Broadcast network

A terrestrial network (or broadcast network in the United States) is a group of radio stations, television stations, or other electronic media outlets, that form an agreement to air, or broadcast, content from a centralized source.[1] For example, PBS (U.S.) and BBC (U.K.) are TV networks that provide programming for local terrestrial television station affiliates to air using signals that can be picked up by the home television sets of local viewers.[1] Large networks are mostly national, but there is also a Global Television Network.

Streaming media, Internet radio, and webcasting are sometimes considered forms of broadcasting despite the lack of terrestrial stations; its practitioners may also be called "broadcasters" or even "broadcast networks".

Broadcast-network-logos
Logos of the five major U.S. terrestrial television networks (clockwise from top left: NBC, CBS, ABC, The CW, and FOX.)

History

Broadcasting chains (original)
Original major radio broadcasting networks in the United States

American networks

AT&T's "WEAF Chain"

Following the introduction of radio broadcasting in the early 1920s, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) developed the first radio network, linking together individual stations with specially prepared long-distance telephone lines in what at the time was called a "chain". The key station was AT&T's WEAF (now WFAN) in New York City. The network featured a variety of regularly scheduled programs which included sponsorships (at the time not called advertising but "toll broadcasting").[2]

From the beginning, AT&T planned to eventually expand nationwide, so that national companies would be able reach large portions of the nation with their brand names and slogans in an efficient manner. At first the network's expansion was slow. In 1924, the Eveready Hour was broadcast over 12 stations, primarily located in the U.S. Northeast. Eveready Hour was the first commercially sponsored variety show in the history of broadcasting. By 1925, AT&T had linked together 26 stations in its network.[3]

AT&T eventually decided to concentrate on its most profitable business, telephones, and in 1926 sold its broadcasting interests to the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). RCA's purchase included an agreement to lease AT&T phone lines.[3]

RCA's "WJZ Chain"

In 1922 the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) followed AT&T's network model lead, and formed a small competing network centered on its New York City station, WJZ (now WABC). However, conflict resulted as RCA had a limited ability to lease lines from AT&T, and often had to use telegraph lines to connect stations, which had inferior acoustical properties.[3]

NBC

After acquiring WEAF and AT&T's network assets in 1926, RCA created the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and reorganized the WEAF chain (with WGR, WTIC, WTAG, WEEI, WJAR, WZAN, WFI-WLIT, WCAE, WRC, WTAM, WSAI, WWJ, WGN, WOC, KSD, WDAF, WCCO) as the NBC Red network, and the WJZ chain as the NBC Blue network (with WBZ, WBZA, KYW, KDKA). (One explanation for the color designations is that they reflected the red and blue push pins used on a map that AT&T originally used to designate the affiliated stations on the two networks.)[2]

On 23 December 1928, NBC instituted the first permanent transcontinental network. As of September 1938, when there were 154 NBC outlets; 23 composed the basic Red network and 24 composed the basic Blue network. Supplementing these basic networks were 107 stations, of which one was available only to the basic Red network, six were available only to the basic Blue network, and the remainder available to either. NBC also had a chain of shortwave stations, called the "NBC White Network", in the 1930s.

In 1941, the Federal Communication Commission's (FCC) Report on Chain Broadcasting[4] reviewed the alleged monopolistic practices of the radio networks. The FCC was concerned NBC Red and NBC Blue were anti-competitive. Because the FCC did not have the power to directly regulate networks, it decided to enact regulations affecting the stations, and adopted standards intended to force NBC to relinquish one of its networks. In 1943, the Supreme Court upheld the FCC's power to enforce its chain broadcasting regulations.[5][6] As a consequence, NBC Blue was sold to Edward Noble who later named it the American Broadcasting Company (ABC).[5] After NBC Blue was divested the remaining NBC Red network was renamed the NBC Radio Network.[2]

CBS

In 1927, United Independent Broadcasters, Inc., supported by the Columbia Phonograph Record Company, started a new network of 16 stations (WOR New York, WFBL Syracuse, WMAK Buffalo-Lockport, WNAC Boston, WEAN Providence, WCAU Philadelphia, WJAS Pittsburgh, WCAO Baltimore, WADC Akron, WAIU Columbus, WKRC Cincinnati, WGHP Detroit, WOWO Fort Wayne, WMAQ Chicago, KMOX St. Louis, KOIL Council Bluffs) named the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System.

