Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander

The Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander is a British light utility aircraft and regional airliner designed and originally manufactured by Britten-Norman of the United Kingdom. Still in production, the Islander is one of the best-selling commercial aircraft types produced in Europe. Although designed in the 1960s, over 750 are still in service with commercial operators around the world. The aircraft is also used by the British Army and police forces in the United Kingdom and is a light transport with over 30 military aviation operators around the world.

Initial aircraft were manufactured at Britten-Norman's factory in Bembridge, Isle of Wight, UK. After Fairey Aviation acquired the Britten-Norman company, its Islanders and Trislander aircraft were built in Romania, then shipped to Avions Fairey in Belgium for finishing before being flown to the UK for flight certification. The Islander has been in production for more than 50 years.

Islander
Britten-Norman BN-2A-26 Islander, Winair - Windward Islands Airways JP5823246
A Winair Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander
Role Utility aircraft/Airliner
Manufacturer Britten-Norman
Designer John Britten, Desmond Norman
First flight 13 June 1965
Status Active service
Produced 1965–present
Number built 1,280
Unit cost
  • $53,000 (1968)[1]
  • $3M (BN-2T, 2013)[2]
Variants Britten-Norman Defender
Developed into Britten-Norman Trislander

Development

Origins

In 1953, Britten-Norman was formed for the purpose of converting and operating agricultural aircraft, amongst other vehicles such as the Cushioncraft hovercraft.[3][4] In 1963, the firm initiated development work upon what would become the Islander, having sensed a demand for a single and inexpensive twin-piston engine aircraft.[5] The founders, John Britten[6] and Desmond Norman, had observed the rapid growth of the commuter airline sector, and concluded that capacity was of a higher value to these operators than either range or cruising speed, thus the Islander emphasized payload over either of these attributes.[4]

Through the use of low wing- and span-loading to generate greater effectiveness than conventional counterparts, the Islander could lift considerably heavier payloads than the typical aircraft in its power, weight or cost classes.[7] To reduce manufacturing costs, both the wings and tail surfaces maintain a constant chord and thickness, while the ribs within the aircraft's wing are all identical; both rivets and external fishplate joints are used for the same purpose.[8] The type was originally intended to use a fabric-and-steel design. A light alloy monocoque approach was adopted instead.[5] The structure is designed to give rise to and experience low levels of stress, and has an infinite fatigue life without testing.[8]

Britten Norman BN.2 G-ATCT LEB 19.06.65 edited-2
The prototype BN-2 Islander displayed at the 1965 Paris Air Show six days after its maiden flight

On 13 June 1965, the first prototype BN-2 Islander conducted its maiden flight, powered by a pair of Rolls-Royce/Continental IO-360B piston engines; only four days later, the prototype appeared at the Paris Air Show.[5][9] The IO-360B engines were later replaced by more powerful Lycoming O-540-E engines, which were located further outboard on the wings, for superior single-engine climb performance.[5] On 20 August 1966, a second BN-2 prototype performed its first flight. These prototype aircraft, while resembling subsequent production models for the most part, were outfitted with different, less powerful engines.[10] On 24 April 1967, the first production Islander performed its first flight; UK type certification was received in August 1967, US authorities also certified the type in December 1967.[5]

Initial production of the Islander started at the Britten-Norman factory at Bembridge on the Isle of Wight; however, within a few years the company found that it could not produce the aircraft at a sufficient rate to keep up with the customer demand.[3][11] To expand production, a contract was placed with Intreprinderea de Reparatii Material Aeronautic (IRMA) of Romania, initially to assemble kit-form aircraft, which were then sent to the UK for completion. In August 1969, the first Romanian-assembled Islander performed its first flight.[5] IRMA proved successful at economically producing the aircraft, producing roughly 30-40 aircraft per year at times, and eventually became the primary manufacturing site for the Islander.[3][5] In 1977, IRMA received a contract for the production of a further 100 Islanders; from that point on, the firm produced all subsequent Islander aircraft.[5][12] More than 500 of the type were manufactured in Romania.[13]

