The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (/ˈbroʊd/), often referred to as the Broad Institute, is a biomedical and genomic research center located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. The institute is independently governed and supported as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit research organization under the name Broad Institute Inc., and is partners with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, and the five Harvard teaching hospitals.
|Research type||Basic (non-clinical) and translational research|
Field of research
|Genomics, Bioinformatics, Biomedicine|
|Affiliations||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Boston Children's Hospital
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Dana–Farber Cancer Institute
Massachusetts General Hospital
The Broad Institute evolved from a decade of research collaborations among MIT and Harvard scientists. One cornerstone was the Center for Genome Research of Whitehead Institute at MIT. Founded in 1982, the Whitehead became a major center for genomics and the Human Genome Project. As early as 1995, scientists at the Whitehead started pilot projects in genomic medicine, forming an unofficial collaborative network among young scientists interested in genomic approaches to cancer and human genetics. Another cornerstone was the Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology established by Harvard Medical School in 1998 to pursue chemical genetics as an academic discipline. Its screening facility was one of the first high-throughput resources opened in an academic setting. It facilitated small molecule screening projects for more than 80 research groups worldwide.
To create a new organization that was open, collaborative, cross-disciplinary and able to organize projects at any scale, planning took place in 2002–2003 among philanthropists Eli and Edythe Broad, MIT, the Whitehead Institute, Harvard and the Harvard-affiliated hospitals (in particular, the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Massachusetts General Hospital).
The Broads made a founding gift of $100 million and the Broad Institute was formally launched in May 2004. In November 2005, the Broads announced an additional $100 million gift to the Institute. On September 4, 2008, the Broads announced an endowment of $400 million to make the Broad Institute a permanent establishment. In November 2013, they invested an additional $100 million to fund a second decade of research at the institute.
The Broad Institute is made up of three types of organizational units: core member laboratories, research programs, and platforms. The institute's scientific research programs include:
The Broad Institute's platforms are teams of professional scientists who focus on the discovery, development, and optimization of the technological tools that Broad and other researchers use to conduct research. The platforms include:
The Broad Institute also supports the Data Visualization Initiative led by the Institute creative director Bang Wong, which is aimed at developing data visualizations to explore and communicate research findings.
The faculty and staff of the Broad Institute include physicians, geneticists, and molecular, chemical, and computational biologists. The faculty currently includes 11 Core Members, whose labs are primarily located within the Broad Institute, and 195 Associate Members, whose primary labs are located at one of the universities or hospitals.
The Core Members of the Broad Institute include:
The Broad Institute's facilities at 320 Charles Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, house one of the largest genome sequencing centers in the world. As WICGR (Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research), this facility was the largest contributor of sequence information to the Human Genome Project.
In February 2006, The Broad Institute expanded to a new building at 415 Main Street, adjacent to the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. This seven-story 231,000-square-foot (21,500 m2) building contains office, research laboratory, retail and museum space. In 2011, the institute announced plans to construct an additional tower adjacent to the 415 Main Street site at 75 Ames Street. On May 21, 2014, the Broad officially inaugurated a 375,000-square-foot research building at 75 Ames Street in Cambridge’s Kendall Square. The new facility has 15 floors, 11 of which are occupied, and has LEED gold certification. As of July 2014, it has around 800 occupants.
Between 2009 and 2012, the operating revenue of the institute was approximately $200 million, with 55% of that coming from federal grants. The Broad Foundation (Eli and Edythe Broad) has provided $700 million in funding to the Broad Institute as of February 2014.
The Klarman Family Foundation provided a $32.5 million grant to Broad to study cellular processes in 2012. In October 2013, Fundación Carlos Slim (the Carlos Slim Foundation) of Mexico announced a $74 million grant to Broad Institute for the SIGMA2 consortium.
In July 2014, coinciding with the publication of a new study on the genetics of schizophrenia, the Broad Institute received a $650 million gift from the Stanley Family Foundation, one of the largest private gifts ever for scientific research.
On October 10, 2017, it was reported that Deerfield Management Co. was giving $50 million to the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard to support biology research.
