Broadband

In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair.

In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN PSTN services.

Overview

Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. Its origin is in physics, acoustics, and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband".[1][2] Later, with the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was mainly used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is also modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies (compared to a baseband signal which is bound to the lowest end of the spectrum, see line coding), it is still occupying a single channel. The key difference is that what is typically considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that occupies multiple (non-masking, orthogonal) passbands, thus allowing for much higher throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver circuitry.

The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access that was faster than dialup access, the original Internet access technology, which was limited to a maximum bandwidth of 56 kbit/s. This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning.

Broadband technologies

Telecommunications

In telecommunications, a broadband signalling method is one that handles a wide band of frequencies. "Broadband" is a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider (or broader) the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the data-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality.

In radio, for example, a very narrow band will carry Morse code, a broader band will carry speech, and a still broader band will carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. This broad band is often divided into channels or "frequency bins" using passband techniques to allow frequency-division multiplexing instead of sending a higher-quality signal.

In data communications, a 56k modem will transmit a data rate of 56 kilobits per second (kbit/s) over a 4-kilohertz-wide telephone line (narrowband or voiceband). In the late 1980s, the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) used the term to refer to a broad range of bit rates, independent of physical modulation details.[3] The various forms of digital subscriber line (DSL) services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over multiple channels. Each channel is at higher frequency than the baseband voice channel, so it can support plain old telephone service on a single pair of wires at the same time.[4] However, when that same line is converted to a non-loaded twisted-pair wire (no telephone filters), it becomes hundreds of kilohertz wide (broadband) and can carry up to 100 megabits per second using very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL or VHDSL) techniques.[5]

Computer networks

Many computer networks use a simple line code to transmit one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth using its baseband (from zero through the highest frequency needed). Most versions of the popular Ethernet family are given names such as the original 1980s 10BASE5 to indicate this. Networks that use cable modems on standard cable television infrastructure are called broadband to indicate the wide range of frequencies that can include multiple data users as well as traditional television channels on the same cable. Broadband systems usually use a different radio frequency modulated by the data signal for each band.[6]

The total bandwidth of the medium is larger than the bandwidth of any channel.[7]

The 10BROAD36 broadband variant of Ethernet was standardized by 1985, but was not commercially successful.[8][9]

The DOCSIS standard became available to consumers in the late 1990s, to provide Internet access to cable television residential customers. Matters were further confused by the fact that the 10PASS-TS standard for Ethernet ratified in 2008 used DSL technology, and both cable and DSL modems often have Ethernet connectors on them.

TV and video

A television antenna may be described as "broadband" because it is capable of receiving a wide range of channels, while a single-frequency or Lo-VHF antenna is "narrowband" since it receives only 1 to 5 channels. The U.S. federal standard FS-1037C defines "broadband" as a synonym for wideband.[10] "Broadband" in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies.[11] In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video, typically in composite form with separate baseband audio.[12] The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. Fiber optic allows the signal to be transmitted farther without being repeated. Cable companies use a hybrid system using fiber to transmit the signal to neighborhoods and then changes the signal from light to radio frequency to be transmitted over coaxial cable to homes. Doing so reduces the use of having multiple head ends. A head end gathers all the information from the local cable networks and movie channels and then feeds the information into the system.

However, "broadband video" in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bit-rates high enough to require broadband Internet access for viewing. "Broadband video" is also sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand.[13]

Alternative technologies

Power lines have also been used for various types of data communication. Although some systems for remote control are based on narrowband signaling, modern high-speed systems use broadband signaling to achieve very high data rates. One example is the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a local area network up to 1 Gigabit/s (which is considered high-speed as of 2014) using existing home business and home wiring (including power lines, but also phone lines and coaxial cables).

In 2014, researchers at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology made developments on the creation of ultra-shallow broadband optical instruments.[14]

Internet broadband

In the context of Internet access, the term "broadband" is used loosely to mean "access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access".[15][16]

A range of more precise definitions of speed have been prescribed at times, including:

  • "Greater than the primary rate" (which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s) - CCITT in "broadband service" in 1988.[17]
  • "Internet access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access"[15] —US National Broadband Plan of 2009[18]
  • 4 Mbit/s downstream, 1 Mbit/s upstream - FCC, 2010[19]
  • 25 Mbit/s downstream, 3 Mbit/s upstream - FCC, 2015[19]

