both programmes will share some air time together. This may be used for people from the starting programme to anticipate its contents of the day, or to participate in an ongoing discussion in the previous show, or simply for an entirely independent debate or chat that will not be furthered after the "pase". On the radio, where newscasts are usually broadcast every thirty minutes, often in coincidence with the end of a show, the "pase" may take some minutes before the news, and sometimes some minutes afterwards, too.

Alternatively, if there is no "pase", light jokes or comments can be made in a show involving people of the following show, so that some viewers or listeners might be interested in hearing what the reply will be.

Also, when a station has a new show starting, or if it needs to boost its ratings, part of its cast will be featured in other programmes in the same station, inserted in the dynamics of the programme they are in. For example, they will participate in game shows, be interviewed by the journalists of the station, make cameos in a series, substitute for the usual staff of other shows in their habitual functions, etc. Additionally, hosts of live programmes may mention repeatedly the new show and its time slot, trying to encourage their own viewers to watch it.

See also


  1. ^ Eastman, S. T., and Ferguson, D. A. (2013). Media programming: Strategies and Practices (9th ed.), Boston: Thomson Wadsworth.
  2. ^ Ellis, J. (2000) Seeing Things: Television in the Age of Uncertainty, London: I.B. Tauris.
  3. ^ Uribe, R., Buzeta, C. and Hurtado, D. (2011). "Looking for the audiences: The effect of using partial counterprogramming and a friendlier style of news presentation". INNOVAR 21 (42): 151–159. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  4. ^ Plunkett, John (April 3, 2013). "The Voice v Britain's Got Talent: scheduling wars recommence". The Guardian. BBC One. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  5. ^ Brown, Maggie (September 23, 2012). "BBC pilots Tuesday night slot as it takes on ITV in the battle of the costume dramas". The Guardian/The Observer. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  6. ^ Vane, E.T., and Gross, L.S. (1994) Programming for TV, radio and cable, Boston: Focal Press.
  7. ^ Lewis, Jerry D. (15–21 May 1965). "The General Died at Dusk / Robert Lansing was fine on 10 o'clock missions, but..." TV Guide. p. 24. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
33 Dundas Street East

33 Dundas Street East is a studio complex located in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The building was acquired by Rogers Media in 2007 as the new home of its four Toronto television stations: CITY-DT (Citytv), CFMT-DT (OMNI.1), CJMT-DT (OMNI.2) and formerly CityNews Channel. CITY-DT moved into the building on September 8, 2009, followed by the Omni stations a month later on October 19. First built in 2004, the building was home to Olympic Spirit Toronto, an Olympic-themed entertainment attraction, until 2006 and before that a three storey Salvation Army building.

The building features three floors of television studio space for City and Omni.

The building is located east of Yonge Street on Dundas Square, near the Toronto Eaton Centre and 10 Dundas East (formerly Toronto Life Square). It was previously known as 35 Dundas Street East, but the street number in the address was changed to 33 in 2009.

CITY-TV's previous headquarters were located at 299 Queen Street West, which continues to serve the operations of CHUM Limited's former speciality channels, such as CP24, MuchMusic, MuchMore, E!, and Space, all of which now owned by Bell Media (previously CTVglobemedia). CFMT and CJMT were previously located at 545 Lake Shore Boulevard West, which continues to serve the operations of its Rogers-owned specialty channels such as OLN, The Biography Channel Canada and G4 Canada.

The Rogers Communications headquarters, where the company's other radio stations remain as well as Sportsnet and Sportsnet One, are located at the Rogers Building at Bloor and Jarvis Streets.

In keeping with the layout of Dundas Square, 33 Dundas Street East is notable for its large billboard, usually used to advertise City and OMNI's programming, along with a Jumbotron-style TV screen which relays City broadcast programming to those in the square below.

Asian Television Content Corporation

Asian Television Content Corporation (ATC) is a Filipino TV broadcast programming content provider and the major blocktimer of the Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation, a government-sequestred TV network founded in 1960. Its offices located at the # 85 Dona Justina St. Cor. Dalton St. Filinvest II, Brgy. Batasan Hills, Quezon City.