In 1970, a military version of the Islander, marketed as the Defender, conducted its first flight. Modifications included the addition of underwing hardpoints for armaments/equipment, and the main cabin area being fitted out for light troop transport and support aircraft duties.[5] The Defender capitalised on the aircraft's rugged structure, making it suitable for long-term operations in developing countries. Purchases from police and military customers have typically been for use in surveillance and counter-terrorism operations. The Maritime Defender is another military version of the Islander, intended for search and rescue, coastal patrol and fishery protection.

Seychelles Stamp, Britten-Norman Islander, 1981
A Seychellois Stamp with a photo of a Britten-Norman Islander, 1981

Further development

Despite the relative success of the Islander, Britten-Norman experienced wider financial difficulties during the late 1960s, ultimately resulting in the company entering receivership in October 1971.[5] In August 1972, Britten-Norman was purchased by the Fairey Aviation Group, forming the Fairey Britten-Norman company; shortly thereafter, the majority of manufacturing activity for both the Islander and Trislander was transferred to its Avions Fairey factory in Gosselies, Belgium. Completed aircraft were flown to Bembridge for final customer preparation prior to delivery.[3][14][15]

BN-2T Islander - RIAT 2014 (16372337311)
Inflight BN-2T

Fairey Aviation set about the development of a more powerful model, the Turbo Islander, equipped with a pair of Lycoming LTP101 turboprop engines. However, testing revealed that the LTP101 engines were too powerful for the aircraft; thus, following a period of re-designing, the project evolved into the Turbine Islander (BN-2T), equipped with a pair of Allison 250 turboprop engines instead.[3] However, Fairey itself encountered financial difficulty, resulting in the Fairey Britten-Norman company entering receivership and the firm's acquisition by Oerlikon Buerle of Switzerland, leading to the formation of Pilatus Britten-Norman, at which point some production activity was transferred back to Bembridge.[3][5]

In 1969, an improved version, the BN-2A Islander, conducted its maiden flight. It incorporated aerodynamic and flight equipment improvements, such as lower-drag engine cowlings and undercarriage, an improved interior, and an expanded rear baggage area with external access.[5] In 1970, to improve hot-and-high performance, more powerful Lycoming O-540-K1-B5 engines were made available, alongside optional tiptanks and an elongated nose to house baggage.[5]

Britten-Norman BN-2A-3 Islander (mod) AN2059491
Islander equipped with ducted fans, 1978

In 1977, a single standard BN-2 was re-engined with Dowty Rotol ducted fans. The ducted fan produced less noise than conventional propeller propulsion. Some structural strengthening of the main wing spar at the root was required due to the extra weight.[16] This aircraft was subject to 18 months of flying trials to test the suitability of the ducted fan as a means of reducing aircraft noise; these tests reportedly demonstrated a 20 decibel noise reduction as well as increased thrust and reduced pollution.[5][17]

In 1978, a further improved version, the BN-2B Islander II, was produced as a result of a product improvement program. The BN-2B model involved several changes, including a redesigned cockpit and a reduction in cabin noise levels.[5] In 1980, it was decided to make available turboprop engines for the type, adopting twin Allison 250-B17C engines; when the latter are installed, the aircraft is designated the BN-2T Turbine Islander. The first such BN-2T entered service in 1981.[5]

In February 1999, the acquisition of Romaero, the Romanian manufacturer of the Islander, by Britten-Norman Group was announced.[18][19] By May 2006, a greater sales emphasis was being placed upon the Defender over the Islander.[20] In December 2006, aerospace publication Flight International observed that: "The only civil aircraft that remains in production in the UK is the tiny Britten-Norman Islander".[21] In May 2010, Britten-Norman announced that manufacturing of the Islander would be relocated from Romania to a new site in the UK, due to the rising costs of production in Romania.[22]