Broadband Internet service in the United States was effectively treated or managed as a public utility by net neutrality rules until being overturned by the FCC in December, 2017.[20][21][22][23][24][25]

Speed Qualifiers

A number of National and International regulators categories Broadband connections by prefixing the term on the basis of upload, and download speeds, stated in Mbps:

Term Regulator(s) Min Download Mbps Min Upload Mbps Notes
Full fibre / FFTP/H[26] Ofcom 100 1
Gigabit[27] EU 1000 1
Ultrafast[28] Ofcom 300 1
Ultra-fast / Gfast[29][27] EU, UK Government 100 1
Fast[27] EU 30
Superfast[30] Ofcom 30 1
Superfast[30] UK Government 24 1
Broadband[31] FCC 25 3
Broadband[32] Ofcom 10 1

Global bandwidth concentration

GlobalBandwidthConcentration
Global bandwidth concentration: 3 countries have almost 50% between them; 10 countries almost 75%.[33]

Bandwidth has historically been very unequally distributed worldwide, with increasing concentration in the digital age. Historically only 10 countries have hosted 70–75 % of the global telecommunication capacity (see pie-chart Figure on the right).[33] In 2014, only three countries (China, US, Japan) host 50% of the globally installed telecommunication bandwidth potential. The U.S. lost its global leadership in terms of installed bandwidth in 2011, being replaced by China, which hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential in 2014 (29% versus 13% of the global total).[33]

See also

Nation specific:

References

  1. ^ Attenborough, Keith (1988). "Review of ground effects on outdoor sound propagation from continuous broadband sources". Applied Acoustics. 24 (4): 289–319. doi:10.1016/0003-682X(88)90086-2.
  2. ^ John P. Shanidin (September 9, 1949). "Antenna". US Patent 2,533,900. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Issued December 12, 1950.
  3. ^ Ender Ayanoglu; Nail Akar. "B-ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network)". Center for Pervasive Communications and Computing, UC Irvine. Archived from the original on October 16, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  4. ^ "Knowledge Base - How Broadband Words". Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  5. ^ "New ITU Standard Delivers 10x ADSL Speeds". May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  6. ^ Carl Stephen Clifton (1987). What every engineer should know about data communications. CRC Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8247-7566-7. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29. Broadband: Modulating the data signal onto an RF carrier and applying this RF signal to the carrier media
  7. ^ Clifton, Carl Stephen (1987). What every engineer should know about data communications. New York: M. Dekker. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8247-7566-7. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016. Broadband: relative term referring to a systemm which carries a wide frequency range.
  8. ^ "802.3b-1985 – Supplement to 802.3: Broadband Medium Attachment Unit and Broadband Medium Specifications, Type 10BROAD36 (Section 11)". IEEE Standards Association. 1985. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  9. ^ Paula Musich (July 20, 1987). "Broadband user share pains, gains". Network World. pp. 1, 8. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2011. Broadband networks employ frequency-division multiplexing to divide coaxial cable into separate channels, each of which serves as an individual local network.
  10. ^ "Definition: broadband". Federal Standard 1037C, Glossary of Telecommunication Terms. 1996. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
  11. ^ "HTI+ Home Technology Integration and CEDIA Installer I All-in-One Exam Guide". google.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29.
  12. ^ Baxter, Les A.; Georger, William H. (August 1, 1995). "Transmitting video over structured cabling systems". www.cablinginstall.com. AT&T Bell Laboratories. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  13. ^ Mark Sweney (2008-02-07). "BT Vision boasts 150,000 customers | Media". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2017-01-29. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
  14. ^ "Broadband and ultrathin polarization manipulators developed". Phys.org. 2014-12-04. Archived from the original on 2016-05-15. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