Currently, ATC produced specialty programs and specials aired on IBC-13 and People's Television Network. ATC Sports serves as a on-ground production division who organized and produced on-the-air and on-ground sports content.

Dusk (TV channel)

Dusk (branded as DUSK) is a defunct Canadian English language Category B specialty channel owned by Corus Entertainment and Shaw Media. Dusk broadcast programming consisting of films, television dramas, and reality TV, and documentary-style television series from the thriller, suspense and supernatural genres.

Fashion Television (TV channel)

Fashion Television (officially named Fashion Television Channel) is a Canadian pay television network owned by Bell Media. The channel originally broadcast programming related to fashion, modelling, photography, art, architecture and design, and was fashioned after the CHUM Television original program, FashionTelevision.

Hiatus (television)

In the United States, a hiatus is a break of several weeks or months in the normal broadcast programming of a television series. Such a break can occur part-way through the season of a series, in which case it is also called a mid-season break, or between distinct television seasons (usually starting in June and ending in September, when shooting starts for the next season). In the Northern Hemisphere, the breaks between late November and early February are also referred to as winter breaks or, in the Christian cultural sphere, Christmas breaks.

Until the late 1990s, summer breaks were sometimes replaced by summer replacement series.

Late night television

Late night television is one of the dayparts in television broadcast programming. It follows prime time and precedes the overnight television programming graveyard slot. The slot generally runs from about 11:30 PM to 2:00 AM local time, with variations according to the time zone and broadcaster.

In the United States and Canada, the term is synonymous with the late-night talk show, a type of comedic talk and variety show. Thus, the late night programming block is considered more important in North America. On most major-network stations, a late local newscast airs at the beginning of the block. (This is nearly universal in Canada, as late local news is an easy way to fulfill Canadian content requirements.)

Due to the complications of American and Canadian time zones, live professional sporting matches such as baseball, hockey, and basketball played in Pacific Time Zone and Mountain Time Zone cities, such as Denver, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Portland (Ore.), and Seattle, are often played in the primetime of the Pacific and Mountain Time Zones, but late night in the Central and Eastern time zones, and their lateness often contributes to a perceived bias for eastern teams in sports media.

In the United Kingdom, the late night spot is from 11:00 PM to 12:30 AM and not seen as a priority; ITV and Channel 4 program repeats in the time slot, and the BBC's channels primarily show BBC World News, air movies, or replay documentaries. Similarly, Australian television primarily airs American late shows, lower-priority imported series, or overflows of sports programming in the late night time slot.

On cable television, programming strategies in this time slot include timeshifts of prime time programs and, in the case of children's television channels, signing-off and allowing more adult-oriented fare for the overnight hours under another brand. Two examples are the children's channels Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon, which changes over to Adult Swim and Nick at Nite, respectively, at an hour when most pre-adolescent children go to sleep. Adult Swim and Nick at Nite typically airs series programming, such as reruns of sitcoms, that may have coarser language and more adult themes than Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon.After 11, Japan airs adult talk or variety shows as well as late night anime. This is also true of the United States-based cable channel Cartoon Network, which targets children and young teens during daytime and primetime hours, but changes over to its Adult Swim brand in late-night slots.

Latvijas Radio

Latvijas Radio (LR) is Latvia's national public-service radio broadcasting network. It began broadcasting on 1 November 1925, and has its headquarters in the Latvian capital, Riga. Latvijas Radio broadcasts six different channels in the FM band as well as via the internet: Latvijas Radio 1, Latvijas Radio 2, Latvijas Radio 3 Klasika, Latvijas Radio 4 Doma laukums, Latvijas Radio 5, and Latvijas Radio 6 – Radio NABA.

Latvijas Radio is a national cultural institution, fostering radio drama, and organizing a radio choir as well as children's vocal groups. The organization's phonographic archives contain approximately 200,000 sound recordings. Latvijas Radio became a member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) on 1 January 1993.Since 2013 it has collaborated with Latvijas Televīzija (Latvian Television) as part of the Latvijas Sabiedriskie Mediji (Public Broadcasting of Latvia) news platform and online streaming service.

Latvijas Radio (as Radio Riga) also broadcast programming in Swedish from 1960 to 1995.

