Britten-Norman Trislander

The Britten-Norman Trislander (more formally designated the BN-2A Mk III Trislander) is an 18-seat three-engined piston-powered civilian utility aircraft produced in the 1970s and early 1980s by Britten-Norman of Britain. These STOL capable aircraft were produced on the Isle of Wight. They were also produced in Romania, and delivered via Belgium to Britain for their certification.[1] A number of commuter airlines operated the Trislander in scheduled passenger services.

Trislander
G-JOEY
BN-2A Mk III-2
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Britten-Norman
First flight 11 September 1970
Status Out of production, in service
Primary user Vieques Air Link,

Roraima Airways

Produced 1970–1980
Number built 72
Developed from Britten-Norman Islander

Design and development

Designed by John Britten and Desmond Norman, the Trislander is a further development of Britten-Norman's better-known Islander aircraft in order to give it a larger carrying capacity. In comparison with the Islander, the Trislander has a stretched fuselage, strengthened, fixed tricycle landing gear and a third engine on the fuselage centre line atop the fin. The Trislander has exceptional low speed handling characteristics, extended endurance, increased payload, low noise signature and economical operating costs. Capable of taking off from a 492 yard long landing strip, the Trislander can readily operate from unprepared surfaces.

Operational history

The prototype of the Trislander, which was constructed from the original second Islander prototype, first flew on 11 September 1970.[2] The type entered service with the Guernsey-based Aurigny in July 1971.[3] Initial production ceased in 1982 after 73 had been sold and delivered, with a further seven Trislanders unsold, when Pilatus Britten Norman sold a manufacturing license to the International Aviation Corporation (IAC) of Florida. It was planned for IAC to build 12 Trislanders (to be known as Tri-Commutairs) from parts kits supplied by Britten-Norman before undertaking full production,[4] but these plans came to nothing.[5]

Variants

BN-2A Mk III-1
First production version, with short nose.
BN-2A Mk III-2
Lengthened nose and higher operating weight.
BN-2A Mk III-3
Variant certified for operation in the United States.
BN-2A Mk III-4
III-2 fitted with 350 lb rocket-assisted takeoff equipment.
BN-2A Mk III-5
III-2 with sound-proofed cabin, modernised cockpit/interior and new engines (proposed, unbuilt as yet).
Trislander M 
Proposed military version, not built.
TrislanderImage-comp
A Trislander aircraft at Guernsey Airport, on the Isle of Guernsey, in the Channel Islands, operated by Aurigny.
G-RBCI
G-RBCI operated By Aurigny parked at Guernsey Airport
G-rhop-esh
A Trislander, operated by Blue Islands Airline, departing Shoreham Airport, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England.

Current operators

 Anguilla
  • Anguilla Air Services[6]
 Guyana
 Puerto Rico

Former operators

 Antigua and Barbuda
 Australia
 Bahamas
  • Lucaya Air
 Canada
  • Burrard Air Ltd.
  • Questor Surveys Ltd.
 Colombia
  • Tavina
 Costa Rica
  • Travel Air
 Botswana
 Cayman Islands
 Fiji
 Guernsey
 Isle of Man
 Jamaica
 Jersey
 Liberia
 New Zealand
 Sierra Leone
 Republic of China
 Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Turks & Caicos Airways
 United Kingdom
 United States
 Vanuatu
 Venezuela

Accidents and incidents

On 15 December 2008, a Trislander operated by LAP in Puerto Rico, the first crash since 2005. The aircraft crashed into the sea somewhere near the Turks and Caicos, shortly after the distress call. A spokesman for the Asociación Nacional de Pilotos reported that the pilot had his licence suspended in October 2006.[19]

On 5 July 2009 in New Zealand, a Trislander belonging to Great Barrier Airlines lost its starboard side prop six minutes into a flight from Great Barrier Island to Auckland city. The prop sheared off and impacted the fuselage, prompting a successful emergency landing. While there were injuries, no deaths were reported. The accident was caused by undetected corrosion of the propeller flange which led to its eventual failure.[20]

Specifications (BN-2A Mk III-2)

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77[21]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 or 2
  • Capacity: 16 or 17 passengers
  • Length: 49 ft 3 in (15.01 m)
  • Wingspan: 53 ft 0 in (16.15 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 2 in (4.32 m)
  • Wing area: 337.0 sq ft (31.31 m2)
  • Aspect ratio: 7.95:1
  • Airfoil: NACA 23012
  • Empty weight: 5,842 lb (2,650 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 10,000 lb (4,536 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 154 imp gal (185 US gal; 700 L)
  • Powerplant: 3 × Lycoming O-540-E4C5 air-cooled flat-six piston engines, 260 hp (190 kW) each
  • Propellers: 2-bladed Hartzell HC-C2YK-2G/C8477-4 constant speed propellers