  15. ^ a b "What is Broadband?". The National Broadband Plan. US Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  16. ^ Hart, Jeffrey A.; Reed, Robert R.; Bar, François (November 1992). "The building of the internet". Telecommunications Policy. 16 (8): 666–689. doi:10.1016/0308-5961(92)90061-S.
  17. ^ "Recommendation I.113, Vocabulary of Terms for Broadband aspects of ISDN". ITU-T. June 1997. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  18. ^ "Inquiry Concerning the Deployment of Advanced Telecommunications Capability to All Americans in a Reasonable and Timely Fashion, and Possible Steps to Accelerate Such Deployment Pursuant to Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, as Amended by the Broadband Data Improvement Act" (PDF). GN Docket No. 10-159, FCC-10-148A1. Federal Communications Commission. August 6, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-06. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  19. ^ a b "FCC Finds U.S. Broadband Deployment Not Keeping Pace | Federal Communications Commission". Fcc.gov. 2015-02-04. Archived from the original on 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
  20. ^ Kang, Cecilia. "F.C.C. Repeals Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  21. ^ Ruiz, Rebecca R. (March 12, 2015). "F.C.C. Sets Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  22. ^ Sommer, Jeff (March 12, 2015). "What the Net Neutrality Rules Say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  23. ^ FCC Staff (March 12, 2015). "Federal Communications Commission - FCC 15-24 - In the Matter of Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet - GN Docket No. 14-28 - Report and Order on Remand, Declaratory Ruling, and Order" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 12, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  24. ^ Reisinger, Don (April 13, 2015). "Net neutrality rules get published -- let the lawsuits begin". CNET. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  25. ^ Federal Communications Commission (April 13, 2015). "Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet - A Rule by the Federal Communications Commission on 04/13/2015". Federal Register. Archived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  26. ^ "A Brief Price Comparison of UK FTTP / FTTH Ultrafast Broadband ISPs". ISP Review. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  27. ^ a b c "Broadband in the EU Member States (12/2018)". EU. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  28. ^ "UK HOME BROADBAND PERFORMANCE" (PDF). Ofcom. Ofcom. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  29. ^ "Ultrafast fibre Gfast". Openreach. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  30. ^ a b Hood, Hannah Hood. "Super fast broadband" (PDF). What Do They Know. Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  31. ^ "Faster Internet: FCC Sets New Definition for Broadband Speeds". NBC News. 2015-01-29. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  32. ^ "CONNECTED NATIONS 2017" (PDF). Ofcom. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  33. ^ a b c "The bad news is that the digital access divide is here to stay: Domestically installed bandwidths among 172 countries for 1986–2014". Escholarship.org. 2016-01-06. Archived from the original on 2016-06-04. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi. It was incorporated on 15 September 2000 and assumed the business of providing telecom services and network management from the erstwhile Central Government Departments of Telecom Services (DTS) and Telecom Operations (DTO) as of 1 October 2000 on a going-concern basis. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and broadband services with more than 60% market share, and is the fourth largest mobile telephony provider in India. BSNL is India's oldest communication service provider and its history can be traced back to the British era. During the British era, the first telegraph line, was established between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour.The British East India Company started using the telegraph in 1851 and till 1854 telegraph lines were laid across the country. In 1854, the telegraph service was opened to the public and the first telegram was sent from Mumbai to Pune. In 1885,The Indian Telegraph Act was passed by the British Imperial Legislative Counsel. After the bifurcation of post and Telegraph department in 1980s, and with the creation of Department of Telecom by 1990s, eventually led to the emergence of the State owned telegraph and telephone company BSNL. BSNL then continued the telegraph services in India until it shut down telegraph services completely in July 15, 2013.

