Broadbill

The broadbills are a clade of small passerine birds, Eurylaimidae (named after the type genus Eurylaimus). The Smithornis and Pseudocalyptomena species occur in sub-Saharan Africa; the rest extend from the eastern Himalayas to Indonesia and the Philippines. The family possibly also includes the sapayoa from the Neotropics and the asities from Madagascar, although many taxonomists now separate each of the three into distinct families.

Broadbills
Eurylaimus javanicus - Khao Yai
Banded broadbill
Eurylaimus javanicus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Eurylaimoidea
Family: Eurylaimidae
Genera

Philepitta
Neodrepanis
Smithornis
Pseudocalyptomena
Corydon
Cymbirhynchus
Eurylaimus
Sarcophanops
Psarisomus
Serilophus
Calyptomena

Description

Many of the broadbills are brightly coloured birds that present broad heads, large eyes and a hooked, flat and broad beak. They range from 13 to 28 centimetres in length, and live in the dense canopies of wet forests, allowing them to hide despite their brightly coloured plumage.[1] The plumage of the juveniles eurylaimids are similar to those of the adults, differing in being duller and shorter-winged and shorter-tailed in some cases.[2]

Behaviour and ecology

The broadbills are for the most part insectivorous and carnivorous. Prey taken include insects, spiders, centipedes, and millipedes, as well as lizards and tree frogs. Prey is obtained by sallying from a perch to snatch it in flight, and gleaning the prey off leaves and branches while flying. Some species may take some fruit, but only the green broadbills of the genus Calyptomena and the Grauer's broadbill are primarily frugivores (which also take some insects as well).

They are generally gregarious, with many species moving about in flocks of about 20 individuals. Broadbills attach their purse-shaped nests to suspended vines, and leave a tail of fibres hanging below it. This gives the nest the appearance of being random debris caught in the tree, an effect further enhanced by the birds covering the nest with lichen and spider webs.[1] Broadbills typically lay two to three eggs.

Taxonomy and systematics

The sapayoa was originally classified in the group Pipridae, according to at least one author,[3] the genus more accurately now suggests its own family, or placement here. The four species of asities, a family endemic to Madagascar, are sometimes included in the broadbills.[4] It has been suggested that the group is not monophyletic.[5]

Psarisomus dalhousiae - Kaeng Krachan
Long-tailed broadbill, Psarisomus dalhousiae.

Family Eurylaimidae

References

  1. ^ a b McClure, H. Elliott (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 158–158. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  2. ^ del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. (2003). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 8: Broadbills to Tapaculos. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-50-4.
  3. ^ Sapayoa aenigma: a New World representative of 'Old World suboscines'
  4. ^ Prum, R. 0. (1993). "Phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of the broadbills (Eurylaimidae) and asities (Philepittidae) based on morphology". Auk. 110: 304–324.
  5. ^ Olson, SL (1971). "Taxonomic comments on the Eurylaimidae" (PDF). Ibis. 113: 507–516. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1971.tb05185.x.

Further reading

External links

African broadbill

The African broadbill, also known as the Black-capped Broadbill or Delacour's broadbill (Smithornis capensis) is a species of bird in the sub-oscine family Eurylaimidae.

Banded broadbill

The banded broadbill (Eurylaimus javanicus) is a species of bird in the Eurylaimidae family.

It is found in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is a large broadbill (21.5–23 cm), with purple, yellow and black plumage. It eats predominantly insects, including grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, various beetles, caterpillars and larvae.

Black-and-red broadbill

The black-and-red broadbill (Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos) is a species of bird in the broadbill family. It is monotypic within the genus Cymbirhynchus.It is found in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Dusky broadbill

The dusky broadbill (Corydon sumatranus) is a species of bird in the family Eurylaimidae, the broadbills. It is native to Southeast Asia. It may be slowly declining due to habitat loss, especially from logging, but it has a large enough range that it is still considered to be a least-concern species.This species, like most in its family, is an insectivore.