Leonardo World (Canada)

Leonardo World was a Canadian category 2 Italian language digital cable television channel wholly owned by Telelatino Network Inc. The channel broadcast programming related to Italian arts and culture including cuisine, fashion, travel, and more. It was a Canadian version of the Italian channel, Leonardo World.

List of programs broadcast by MyNetworkTV

This is a list of programming which has been or will be carried on the American broadcast programming service MyNetworkTV.

MBC Game

MBC Game (Korean: MBC 게임, 엠비씨 게임) was a South Korean specialty television channel owned by MBC Plus Media. The channel primarily broadcast programming related to video games, but it, along with its competitor Ongamenet, was well known for its extensive coverage of competitive video gaming.

The channel was discontinued on January 31, 2012, and replaced by a music channel, MBC Music.

MEGA Cosmos (Ethnic Channels Group)

MEGA Cosmos was a Canadian Category B Greek language specialty channel and was owned by Ethnic Channels Group. It broadcast programming from MEGA Cosmos, a television channel in Greece, and local Canadian content.

MEGA Cosmos is the international network of Mega Channel, a television network in Greece. MEGA Cosmos features news, top-rated series including comedies and dramas, game shows, reality series and more.

Master control

Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks. It is distinct from a production control room (PCR) in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. It is also vastly different from the studio where the talent are located. A transmission control room (TCR) is usually smaller in size and is a scaled down version of centralcasting.

Master control is the final point before a signal is transmitted over-the-air for terrestrial television or cablecast, satellite provider for broadcast, or sent on to a cable television operator. Television master control rooms include banks of video monitors, satellite receivers, videotape machines, video servers, transmission equipment, and, more recently, computer broadcast automation equipment for recording and playback of television programming.

Master control is generally staffed with one or two master control operators around-the-clock, every day to ensure continuous operation. Master control operators are responsible for monitoring the quality and accuracy of the on-air product, ensuring the transmission meets government regulations, troubleshooting equipment malfunctions, and preparing programming for playout. Regulations include both technical ones (such as those against over-modulation and dead air), as well as content ones (such as indecency and station ID).

Many television networks and radio networks or station groups have consolidated facilities and now operate multiple stations from one regional master control or centralcasting center. An example of this centralized broadcast programming system on a large scale is NBC's "hub-spoke project" that enables a single "hub" to have control of dozens of stations' automation systems and to monitor their air signals, thus reducing or eliminating some responsibilities of local employees at their owned-and-operated (O&O) stations.

Outside the United States, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) manages four radio networks, two broadcast television networks, and several more cable/satellite radio and television services out of just two master control points (English language services at the Canadian Broadcasting Centre in Toronto and French language at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal). Many other public and private broadcasters have taken a similar approach (although the CBC's operation is arguably more complicated than most, with local breakaways on radio and local advertisements on television).

NPO Radio 1

NPO Radio 1 is a public-service radio channel in the Netherlands, broadcasting mainly news and sport. It is part of the Netherlands Public Broadcasting system, NPO. It can be compared with BBC Radio 5 Live.

Preview (subscription service)

Preview was an American subscription television service that launched in 1980. Like its competitors, such as ONTV and SelecTV, Preview was a scrambled UHF subscription channel requiring a special set-top box to decode the signal.

Preview's broadcast day was mainly between 7 p.m. and 5 a.m., but varied depending on the market and during later periods of the channel's existence. Owned by Warner Communications, the parent company of Warner Bros. Pictures and Warner Music Group during the 1970s and 1980s, Preview was carried on several independent stations including KDNL-TV in St. Louis (later a Fox affiliate, now an ABC affiliate), WCLQ-TV (now Univision owned-and-operated station WQHS-DT) in Cleveland, WSMW-TV (now Univision affiliate WUNI) in the Boston area, and KTWS-TV (now MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated station KDFI) in Dallas.

The service offered movies, sporting events, and specials. The service also broadcast programming from ONTV and SelecTV, in some cases, simulcasting in areas where any of these services and Preview were available. Preview lasted until 1986, when the last affiliate, WSMW, discontinued carrying the service.