Electrification

Supported by Britten-Norman, Cranfield Aerospace wants to develop an electric propulsion system for the over 700 Islanders currently operated. It is proposed for Scottish airline Loganair which operate the few minutes long flights to the Orkney Islands' six airfields, including the world's shortest, the Westray to Papa Westray flight scheduled for 1.5 min. The Orkney already have wind turbines and Kirkwall Harbour ships are powered by hydrogen fuel cells. Less noisy, the kit could be modified for similar-size aircraft and could be used for parachuting depending on the charging speed.[23]

Approved by the EASA, Cranfield built the X-48 blended wing body scale-model for NASA, and works with Airbus and Rolls-Royce to develop the hybrid E-Fan X converted BAe 146 demonstrator. Cranfield wants to develop a STC with off-the-shelf parts: current batteries would give it a 30 min endurance, sufficient for most island flights, and more with a range extender. By avoiding Avgas and with the lower maintenance of the simpler system, operators could attain a return on investment in 2-3 years with additional investment for charging infrastructure. To back the development, Cranfield applied for UK government grants through the Aerospace Technology Institute and UK Research and Innovation, and approached private enterprises. If funded for £10 million, a prototype could fly in 2021, and the kit could be available in 2022-23.[23]

Trislander

In 1968, the original second Islander prototype was re-used for a further development programme, being modified into a stretched aircraft with greater capacity, referred to as the Super Islander. However, the Super Islander programme was aborted without proceeding to certification.[5] The prototype later received further design changes to produce the three-engined version, the BN-2A Mk III Trislander.[3] This aircraft has a stretched fuselage, modified landing gear and a third engine, which is mounted on the tail.[5] On 11 September 1970, the Trislander prototype conducted its maiden flight, appearing at the 1970 Farnborough Air Show the same day.[5]

Design

Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander LFH Luftverkehr Friesland Harle D-ILFA Cockpit
Cockpit of a BN-2 Islander

The Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander is a high-wing cantilever monoplane with a rectangular fuselage and two wing-mounted engines; early aircraft were equipped with a pair of piston engines while later production models may be alternatively fitted with turboprop engines in their place.[5][10][24] The rectangular cross section fuselage, which is furnished with a conventional tail unit and fixed tricycle landing gear, typically accommodates a single pilot and up to nine passengers in a commuter configuration, each row being accessed by its own door; the cabin can be rapidly reconfigured, allowing for a single aircraft to undertake a diverse range of tasks within a minimal period of time.[10][25] Often referring to the type as "The world's most versatile aircraft",[24] Britten-Norman promotes the Islander's low direct operating costs, minimal maintenance, and its stability in flight as major attributes of the aircraft.[25]

The original Islander was designed with an emphasis upon providing ease of access within the short haul sector to remote locations as a safe, efficient, and profitable transport aircraft.[24] It has been regularly used by such operators, including the frequent use of unprepared rough airstrips and from challenging terrain; the Islander being capable of short takeoff and landing (STOL) operations.[24] The low load height and wide side doors provide for easy access for passenger and cargo operations, while the aircraft's ability to maintain a high takeoff frequency has led to the type's use for parachuting.[24] For operating within noise-sensitive environments, silencers can be equipped on both the aircraft's engine and propellers.[26]

Exit from the Britten-Norman Isander BN-2A-26 (ES-PNA) aircraft in a parachuting exercise in Estonia (5675975348)
Exit in a parachuting exercise

Designed as a small and inexpensive commuter/utility aircraft, various cabin configurations and equipment loadouts are available to suit a wide variety of different purposes, including charter flights, scheduled flights, agricultural uses, aerial firefighting, air freight VIP/executive transport, aerial surveillance, air ambulance, paradropping, and law enforcement.[5][24] The design programme can be entirely personalized, allowing each customer to be involved in every area of the aircraft's manufacture to mold it to their preferences.[25] Later versions of the Islander offer various options, including enlarged bay doors, 3-bladed scimitar propellers, low drag fairings, modern interior, ergonomic leather seating, in-flight entertainment systems, and alternative seat arrangements; underwing hardpoints can also be installed for carrying pod, spray booms and other external stores.[24][25]