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 180 mph (290 km/h; 156 kn) at sea level
  • Cruise speed: 155 mph (249 km/h; 135 kn) (59% power) at 13,000 ft (4,000 m)
  • Range: 1,000 mi (869 nmi; 1,609 km)
  • Service ceiling: 13,160 ft (4,010 m)
  • Rate of climb: 980 ft/min (5.0 m/s)
  • Take off run to 50 ft (15 m): 1,950 feet (590 m)
  • Landing run from 50 ft (15 m): 1,445 ft (440 m)

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References

Notes
  1. ^ Historians, BN. "Home – BN Historians Website 2014".
  2. ^ Taylor 1976, p. 176.
  3. ^ a b Cunliffe Air International October 2015, p. 123.
  4. ^ Taylor 1982, pp. 268, 392.
  5. ^ Trevett, John. "Commuter Aircraft Directory: International Aviation Corp (USA)". Flight International, 11 May 1985, p. 47.
  6. ^ https://www.ch-aviation.com/portal/news/78194-anguilla-air-services-adds-maiden-trislander
  7. ^ "Roraima unveils Britten Norman Trislander". 26 April 2016.
  8. ^ "FAA REGISTRY Make / Model Inquiry Results". registry.faa.gov. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  9. ^ "FAA REGISTRY Make / Model Inquiry Results". registry.faa.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  10. ^ "The Official Web site of Liat The Caribbean Airline – Liat Airline".
  11. ^ "aurigny.com – channel islands".
  12. ^ "Aurigny Trislander takes final commercial flight".
  13. ^ "Trislander for Solent Sky". Aeroplane. Vol. 45 no. 5. May 2017. p. 10. ISSN 0143-7240.
  14. ^ https://www.iwm.org.uk/visits/iwm-duxford
  15. ^ "Aircraft fleet, Blue Islands aircraft fleet, Blue Islands ATR aircraft - Blue Islands". www.blueislands.com.
  16. ^ "Barrier Air. Fleet".
  17. ^ "Our fleet".
  18. ^ "Loganair :: Aircraft – Loganair". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  19. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network, Flight Safety Foundation, 16 December 2008. Retrieved: 28 February 2009.
  20. ^ "Investigation 09-004 Report 09-004, Britten Norman BN2A-Mk III Trislander, ZK-LOU loss of engine propeller assembly, near Claris, Great Barrier Island, 5 July 2009." Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine New Zealand Transport Accident Investigation Commission (TAIC) via taic.org. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
  21. ^ Taylor 1976 pp. 176–177.
Bibliography

External links

APPH

APPH designs and manufactures hydraulic systems, filtration, and landing gear for civil and military aircraft.

Air Ecosse

Air Ecosse was a Scottish commuter airline based in Aberdeen operating in the late 1970s to mid-1980s. They flew between Aberdeen and cities in northern England, such as Liverpool and Carlisle as well as to Edinburgh and Glasgow. They also carried out mail flights for the Royal Mail. The company’s first scheduled flight was in June 1977, between Aberdeen and Wick. By 1985 the company had 165 employees.Air Ecosse was a subsidiary of Fairflight Charters based at Biggin Hill. In November 1988 it was taken over by Peregrine Air Services Limited. The new company became Aberdeen Airways (Callsign: Granite). Aberdeen Airways subsequently also filed for bankruptcy protection, moved to East Midlands (EMA) and finally died.

Air Flamenco

Air Flamenco is a commuter airline operated by Air Charter, Inc., based in Puerto Rico.

Air Florida Commuter

Air Florida Commuter was the regional feeder network for Air Florida. Air Florida Commuter was not an airline, but a system of affiliated commuter carriers that fed traffic into Air Florida's hubs. In an arrangement commonly known as code-sharing, each airline painted their aircraft in Air Florida aircraft livery and colors and their flights were listed in computer reservation systems as Air Florida flights.

Air Jamaica Express

Air Jamaica Express was an airline based in Kingston, Jamaica, which, before folding, operated as a subsidiary of Air Jamaica. It operated domestic and inter-island scheduled flights and charter services. The airline was established in 1973 as Jamaica Air Taxi, and later operated as Trans-Jamaican Airlines until it was taken over by business man Gordon "Butch" Stewart, who also controlled Air Jamaica in 1994.When Air Jamaica was renationalized in December 2004, responsibility for Air Jamaica Express remained with Stewart and his organization. The airline struggled financially and after attempts to reorganize and secure additional capital were unsuccessful, the airline ceased operations on October 14, 2005. The JQ code assigned by the IATA was later reassigned to Jetstar Airways.