Radio format

A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming) describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. In countries where radio spectrum use is legally regulated (such as by OFCOM in the UK), formats may have a legal status where stations are licensed to transmit only specific formats.Radio formats are frequently employed as a marketing tool, and are subject to frequent change. Music radio, old time radio, all-news radio, sports radio, talk radio and weather radio describe the operation of different genres of radio format and each format can often be sub-divided into many specialty formats.

Radio reading service

A radio reading service or reading service for the blind is a service of many universities, community groups and public radio stations, where a narrator reads books, newspapers and magazines aloud for the benefit of the blind and vision-impaired. It is most often carried on a subcarrier, with radio receivers permanently tuned to a given station in the area, or an HD Radio subchannel of the offering station. Some reading services use alternative methods for reaching their audiences, including broadcasting over SAP, streaming Internet radio, cable TV, or even terrestrial TV.

The International Association of Audio Information Services (IAAIS) serves as the primary member organization for radio reading services, and has member services or has consulted with and assisted local organizations in Canada, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Panama, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.

The first radio reading service in the United States was the Minnesota Radio Talking Book Network, started in 1969 by C. Stanley Potter and Robert Watson. After six years of researching the concept, a Kansas philanthropist learned of the Minnesota service, and with their help in 1971 Petey Cerf founded Audio-Reader, the second reading service in the nation, in Lawrence. In the late 1970s, Audio-Reader director Rosie Hurwitz and Stan Potter served as the first two presidents of the Association of Radio Reading Services, which came to be known as the National Association of Radio Reading Services, and, finally, IAAIS.

The first radio reading service in Canada was founded by Richard Moses and Gordon Norman in Oakville, Ontario, in the basement of the Woodside Branch of the Oakville Public Library in the mid-1970s.

In the United States, many public radio stations carry a local or regional reading service on an FM subcarrier. They are commonly affiliated with universities, libraries and other non-profit institutions. Reception of these stations require a special receiver, available at no cost to the listener, though most organizations require certification that the potential listener is unable to use normal printed material. Stations in other countries also carry such a service in this fashion. Some radio reading services are broadcast on standard FM stations. WRBH in New Orleans was the first full-time open channel radio reading service, although WRKC in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania has been broadcasting a two-hour-a-day service, the Radio Home Visitor, since 1974. WYPL in Memphis, Tennessee, run by volunteers of the Memphis Public Library, devotes nearly its entire broadcast day to a mixture of live readings and prerecorded readings overnight.

The first internet-based reading service was Assistive Media, founded in 1996 by David Erdody in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Most of the over 100 audio information services in the U.S. today stream their broadcasts live on the internet, and some offer online archives of previously broadcast programming. Some organizations are providing their listeners with internet radios preprogrammed to easily find the internet stream.

Tent-pole (entertainment)

In broadcast programming and motion pictures, a tent-pole or tentpole is a program or movie that supports the financial performance of a movie studio or television network. A tent-pole movie may be expected to support the sale of tie-in merchandise.


W16AL is a low-power television station licensed to Burlington, Vermont. It was previously a repeater that broadcast programming from the Trinity Broadcasting Network, via satellite; in recent years, due to TBN's financial problems, many of its repeaters were sold to other parties, including W16AL, which was sold to Luken Communications, the parent company of Retro Television Network, under the licensee name "Digital Networks - Northeast". Many of these stations, including W16AL, was acquired by Luken from the Minority Media and Telecom Council (MMTC). The station broadcasts on UHF channel 16, with no current digital channel. W16AL currently holds a construction permit to convert to digital broadcasting.


WHDO-CD is a low-power Class A television station based in Orlando, Florida. The station operates on digital channel 38 and is an affiliate from Biz TV. It previously broadcast programming from Tuff TV until that network ceased operations on August 26, 2018. The station is owned by Western Pacific Broadcast, LLC. Its transmitter is located near the SR-417 and Florida's Turnpike intersection, along with low-powered Azteca America affiliate WATV-LD and WURF's FM translator W279DI.

WHDO-CD also broadcasts Haitian language programming from TeleAnacaona, on subchannel 38-2, along with Shop LC on its 38.3 subchannel, and with Evine on its 38.4 subchannel.

and funding

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