Operational history

Immediately following commercial availability, US distributor Jonas Aircraft ordered 30 Islanders, and placed orders for another 112 aircraft within a year.[5][8] When equipped with four 54-gallon fuel tanks, the Islander was able to ferry itself across the transatlantic route, via Gander International Airport, Newfoundland, for US deliveries.[5] The Islander's long-range capabilities were highlighted when the type won the 1969 London-Sydney air race.[5]

In 1974, sales of the Islander surpassed the 548-order record for British multi-engine commercial aircraft.[5] In 1982, another production milestone was reached with the delivery of the 1,000th Islander.[5] From the 1980s onwards, sales noticeably declined; according to Britten-Norman Chief Executive William Hynett, this was due to the global market having become saturated by the type and there being only a low civil demand for additional aircraft, in part due to the longevity of in-service Islanders.[20] As of 2016, Britten-Norman claim that the Islander is in daily service with roughly 500 operators in more than 120 countries.[24]

Between 1976 and 2006, Scottish airline Loganair operated a number of Islanders as air ambulances, covering areas such as the island communities in the Hebrides.[27] The Islander is known for servicing the two airports joined by the shortest scheduled flight in the world. Operated as a leg of Loganair's inter-island service, Loganair Flight 353, the distance from Papa Westray Airport to Westray Airport is only 1.7 mi (2.7 km), and the scheduled flight time including taxiing is two minutes.[28][29][30]

Several commuter airlines and general aviation charter operators in the U.S. also flew the Islander including Stol Air Commuter in scheduled passenger service in northern California from their San Francisco International Airport (SFO) hub and Channel Islands Aviation in southern California which used the aircraft for the flights to Channel Islands National Park.[31][32] Another U.S. commuter airline operator was Wings Airways which operated high frequency shuttle service into the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL).[33]

Variants

[34]

BN-2
Prototype first flown in 1966 with two 260 hp Lycoming O-540-E4B5 piston engines.
BN-2A
Production version with minor modification from prototype and increased takeoff weight.
BN-2A-2
A BN-2A with modified flaps, and two 300 hp Lycoming IO-540-K1B5 (fuel injected) engines.
BN-2A-3
A BN-2A-2 with increased wingspan and fitted with extra wingtip fuel tanks.
BN-2A-6
A BN-2A with wing leading edge modifications and two 260 hp Lycoming O-540-E4C5 engine.
BN-2A-7
A BN-2A-6 with increased wingspan and fuel capacity.
BN-2A-8
A BN-2A-6 with droop flaps.
BN-2A-9
A BN-2A-7 with droop flaps.
BN-2A-10
A BN-2A-8 with increased takeoff weight and 270 hp Lycoming TIO-540-H1A (turbo-charged, fuel injected) engines.
BN-2A-20
A BN-2A-2 with increased takeoff weight and minor improvements.
BN-2A-21
A BN-2A-3 with increased takeoff weight.
BN-2A-23
A BN-2A-21 with lengthened nose.
BN-2A-24
A BN-2A-26 with lengthened nose.
BN-2A-25
A BN-2A-27 with lengthened nose.
BN-2A-26
A BN-2A-8 with increased takeoff weight.
BN-2A-27
A BN-2A-9 with increased takeoff weight.
BN-2A-30
A BN-2A-20 fitted with floats. Twin floats were attached to the undercarriage legs and incorporated retractable landing gear.
BN-2A-41
Turbo Islander with lengthened nose, droop flaps and two Lycoming LTP-101 turboprops, first flown in 1977.
Britten-Norman BN-2B Defender
Defender military variant with 300 hp IO-540-K1B5 engines and underwing hard points and military modifications.
BN-2B-20
A BN-2A-20 with improved soundproofing and increased landing weight and other minor modifications.
BN-2B-21
A BN-2A-21 with Model B improvements.
BN-2B-26
A BN-2A-26 with Model B improvements.
BN-2B-27
A BN-2A-27 with Model B improvements.
BN-2T
Turbine Islander based on BN-2A-26 with two 320 shp Allison 250-B17C turboprops. Seating for up to 11 passengers[35]
RAF Northolt 2009 BN Islander CC2 RAF
Islander CC2 of the RAF
Islander AL.Mk 1
Twin-engined communications, reconnaissance aircraft for the British Army; seven built. Used for aerial reconnaissance and photography in Northern Ireland during Operation Banner. They were part of No. 1 Flight, Army Air Corps and were based at Aldergrove.[36]
Islander CC.Mk 2 and CC.Mk 2A
Twin-engined communications aircraft for the RAF; three operated.[37][38][39]
Maritime-Defender
Armed maritime reconnaissance and patrol aircraft.
BN-2A-III Trislander
Three engined Trislander, a stretched BN-2A with 18 seats and three 260 hp Lycoming O-540-E4C5 piston engines.