Since 2010, the Broad Institute has been listed on the Boston Globe's Top Places to Work. The 2014 report from Thomson Reuters' ScienceWatch entitled "The World's Most Influential Scientific Minds" recognized that 12 out of the 17 "hottest" researchers in science belonged to genomics, and 4 out of the top 5 were affiliated with the Broad Institute. Additionally, Stacey B. Gabriel of the Broad Institute topped this entire list. Twenty-eight researchers from Broad Institute have been recognized on ISI's Highly Cited, a database that recognizes the top 250 researchers in multiple areas of science.
Eric S. Lander, Stuart L. Schreiber and Edward M. Scolnick are members of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. David Altshuler is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Feng Zhang received the 2014 Alan T. Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation, its highest honor that annually recognizes an outstanding researcher under the age of 35, for contributions to both optogenetics and CRISPR technology.
In biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology areas, the institute was ranked #1 in the "Mapping Excellence" report, a survey that assessed high-impact publications.
For its architecture, Broad's 415 Main Street building architects Elkus Manfredi Architects of Boston and AHSC McLellan Copenhagen of San Francisco received high honors in the 2007 Laboratory of the Year competition of the R&D Magazine.
Aedes is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents except Antarctica. Some species have been spread by human activity. Aedes albopictus, a most invasive species, was recently spread to the New World, including the United States, by the used-tire trade. First described and named by German entomologist Johann Wilhelm Meigen in 1818, the generic name comes from the Ancient Greek ἀηδής, aēdēs, meaning "unpleasant" or "odious". The type species for Aedes is Aedes cinereus. Some species of this genus transmit serious diseases, including dengue fever, yellow fever, the Zika virus, and chikungunya. In Polynesia, the species Aedes polynesiensis is responsible for the transmission of human lymphatic filariasis.
Aedes can be detected and monitored by ovitraps.
The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) genome was sequenced by the Broad Institute and The Institute for Genomic Research. The initial assembly was released in August 2005; a draft sequence of the genome and preliminary analysis was published in June 2007. The annotated genome is available at VectorBase.Arthur D. Levinson
Arthur D. Levinson (born March 31, 1950) is an American businessman and is the current Chairman of Apple Inc. (2011 to present) and CEO of Calico (an Alphabet Inc. venture). He is the former chief executive officer (1995 to 2009) and chairman (1999 to 2014) of Genentech.
In addition to serving on the board of Apple Inc. (2000–present), Levinson serves on the board of directors of the Broad Institute (affiliated with MIT and Harvard). Previously, Levinson had served on the board of directors at F. Hoffmann-La Roche (2010-2014), NGM Biopharmaceuticals (2009-2014), and Amyris Biotechnologies (2009-2014). He currently serves on the Board of Scientific Consultants of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Industrial Advisory Board of the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), the Advisory Council for the Princeton University Department of Molecular Biology and the Advisory Council for the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics.Aspergillus
Aspergillus () is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by the Italian priest and biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler), from Latin spargere (to sprinkle), and named the genus accordingly. Aspergillum is an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergillus species; around one-third of species are also known to have a sexual stage.Aviv Regev
Aviv Regev is a computational biologist at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and a Professor in the department of biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.Bang Wong
Bang Wong is the creative director of the Broad Institute at MIT and Harvard University. He is considered "one of the leading innovators at the interface of art and medicine" by Nature Medicine, and is a National Academy of Sciences Kavli Fellow and board member of the Association of Medical Illustrators. He holds a master of science in immunology and a master of arts in medical and biological illustration from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, where he also serves as an adjunct assistant professor. In 2010, he launched a monthly column in Nature Methods about the visual presentation of scientific data which ran until 2013.Calico (company)
Calico LLC is an American research and development biotech company founded on September 18, 2013 by Bill Maris and backed by Google with the goal of combating aging and associated diseases. In Google's 2013 Founders' Letter, Larry Page described Calico as a company focused on "health, well-being, and longevity". The company's name is an acronym for "California Life Company".In 2015, Google restructured into Alphabet Inc., making Calico a subsidiary of the new company along with Google and others. As of 2018, Calico has not developed any known drugs or biotechnology products.David Altshuler