Grauer's broadbill

The Grauer's broadbill or African green broadbill (Pseudocalyptomena graueri) is a species of bird in the Eurylaimidae family, and is monotypic within the genus Pseudocalyptomena. Its name commemorates the German zoologist Rudolf Grauer who collected natural history specimens in the Belgian Congo.

Green broadbill

The green broadbill (Calyptomena viridis) also known as the lesser green broadbill is a small bird in the broadbill family.

Grey-headed broadbill

The grey-headed broadbill (Smithornis sharpei) is a species of bird in the Eurylaimidae family.

It is found in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Guam flycatcher

The Guam flycatcher (Myiagra freycineti), or Guam broadbill, is an extinct species of bird in the family Monarchidae formerly endemic to Guam.

Long-tailed broadbill

The long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) is a species of broadbill that is found in the Himalayas, extending east through Northeastern India to Southeast Asia. It is the only bird in the genus Psarisomus. The long-tailed broadbill is about 25 cm (10 inches) in length and weighs between 50 and 60 grams. It can be identified by its shrill call.

The Long-tailed Broadbill displays a yellow plumage on the throat. Blueish-green plumage on the belly, back, and wings.

The long-tailed broadbill is a forest bird that lives on insects. It is very sociable and normally travels in large, noisy parties except during the mating season. It builds a pear-shaped nest in a tree. The female usually lays between 5 and 6 eggs that are incubated by both sexes; both sexes also help to feed the young.

The scientific name commemorates Christina Broun, Countess of Dalhousie (1786–1839), wife of George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie.

Melanesian flycatcher

The Melanesian flycatcher (Myiagra caledonica) is a species of bird in the monarch-flycatcher family Monarchidae. The species is found on islands in Melanesia.

Moluccan flycatcher

The Moluccan flycatcher or dark-grey flycatcher (Myiagra galeata) is a species of bird in the family Monarchidae.

It is endemic to Indonesia.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Oceanic flycatcher

The oceanic flycatcher (Myiagra oceanica) is a species of bird in the family Monarchidae. It is endemic to Micronesia and can be found on the Caroline Islands.

Palau flycatcher

The Palau flycatcher (Myiagra erythrops) is a species of bird in the family Monarchidae. It is endemic to Palau.

Pohnpei flycatcher

The Pohnpei flycatcher (Myiagra pluto) is a species of bird in the family Monarchidae. It is endemic to Micronesia and can be found on the Caroline Islands.

Rufous-sided broadbill

The rufous-sided broadbill (Smithornis rufolateralis) is a species of bird in the Eurylaimidae family.

It is sparsely distributed throughout the intra-tropical rainforest of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Silver-breasted broadbill

The silver-breasted broadbill (Serilophus lunatus) is a species of bird in the broadbill family, Eurylaimidae. It is monotypic (the only species) within the genus Serilophus. There are ten currently recognised subspecies, one of which, rubropygius, was formerly treated as a separate species.

It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. The species has declined somewhat due to habitat loss, but is not considered to be threatened with extinction.

USS Broadbill (AM-58)

USS Broadbill (AM-58), was an Auk-class minesweeper of the United States Navy, named after the Broadbill, a hunters' nickname for the Greater Scaup, a diving duck common in the winter along the Atlantic coast. Broadbill was launched on 21 May 1942 at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company in Bay City, Michigan, sponsored by Mrs. A. Loring Swasey, wife of Captain Swasey. She was commissioned on 13 October 1942, with Lieutenant Commander J. B. Cleland, Jr., in command.

Visayan broadbill

The Visayan broadbill (Sarcophanops samarensis) is a species of bird in the family Eurylaimidae.

It is endemic to the islands of Samar, Leyte and Bohol in the central Philippines.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Wattled broadbill

The wattled broadbill or Mindanao broadbill (Sarcophanops steerii) is a species of bird in the family Eurylaimidae.

It is endemic to the islands of Mindanao, Basilan, Dinagat and Siargao in the Philippines.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical mangrove forest, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

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