Dial-up Internet access

Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem to encode and decode information into and from audio frequency signals, respectively.

In 1979, Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin, graduates of Duke University, created an early predecessor to dial-up Internet access called the USENET. The USENET was a UNIX based system that used a dial-up connection to transfer data through telephone modems. Dial-up Internet has been around since the 1980s via public providers such as NSFNET-linked universities and was first offered commercially in July 1992 by Sprint. Despite losing ground to broadband since the mid-2000s, dial-up is still used where other forms are not available or where the cost is too high, such as in some rural or remote areas.

Fiber to the x

Fiber to the x (FTTX) (also spelled Fibre to the x) or fiber in the loop is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications. As fiber optic cables are able to carry much more data than copper cables, especially over long distances, copper telephone networks built in the 20th century are being replaced by fiber.

FTTX is a generalization for several configurations of fiber deployment, arranged into two groups: FTTP/FTTH/FTTB (Fiber laid all the way to the premises/home/building) and FTTC/N (fiber laid to the cabinet/node, with copper wires completing the connection).

Residential areas already served by balanced pair distribution plant call for a trade-off between cost and capacity. The closer the fiber head, the higher the cost of construction and the higher the channel capacity. In places not served by metallic facilities, little cost is saved by not running fiber to the home.

Fiber to the x is the key method used to drive next-generation access (NGA), which describes a significant upgrade to the Broadband available by making a step change in speed and quality of the service. This is typically thought of as asymmetrical with a download speed of 24 Mbit/s plus and a fast upload speed. The Definition of UK Superfast Next Generation Broadband

OFCOM have defined NGA as in "Ofcom's March 2010 'Review of the wholesale local access market"

"Super-fast broadband is generally taken to mean broadband products that provide a maximum download speed that is greater than 24 Mbit/s. This threshold is commonly considered to be the maximum speed that can be supported on current generation (copper-based) networks."

A similar network called a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network is used by cable television operators but is usually not synonymous with "fiber In the loop", although similar advanced services are provided by the HFC networks. Fixed wireless and mobile wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX and 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) are an alternative for providing Internet access.

Internet access

Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers (ISPs) delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities, also provide cost-free wireless access.

Availability of Internet access was once limited, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, and consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, and by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was almost ubiquitous worldwide, and global average connection speeds exceeded one megabit per second.

Internet in the United States

The Internet in the United States grew out of the ARPANET, a network sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense during the 1960s. The Internet in the United States in turn provided the foundation for the worldwide Internet of today.

Internet connections in the United States are largely provided by the private sector and are available in a variety of forms, using a variety of technologies, at a wide range of speeds and costs. In 2017, 76% of Americans were using the Internet, which ranks the U.S. 54th in the world. The United States ranks #1 in the world with 7,000 Internet Service Providers (ISPs) according to the CIA, and 3rd for the number of Internet users (behind China and India). Internet bandwidth per Internet user was the 43rd highest in the world in 2016.Internet top-level domain names specific to the U.S. include .us, .edu, .gov, .mil, .as (American Samoa), .gu (Guam), .mp (Northern Mariana Islands), .pr (Puerto Rico), and .vi (U.S. Virgin Islands). Many U.S.-based organizations and individuals also use generic top-level domains, such as .com, .net, .org, .name, etc.

Internet service provider

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.

Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.

Jio

Not to be confused with Reliance Communications

Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited, d/b/a Jio, is an Indian mobile network operator. Owned by Reliance Industries and headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, it operates a national LTE network with coverage across all 22 telecom circles. Jio does not offer 2G or 3G service, and instead uses voice over LTE to provide voice service on its network.Jio soft launched on 27 December 2015 (the eve of what would have been the 83rd birthday of Reliance Industries founder Dhirubhai Ambani), with a beta for partners and employees, and became publicly available on 5 September 2016. As of 28 February 2019, it is the third largest mobile network operator in India and the eighth largest mobile network operator in the world with over 297.23 million subscribers.On 5 July 2018, fixed line broadband service named Gigafiber, was launched by the Reliance Industries Limited's chairman Mukesh Ambani, during the company's Annual General Meeting.

List of countries by number of Internet users

Below is a sort-able list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2017. Internet users are defined as persons who accessed the Internet in the last 12 months from any device, including mobile phones. The percentages on the list are the percentages of each country's population that are Internet users. Estimates are derived from either household surveys or from Internet subscription data.All United Nations member states are listed. A disputed territory, Taiwan, is listed as a sovereign country.

Mobile broadband

Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access through a portable modem, USB wireless modem, or a tablet/smartphone or other mobile device. The first wireless Internet access became available in 1991 as part of the second generation (2G) of mobile phone technology. Higher speeds became available in 2001 and 2006 as part of the third (3G) and fourth (4G) generations. In 2011, 90% of the world's population lived in areas with 2G coverage, while 45% lived in areas with 2G and 3G coverage. Mobile broadband uses the spectrum of 225 MHz to 3700 MHz.

NTCA - The Rural Broadband Association

NTCA - The Rural Broadband Association (NTCA) is a membership association whose mission is to advance communications services to rural America. The association represents nearly 850 independent, community-based telecommunications companies in rural and small-town America. NTCA members serve customers in 44 different states. NTCA advocates on behalf of its members in the legislative and regulatory arenas; provides training and development; publications and industry events; and employee benefit programs for its members.

Net neutrality

Network neutrality, or more simply net neutrality, is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) should treat all Internet communications equally and not discriminate or charge differently based on user, content, website, platform, application, type of equipment, or method of communication.When net neutrality is required, ISPs may not intentionally block, slow down, or charge money for specific online content. Without net neutrality regulations, ISPs may prioritize certain types of traffic, meter others, or potentially block traffic from specific services, while charging consumers for various tiers of service.