David Matthew Altshuler is a clinical endocrinologist and human geneticist. He is Executive Vice President, Global Research and Chief Scientific Officer at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. Prior to joining Vertex in 2014, he was at the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, and was a Professor of Genetics and Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and in the Department of Biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was also a faculty member in the Department of Molecular Biology, Center for Human Genetic Research, and the Diabetes Unit, all at Massachusetts General Hospital. He was one of four Founding Core Members of the Broad Institute, and served as the Institute's Deputy Director, Chief Academic Officer, and Director of the Program in Medical and Population Genetics.Edward Scolnick
Edward Scolnick is a core investigator at the Broad Institute, the former founding director of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute, and former head of research and development at Merck Research Laboratories.Eric Lander
Eric Steven Lander (born February 3, 1957), a mathematician and geneticist, is a Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), former member of the Whitehead Institute, and founding director of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. He was co-chair of U.S. President Barack Obama's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.Horse genome
The horse genome was first sequenced in 2006. The Horse Genome Project mapped 2.7 billion DNA base pairs, and released the full map in 2009. The horse genome is larger than the dog genome, but smaller than the human genome or the bovine genome. It encompasses 31 autosomes and two sex chromosomes.As horses share over 90 hereditary diseases similar to those found in humans, the sequencing of the horse genome has potential applications to both equine and human health. Further, nearly half of the chromosomes in the horse genome show conserved synteny with a human chromosome, far more than between dogs and humans. This is a high degree of conserved synteny and may help researchers use insights from one species to illuminate the other. Mapping the horse genome may also assist in the development of expression arrays to improve treatment of equine lameness, lung disease, reproduction, and immunology. Research also has provided new insights to the development of centromeres.The $15 million project was funded by National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Additional funding came from the Dorothy Russell Havemeyer Foundation, the Volkswagen Foundation, the Morris Animal Foundation and the Programmi di Ricerca Scientifica di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale.Researchers on the project included Kerstin Lindblad-Toh at the Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Ottmar Distl and Tosso Leeb from the University of Veterinary Medicine, in Hanover, Germany and Helmut Blöcker from the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig, Germany, and Doug Antczak of Cornell University.The first horse to have its genome fully sequenced, in 2006-2007, was a Thoroughbred mare named Twilight, donated by Cornell University. Other breeds used to contribute to the initial map of horse genetic variation included the Akhal-Teke, Andalusian, Arabian, Icelandic, American Quarter Horse, Standardbred, Belgian, Hanoverian, Hokkaido and Fjord horse. This allowed creation of a catalogue of one million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to compare genetic variation within and between different breeds.
In 2012, a second horse was fully sequenced at Texas A&M University, an 18-year-old Quarter Horse mare named Sugar. Sugar's genome, sequenced with newer techniques, had 3 million genetic variants from Twilight's, notably in genes governing sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity. Researchers are in the process of sequencing the genome of seven additional horses. One stated goal of additional sequencing is to better understand the genetic basis of disease and of particular traits distinguishing individual horses and breeds in order to better predict and manage health care of horses.One result to date of the mapping of the horse genome was locating the mutation that creates the Leopard complex (Lp) spotting pattern seen in breeds such as the Appaloosa. Horses homozygous for the Lp gene are also at risk for congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). Studies in 2008 and 2010 indicated that both CSNB and leopard complex spotting patterns are linked to TRPM1. As this disorder also afflicts humans, a researcher and lead author from the Broad Institute stated, "This demonstrates the utility of the horse for disease gene mapping."In 2012, researchers at the University of Copenhagen used NEXTGEN sequencing to sequence four modern domesticated horses of different breeds, a Przewalski's horse, and a donkey, comparing these to DNA from three fossil horses dated between 13,000 and 50,000 years ago. As the horse was only domesticated about 4000-3500BCE, this research was stated to "identify the starting point for horse selection and the raw genetic material our ancestors had available."Jennifer Doudna