Air Queensland

Air Queensland, formerly Bush Pilots Airways, was an Australian airline which operated from 1951 until 1988.

Air St. Thomas

Air St. Thomas was an airline based on the island of St. Thomas, in the United States Virgin Islands. It operated regular and charter passenger services. Its main base was Cyril E. King Airport, St Thomas. It ceased operations in December 2005. The company, founded in 1975, was banned in March 2004 on the French airports and is since then blacklisted. This commuter air carrier had a very small fleet and did not operate long haul routes.

Aurigny

Aurigny Air Services Limited (pronounced ), commonly known as Aurigny, is the flag carrier airline of the Bailiwick of Guernsey with its head office next to Guernsey Airport in the Channel Islands, and wholly owned by the States of Guernsey since nationalisation in 2003. It operates passenger and freight services between the Channel Islands and the United Kingdom (as well as seasonal services to Norwich and Grenoble). Its main base is Guernsey Airport, with other aircraft and crew based at Alderney Airport. Aurigny is one of the longest serving regional airlines in the world, and is the second oldest established airline in Britain after Loganair. The origin of its name lies in the cognate across Norman languages for Alderney.

Barrier Air

Barrier Air is a New Zealand airline that was established in 1983 by Jim Bergman as Great Barrier Airlines. The head office is located at the Domestic Terminal at Auckland Airport in Mangere, with additional offices in the terminal buildings at Great Barrier Aerodrome, Kaitaia Airport and North Shore Aerodrome.

Bragança Airport

Bragança Airport (Portuguese: Aeródromo de Bragança) (IATA: BGC, ICAO: LPBG) is an airport serving Bragança, Portugal. It is located 7.5 km (4.7 mi) north-northeast of the city.

Cruciform tail

The cruciform tail is an aircraft empennage configuration which, when viewed from the aircraft's front or rear, looks much like a cross. The usual arrangement is to have the horizontal stabilizer intersect the vertical tail somewhere near the middle, and above the top of the fuselage. The design is often used to locate the horizontal stabilizer away from jet exhaust, propeller and wing wake, as well as to provide undisturbed airflow to the rudder.

Lanseria International Airport

Lanseria International Airport (IATA: HLA, ICAO: FALA) is a privately owned international airport that is situated north of Randburg and Sandton to the north west of Johannesburg, South Africa. The airport can handle aircraft up to the size of the Boeing 757-300.

Roraima Airways

Roraima Airways is a regional airline of Guyana with its main hub at the Eugene F. Correira International Airport. Roraima Airways was founded in 1992.

Tractor configuration

An aircraft constructed with a tractor configuration has the engine mounted with the airscrew in front of it so that the aircraft is "pulled" through the air, as opposed to the pusher configuration, in which the airscrew is behind and propels the aircraft forward. Through common usage, the word "propeller" has come to mean any airscrew, whether it actually propels or pulls the plane.

In the early years of powered aviation both tractor and pusher designs were common. However, by the midpoint of the First World War, interest in pushers declined and the tractor configuration dominated. Today, propeller-driven aircraft are assumed to be tractors unless it is stated otherwise.

Trimotor

A trimotor is an aircraft powered by three engines and represents a compromise between complexity and safety and was often a result of the limited power of the engines available to the designer. Many trimotors were designed and built in the 1920s and 1930s, when engine power lagged behind the designers' power requirements.

Vanair

Vanair was a domestic airline based in Vanuatu. The airline flew to 29 destinations on 18 of Vanuatu's 83 islands, and was wholly owned by the Vanuatu government.

Vieques Air Link

Vieques Air Link (VAL, IATA code:V4) is a small Puerto Rico-based airline that links Vieques with Culebra and mainland Puerto Rico.

William R. Fairchild International Airport

William R. Fairchild International Airport (IATA: CLM, ICAO: KCLM, FAA LID: CLM), not to be confused with Fairchild Air Force Base, is a public airport located within the city limits of Port Angeles, in Clallam County, Washington, United States. It lies 3.5 miles (3.0 nmi; 5.6 km) northwest of the central business district of Port Angeles, near the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The airport is owned by the Port of Port Angeles.

Britten-Norman and NDN/NAC aircraft
Britten-Norman
NDN/NAC
Key people

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.