In 1928 William S. Paley assumed control of the network, which under his leadership focused on entertainment programming, news, and news affiliation. He quickly turned the failing company around, which was named Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. (CBS) in 1929. By the end of 1938 there were 113 CBS outlets. Regional networks on CBS also existed in various parts of the country.[3]

CBS later hired Edward R. Murrow who is credited with boosting ratings dramatically. Murrow and CBS covered the war in Europe while Adolf Hitler was in power. NBC and ABC withdrew from the war for safety reasons. As a result of taking the risk, CBS's ratings skyrocketed.[7]

ABC

In 1945, the NBC Blue network was sold to Edward John Noble, who later renamed it American Broadcasting Company (ABC).[5] By the mid-1940s broadcasting had become a big Three television networks battle. ABC almost went bankrupt and in 1951 Leonard Goldenson and United Paramount Theaters bought the network for $25 million. In 1964, ABC won the ratings race in the fifty largest U.S. markets. In the 1970–71 season, ABC ranked #1 in the Nielsen ratings with a medical drama called Marcus Welby, M.D.,[8] the first ABC television show to top the list.

Mutual

In 1929, a group of four radio stations in the major markets of New York City, Chicago, Cincinnati, and Detroit organized into a loose confederation known as the Quality Network. In 1934 this was reorganized as the Mutual Broadcasting System. The network was organized with the members contracting for telephone-line transmission facilities and agreeing to collectively enter into contracts with advertisers for their networked shows.

Westwood One News

Radio news network launched on January 1, 2015 and operated by Westwood One through its parent company Cumulus Media.[9]

Canadian national networks

The first network in Canada was CNR Radio starting in 1923. The first regularly scheduled coast-to-coast network program produced by CN Radio was broadcast on 27 December 1928. By 1930, the network consisted of 27 stations.

CBC

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

CTV

CTV Television Network

Global

Global Television Network

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Halbrooks, Glenn (August 6, 2016). "How a Broadcasting Network Defines the TV and Radio Business". The Balance. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Snyder, James. "National Broadcasting Company".
  3. ^ a b c d Perry, Stephen D. (2004). A Consolidated History of Media (4th edition). Bloomington, IL: Epistelogic
  4. ^ Federal Communications Commission: Report on Chain Broadcasting (May 1941).
  5. ^ a b c Rivera-Sanchez, M. (1998). Report on Chain Broadcasting. History of the Mass Media in the United States, An Encyclopedia, pg 590–591.
  6. ^ National Broadcasting Co. v. U.S., 310 U.S. 190 (1943).
  7. ^ Edwards, B. (2004). Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism. New Jersey: Navta Associates, Inc.
  8. ^ American Broadcasting Company, The Museum of Broadcast Communications.
  9. ^ Cumulus/WestwoodOne To Establish CNN Powered News Service - Radio Insight (accessed February 21, 2019)
Alsco 300 (Bristol)

The Alsco 300 is a NASCAR Xfinity Series stock car race that takes place at Bristol Motor Speedway, the first of two Bristol races on the schedule.

The first Busch Series race at Bristol was 150 laps, and was won by Phil Parsons in 1982. The race was not held in 1984. The race has increased in length several times since then. It was lengthened to 200 laps in 1985, 250 laps in 1990, and 300 laps in 2006.

In 2016, the Bristol format was changed to include two 50-lap heat races and a 200-lap feature for a total of 300 laps, as part of the Xfinity Dash 4 Cash program. In 2017 that format did not return and instead reverted to its 300-lap distance with the new stage format. Stages 1 and 2 will be 85 laps each, with stage 3 being the final 130 laps.