The term was coined by Columbia University media law professor Tim Wu in 2003, as an extension of the longstanding concept of a common carrier, which was used to describe the role of telephone systems. Net neutrality regulations may be referred to as "common carrier" regulations. Net neutrality does not block all abilities that Internet service providers have to impact their customers' services. Opt-in/opt-out services exist on the end user side, and filtering can be done on a local basis, as in the filtration of sensitive material for minors.Research suggests that a combination of policy instruments will help realize the range of valued political and economic objectives central to the network neutrality debate. Combined with strong public opinion, this has led some governments to regulate broadband Internet services as a public utility, similar to the way electricity, gas, and the water supply are regulated, along with limiting providers and regulating the options those providers can offer.Proponents of net neutrality, which include computer science experts, consumer advocates, human rights organizations, and Internet content providers claim that net neutrality helps to provide freedom of information exchange, promotes competition and innovation for Internet services, and upholds standardization of Internet data transmission which was essential for its growth. Opponents of net neutrality, which include computer science experts, internet entrepreneurs, ISPs, and telecom equipment manufacturers, assert that net neutrality requirements would reduce their incentive to build out the Internet, reduces competition in the marketplace, and may raise their operating costs which they would have to pass along to their users.

Net neutrality is administrated on a national or regional basis, though much of the world's focus has been on the conflict over net neutrality in the United States. Net neutrality in the United States has been a topic since the early 1990s, as they were one of the world leaders in online service providing. However, they face the same problems as the rest of the world. Finding an appropriate solution to creating more regulation for Internet Service Providers has been a major work in progress.

Now TV (Sky)

Now TV (stylised as NOW TV) is a division of pan-European telecommunications company Sky Limited with operations in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Italy. It offers a subscription-based internet television and video-on-demand service. In the United Kingdom, Now TV also provides contract-free broadband internet, and landline telephone services. The majority of services available by Now TV are designed to cater for consumers who do not want to be tied to a contract. An almost identical service known as Sky Ticket (formerly known as Sky Online) operates in Germany and Austria.

Now TV was first announced in the UK in February 2012 as an internet television service, and launched on 17 July 2012 originally offering a Sky Cinema subscription; from March 2013 offering a Sky Sports television channels subscription; from October 2013 offering an entertainment television channels subscription; from June 2016 offering a children's television channels subscription. On 24 June 2016 the Now TV internet television service was launched in Italy. On 29 June 2016, Now Broadband was launched in the UK. On 26 April 2017 the Now TV internet television service was launched in Ireland. From July 2018 Now TV started offering a Hayu video on demand subscription. Now Broadband is not currently available in the Republic of Ireland or Italy with no future plans announced.

Plusnet

Plusnet plc is a British quad play internet service provider (ISP); providing broadband, landline, IPTV and Mobile services. The company was founded in 1997 in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, and became a public limited company (plc) in July 2004 when it was floated on the Alternative Investment Market. On 30 January 2007, Plusnet was acquired by BT Group, but it continues to operate as a separate business. By December 2013, it had over 750,000 customers across the UK.Plusnet also operates a number of additional businesses: the Metronet, Plusnet Hosting (formerly Pay As You Host), Just The Name and John Lewis Broadband in partnership with John Lewis.

Power-line communication

Power-line communication (PLC) carries data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for AC electric power transmission or electric power distribution to consumers. It is also known as power-line carrier, power-line digital subscriber line (PDSL), mains communication, power-line telecommunications, or power-line networking (PLN).

A wide range of power-line communication technologies are needed for different applications, ranging from home automation to Internet access which is often called broadband over power lines (BPL). Most PLC technologies limit themselves to one type of wires (such as premises wiring within a single building), but some can cross between two levels (for example, both the distribution network and premises wiring). Typically transformers prevent propagating the signal, which requires multiple technologies to form very large networks. Various data rates and frequencies are used in different situations.

A number of difficult technical problems are common between wireless and power-line communication, notably those of spread spectrum radio signals operating in a crowded environment. Radio interference, for example, has long been a concern of amateur radio groups.

Sky Broadband

Sky Broadband is broadband service offered by Sky UK in the United Kingdom. With the introduction of Sky Fibre, Sky Broadband now refers to ADSL broadband products.