Jennifer Anne Doudna (born February 19, 1964) is an American biochemist. She is a Li Ka Shing Chancellor Chair Professor in the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Doudna has been an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) since 1997, and since 2018 holds the position of senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes as well as that of professor at the University of California, San Francisco.Doudna has been a leading figure in what is referred to as the "CRISPR revolution" for her fundamental work and leadership in developing CRISPR-mediated genome editing. In 2012, Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier were the first to propose that CRISPR/Cas9 (enzymes from bacteria that control microbial immunity) could be used for programmable editing of genomes, which is now considered one of the most significant discoveries in the history of biology.Doudna has made fundamental contributions in biochemistry and genetics and received many prestigious awards and fellowships including the 2000 Alan T. Waterman Award for her research on the structure as determined by X-ray crystallography of a ribozyme, and the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology (with Charpentier). She has been a co-recipient of the Gruber Prize in Genetics (2015), the Canada Gairdner International Award (2016) and the Japan Prize (2017). Outside the scientific community, she has been named one of the Time 100 most influential people in 2015 (with Charpentier) and was listed as a runner-up for Time Person of the Year in 2016 alongside other CRISPR researchers.Jill P. Mesirov
Jill P. Mesirov is an American mathematician, computer scientist, and computational biologist who was the associate director and chief informatics officer at the Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. She also holds an adjunct faculty position at Boston University.List of open-source bioinformatics software
This is a list of computer software which is made for bioinformatics and released under open-source software licenses with articles in Wikipedia.National Institutes of Health Director's Pioneer Award
National Institutes of Health Director's Pioneer Award is a research initiative first announced in 2004 designed to support individual scientists' biomedical research. The focus is specifically on "pioneering" research that is highly innovative and has a potential to produce paradigm shifting results.
The awards, made annually from the National Institutes of Health common fund, are each worth $500,000 per year, or $2,500,000 for five years.Pardis Sabeti
Pardis C. Sabeti (Persian: پردیس ثابتی) (born December 25, 1975 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian-American computational biologist, medical geneticist and evolutionary geneticist, who developed a bioinformatic statistical method which identifies sections of the genome that have been subject to natural selection and an algorithm which explains the effects of genetics on the evolution of disease.In 2014, Sabeti was part of a team headed by Dr Christian Happi, a Cameroonian geneticist, which used advanced genomic sequencing technology to identify a single point of infection from an animal reservoir to a human in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. RNA changes suggests that the first human infection was followed by exclusive human to human transmissions. The work led her to be named one of TIME Magazine's Persons of the Year in 2014 (Ebola Fighters), and one of its TIME 100 most influential people in 2015.Sabeti is a full professor in the Center for Systems Biology and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University and on the faculty of the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and is an institute member at the Broad Institute and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. She is the head of the Sabeti Lab.Sabeti is the lead singer and a writer for the rock band Thousand Days. and is also the current host of the educational series "Against All Odds: Inside Statistics" sponsored by Annenberg Learner. Her show is included in many high school statistics curriculums, such as the TJHSST Freshman Research Statistics 1 course.Robert Weinberg
Robert Allan Weinberg (born November 11, 1942) is a biologist, Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), director of the Ludwig Center of the MIT, and American Cancer Society Research Professor. His research is in the area of oncogenes and the genetic basis of human cancer.Robert Weinberg is also affiliated with the Broad Institute and is a founding member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. He teaches at MIT including course 7.012 (introductory biology) with Eric Lander. Weinberg and Lander are among the co-founders of Verastem, which is a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing drugs to treat cancer by targeting cancer stem cells.Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute
The Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard is a multi-disciplinary biomedical research program located in Cambridge, Massachusetts that studies the biological basis of psychiatric disease.
The center was founded in 2007 with funding from philanthropists Ted and Vada Stanley.Steven Hyman
Steven E. Hyman is Director of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research and a member at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. He is also Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology. Hyman was Provost of Harvard University from 2001 to 2011. As Provost, he was instrumental in the development of cross school and regional interdisciplinary initiatives, especially in the sciences. In 2009 he initiated an extensive process of reform of the Harvard libraries, and he paved the way for the creation of an open access mandate at Harvard.Stuart Schreiber
Stuart L. Schreiber (born 6 February 1956) is a scientist at Harvard University and co-Founder of the Broad Institute. He has been active in chemical biology, especially the use of small molecules as probes of biology and medicine. Small molecules are the molecules of life most associated with dynamic information flow; these work in concert with the macromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) that are the basis for inherited information flow.