The race has been put on broadcast network television to heighten the popularity of the circuit; Fox's broadcasts of Bristol's Food City 500 were the first time broadcast network television covered the event; the races between 2004 and 2006 aired as Nationwide/Cup Fox doubleheaders. Beginning in 2007 the event aired on ABC as part of ESPN2's new Nationwide Series television package, as ESPN2 had committed to the NCAA Women's Basketball Tournament at the time.

BIG Star Entertainment Awards

The Big STAR Entertainment Awards are presented annually by Reliance Broadcast Network Limited in association with Star India to honour personalities from the field of entertainment across movies, music, television, sports, theatre and dance. The award is touted to be a completely viewer driven award where in audience participation right from nominations to the final winners through SMS and online voting across the categories is used for deciding the winners. The award was announced on 12 December 2010 and the first ever nominations for 2010 Awards were published online through various entertainment websites on 15 December.

Bible Broadcasting Network

The Bible Broadcasting Network (BBN) is a listener-supported global Christian radio network staffed and headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. The programming consists of 50% outside ministries, 30% music and 20% BBN-produced programs. The network was founded in 1968 by its then-president, Lowell Davey (1933–2017). Programming content includes traditional Christian music, prayer times, children's programs, Bible teaching, teen programs, and family guidance programs. The network was born out of Davey's failed offer to buy a radio station in Norfolk, Virginia. The company was incorporated and on March 28, 1969, bought bankrupt WYFI and began broadcasting on October 2, 1971, at 5 p.m.The station plays all-traditional Christian music, including vocalists, choirs, and instrumentalists. BBN's mission statement is "to get the Word of God into the hearts and minds of as many people as possible using the most efficient means." Doctrinally, the programming is conservative evangelical in approach. BBN also avoids programming geared towards "signs and wonders", "charismatic" theology, and "prosperity theology".

Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television (also known as terrestrial television), in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation.

A "cable channel" (sometimes known as a "cable network") is a television network available via cable television. When available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being mainly used in legal contexts. Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Eurosport, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, and ESPN.

The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable broadcasting for radio are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924.

Court TV

Court TV is a current digital broadcast network and former American cable television channel. It was originally launched in 1991 with a focus on crime-themed programs such as true crime documentary series, legal dramas, and coverage of prominent criminal cases. In 2008, the original cable channel became TruTV. The channel relaunched on May 8, 2019 as a digital broadcast television network that is owned by Katz Broadcasting, a subsidiary of the E. W. Scripps Company.

DVB-S

Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite (DVB-S) is the original DVB standard for Satellite Television and dates from 1995, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997. The first commercial application was by Galaxy in Australia, enabling digitally broadcast, satellite-delivered Television to the public.

It is used via satellites serving every continent of the world. DVB-S is used in both Multiple Channel Per Carrier (MCPC) and Single channel per carrier modes for Broadcast Network feeds as well as for direct-broadcast satellite services like Sky (UK & Ireland) via Astra in Europe, Dish Network and Globecast in the U.S. and Bell TV in Canada.

While the actual DVB-S standard only specifies physical link characteristics and framing, the overlaid transport stream delivered by DVB-S is mandated as MPEG-2, known as MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS).

Some amateur television repeaters also use this mode in the 1.2 GHz amateur band.

Interstate matches in Australian rules football

Australian rules football matches between teams representing Australian colonies, states and territories have been held since 1879. For most of the 20th century, the absence of a national club competition and international matches meant that football games between state representative teams were regarded with great importance. Football historian John Devaney has argued that: "some of the state of origin contests which took place during the 1980s constituted arguably the finest expositions of the game ever seen".Until 1976, interstate Australian rules football games were played by teams representing the major football leagues or organisations. From 1977 to 1999, players were generally selected under State of Origin selection rules and they were chosen mostly from the Australian Football League (AFL). Since 2000, all matches have been between teams representing the second-tier state or territorial leagues. Players from the AFL no longer take part in interstate matches.