TalkTalk Group

TalkTalk Telecom Group plc (commonly known as TalkTalk Group, trading as TalkTalk) is a company which provides pay television, telecommunications, Internet access, and mobile network services to businesses and consumers in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 2003 as a subsidiary of Carphone Warehouse and was demerged as a standalone company in March 2010. Its headquarters are in London.Originally just a provider of fixed line telephony services to consumers, TalkTalk now offers fixed and mobile telephony and broadband services to consumers under the TalkTalk brand, and telephony and broadband services to business customers under the TalkTalk Business brand. Like some other UK broadband providers, TalkTalk has invested in its own exchange infrastructure, known as local-loop-unbundling (LLU), with 92% of its customer base unbundled as of December 2012. Since August 2012, TalkTalk has become the UK's second quadruple play service after Virgin Media, offering TV, broadband, phone, and mobile services. It no longer offers mobile contracts, (end of 2018) referring existing users to register with EE.

TalkTalk is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

The company has been rated multiple times among the worst landline and broadband providers.

Verizon Fios

Verizon Fios, also marketed as Fios by Verizon, is a bundled Internet access, telephone, and television service that operates over a fiber-optic communications network with over 5 million customers in nine U.S. states. The name, Fios, is an acronym for Fiber Optic Service. Service is offered in some areas of the United States by Verizon Communications, while Frontier Communications operates licensed FiOS services in former Verizon territories across six states, using a nearly identical network infrastructure. Fios service began in 2005, and networked areas expanded through 2010, although some areas do not have service or cannot receive TV and phone service because of franchise agreements.Verizon was one of the first major U.S. carriers to offer fiber to the home, and received positive ratings from Consumer Reports among cable television and Internet service providers.

Virgin Media

Virgin Media Limited is a British company which provides telephone, television and internet services in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are in Hook, Hampshire. Since 2013, Virgin Media has been a subsidiary of Liberty Global plc, an international television and telecommunications company. The company was previously listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market and London Stock Exchange. Virgin Media is not a sister company of Virgin Mobile USA, which is owned by Sprint Corporation.The company was founded in March 2006 by the merger of NTL and Telewest, which created NTL:Telewest. In July 2006, the company purchased Virgin Mobile UK, creating the first "quadruple-play" media company in the United Kingdom, offering television, internet, mobile phone and fixed-line telephone services. In November 2006, the company signed a deal with Sir Richard Branson to licence the Virgin brand for the combined business. All of the company's consumer services were rebranded under the Virgin Media name in February 2007.Virgin Media owns and operates its own fibre-optic cable network in the United Kingdom, although currently their optical fibre network does not reach the customer premises, rather they connect to a street cabinet (called Fibre to the Cabinet or FTTC). As of 31 December 2012, it had a total of approximately 4.8 million cable customers, of whom around 3.79 million were supplied with its television services (Virgin TV), around 4.2 million with broadband internet services and around 4.1 million with fixed-line telephony services. At the same date, it had around 3 million mobile telephony customers. Virgin Media competes primarily in broadband with Sky, BT Group and TalkTalk, and in mobile with EE, O2, Vodafone and Three.

Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), also called IP telephony, is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. The terms Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service specifically refer to the provisioning of communications services (voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the public Internet, rather than via the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

The steps and principles involved in originating VoIP telephone calls are similar to traditional digital telephony and involve signaling, channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signals, and encoding. Instead of being transmitted over a circuit-switched network, the digital information is packetized, and transmission occurs as IP packets over a packet-switched network. They transport media streams using special media delivery protocols that encode audio and video with audio codecs, and video codecs. Various codecs exist that optimize the media stream based on application requirements and network bandwidth; some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high-fidelity stereo codecs. Some popular codecs include μ-law and A-law versions of G.711, G.722, an open source voice codec known as iLBC, a codec that uses only 8 kbit/s each way called G.729, and many others.

Early providers of voice-over-IP services offered business models and technical solutions that mirrored the architecture of the legacy telephone network. Second-generation providers, such as Skype, built closed networks for private user bases, offering the benefit of free calls and convenience while potentially charging for access to other communication networks, such as the PSTN. This limited the freedom of users to mix-and-match third-party hardware and software. Third-generation providers, such as Google Talk, adopted the concept of federated VoIP—which is a departure from the architecture of the legacy networks. These solutions typically allow dynamic interconnection between users on any two domains on the Internet when a user wishes to place a call.

In addition to VoIP phones, VoIP is also available on many personal computers and other Internet access devices. Calls and SMS text messages may be sent over mobile data or Wi-Fi. VoIP allows modern communications technologies (including telephones, smartphones, voice and video conferencing, email, and presence detection) to be consolidated using a single unified communications system.

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