The matches have mostly been held on a stand-alone basis. However, an Australian Football Carnival, a national championship series, held in either one or two cities, took place between 1908 and 1993, usually at three year intervals. Teams which have taken part have included Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and an Australian Amateurs team. Between 1937 and 1988 the player judged the best at each of these carnivals was awarded the Tassie Medal.

Between 1953 and 1988, the selection of All Australian Teams was based on players performance during Australian Football Carnivals, and the team was named after each carnival concluded.

KPCS (FM)

KPCS (89.7 FM) is an American radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format. Licensed to Princeton, Minnesota, the station serves the northern suburbs of Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Cloud and east-central Minnesota. KPCS is owned by Pensacola Christian College and carries the programming of the college's Rejoice Broadcast Network.

List of programs broadcast by This TV

The following is an article listing television series that are currently being broadcast or have previously aired on This TV, a digital broadcast network owned by film and television studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Chicago-based broadcast television group Tribune Broadcasting.

Although the large proportion of This TV's programming consists of movies from MGM and its film studio subsidiaries, approximately five hours of the network's weekday schedule, ten and a half hours of its Saturday schedule, and nine and a half hours of its Sunday schedule feature syndicated television series that MGM has ownership rights, the KidsClick children's programming block, and E/I compliant children's programming.

NBC Sports Radio

NBC Sports Radio is a sports radio network that debuted on September 4, 2012. The network content is produced by NBC Sports Group and distributed by Westwood One, which is the corporate successor to the remains of the original NBC Radio Network that was dissolved in the 1980s. NBC Sports Radio is available through over 300 affiliates throughout the United States as of September 2013, as well as through live streaming on NBCSportsRadio.com, NBCSports.com, WestwoodOneSports.com, and the affiliates' websites. Its launch made NBC the last major broadcast network with a sports radio network to complement its sports division. On January 1, 2019, NBC Sports Radio switched from a 24/7 full-time network feed to a service featuring sports newsfeeds and syndicated offerings.

Opinion journalism

Opinion journalism is journalism that makes no claim of objectivity. Although distinguished from advocacy journalism in several ways, both forms feature a subjective viewpoint, usually with some social or political purpose. Common examples include newspaper columns, editorials, op-eds, editorial cartoons, and punditry.Unlike advocacy journalism, opinion journalism has a reduced focus on facts or research and its perspective is often of a more personalized variety. Its product may be only one component of a generally objective news outlet, rather than the dominant feature of an entire publication or broadcast network.There are a number of journalistic genres that are opinion-based. Among them, for example, there is Gonzo journalism and New Journalism.

Rejoice Broadcast Network

Rejoice Broadcast Network, branded as "Rejoice Radio", is a network of Christian radio stations airing a format of Christian talk and teaching and Christian music. The network is owned by Pensacola Christian College.

Reliance Broadcast Network

Reliance Broadcast Network Limited is a subsidiary of the Indian Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Reliance Broadcast Network operates Big FM Radio stations and BIG Magic Television stations in India.

TeleXitos

TeleXitos is an American Spanish language digital multicast television network that is owned by the NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, a subsidiary of the NBCUniversal Filmed and Entertainment division of NBCUniversal (itself a division of Comcast). Aimed at the Hispanic and Latin American community, the network airs a mix of dramatic television series from the 1970s to the 2000s and movies, with all programming consisting of shows dubbed into Spanish.

Tri-State Christian Television

Tri-State Christian Television, doing business as TCT Network and TCT Ministries, is a network of ten religious television stations and their repeaters, mainly in the Midwest. TCT Network provides a mix of original talk show programming such as TCT Today, TCT Alive and Come On In, along with a children-oriented programming block made by the network branded as TCT Kids (used to meet E/I mandates), some Southern gospel music programming, traditional televangelism (which makes up the majority of the network's program lineup) and feature films with Christian themes; films were a recent addition to the network's lineup, only being added in the mid-2010s.

There is also an international service, TCT World, now broadcasting in over 170 nations, which covers every continent except South America. TCT World's schedule is also around-the-clock. TCT World, like their three over-the-air television feeds, can also be viewed online via their live streaming video feed on their website www.tct.tv archived videos of recent

TCT Today and TCT Alive programs are available for viewing on their website.

TCT is also available on DirecTV on channel 377, and on Sky Angel channel 133.

The network was founded in May 1977 by Garth and Tina Coonce, who are still both involved in TCT today, as well as hosts of their flagship program, which, is TCT Today.

From the mid-1980s to 2007, TCT was an affiliate of the Trinity Broadcasting Network. The network currently maintains a relationship with the Christian Broadcasting Network, airing that network's flagship program The 700 Club twice daily as well as CBN's nightly newscast.

From 2011 to 2013, TCT operated a Spanish-language subchannel which was available both on line and over the air on TCT stations called La Fuente. This subchannel was ultimately discontinued, but reactivated in August 2014 for a simulcast of the Aramaic Broadcast Network. It was discontinued no later than 2017.

In June 2018, TCT ended local operations at all of its owned-and-operated stations, consolidating all of its stations into a single national feed. The change came after the Federal Communications Commission lifted its Main Studio Rule, which had required broadcast stations to have a local studio. All local employees were laid off, and studio sites were placed up for sale. TCT stated that the change was made to free up capital to improve the network's programming, moving away from the straight televangelism-dominated lineup it had previously maintained (television remains the network's core programming) and adding more Christian films.

Trinity Broadcasting Network

The Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) is an international Christian-based broadcast television network and the world's largest religious television network. TBN was headquartered in Costa Mesa, California until March 3, 2017 when it sold its highly visible office park. The broadcaster will retain its Tustin, California facilities. Auxiliary studio facilities are located in Irving, Texas; Hendersonville, Tennessee; Gadsden, Alabama; Decatur, Georgia; Miami, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Orlando, Florida; and New York City. TBN broadcasts programs hosted by a diverse group of ministries from Evangelical, traditional Protestant and Catholic denominations, non-profit charities, Messianic Jewish and Christian media personalities. TBN also offers a wide range of original programming, and faith-based films from various distributors.TBN owns and operates six broadcast networks, each reaching separate demographics; in addition to the main TBN network, TBN owns Hillsong Channel, Smile, TBN Enlace, TBN Salsa and JUCE TV. It also owns several other religious networks outside the United States, including international versions of its five U.S. networks. Matt Crouch currently serves as TBN's president and head of operations.

Unity Broadcasting Network

The Unity Broadcasting Network is an over-the-air religious television network. The company is headquartered in Booneville, Mississippi, and individual transmitter stations are located in Mississippi and Tennessee.

Utah Education Network

The Utah Education Network (UEN) is a broadband and digital broadcast network serving public education, higher education, applied technology campuses, libraries, and public charter schools throughout the state of Utah. The Network facilitates interactive video conferencing, provides instructional support services, and operates a public television station (KUEN) on behalf of the Utah State Board of Regents. UEN services benefit more than 60,000 faculty and staff, and more than 780,000 students from pre-schoolers in Head Start programs through grandparents in graduate school. UEN headquarters are in Salt Lake City at the Eccles Broadcast Center on the University of Utah campus.

WPCS (FM)

WPCS (89.5 FM, "Rejoice Radio") is a radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format. Licensed to Pensacola, Florida, United States, the station is currently owned by, and is a ministry of, Pensacola Christian College.

WPCS is the flagship station of the Rejoice Broadcast Network, a network of 41 stations that receive, via satellite uplink, the programming of WPCS. The programming of the Rejoice Broadcast Network includes Christian talk and teaching and Christian music.

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