Operators

Accidents

Specifications (BN-2A Islander)

2006-05-25-172629 Iceland Hólmahverfi
Front view, on ground
Islander (F-OIJS) (8325582557)
Planform view, showing low aspect ratio wing
G-HEBI (8482113314)
Inflight front view from below

Data from The Observer's Book of Aircraft, Britten-Norman,[24] Flying [1]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Fricker 1968, p. 77.
  2. ^ "B-N Group Turbine Islander". Forecast International. October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Simpson 1991, p. 77.
  4. ^ a b Fricker 1968, p. 75.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Goold, Ian. "Britten-Norman Islander celebrates 40th anniversary." Archived 15 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine AIN Online, 16 October 2006.
  6. ^ "John Britten obituary" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  7. ^ Fricker 1968, pp. 75-76.
  8. ^ a b c Fricker 1968, p. 76.
  9. ^ Green 1976, p. 52.
  10. ^ a b c Orbis 1985, p. 992.
  11. ^ Fricker, John. "Foreign Accent." Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flying, December 1968. Vol. 83, No. 6. ISSN 0015-4806. p. 26.
  12. ^ Hamilton-Paterson 2010, p. 255.
  13. ^ "Romaero". Romaero. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  14. ^ "Avions Fairey Gosselies & Sonaca: a Tips of genie." Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Belgian Aircraft History Association, Retrieved: 25 March 2016.
  15. ^ Fricker, John. "Past and Present." Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flying Magazine, September 1977. Vol. 101, No. 3. ISSN 0015-4806. p. 271.
  16. ^ Hirst, Mike. "Building the quiet Islander." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 16 July 1977. p. 210.
  17. ^ "Reporting Points." Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flying Magazine, October 1977. ISSN 0015-4806. p. 25.
  18. ^ "Britten-Norman takes over Romania's Romaero." Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 8 February 1999.
  19. ^ "Britten-Norman enjoys new Romanian rhapsody." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 14 June 1999.
  20. ^ a b Morrison, Murdo. "Great Britten." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 20 June 2006.
  21. ^ Kingsley-Jones, Max. "Final landing: A history of the UK aircraft industry (or 'Why Britain botched building airliners')." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 22 December 2006.
  22. ^ Morrison, Murdo. "Britten-Norman brings production back to the UK." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 28 May 2010.
  23. ^ a b Tony Osborne (26 October 2018). "Loganair Visions Electric Island-Hopping Flight First". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Islands: The World's Most Versatile Aircraft." Archived 6 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Britten Norman, Retrieved: 25 March 2016.
  25. ^ a b c d "Islander." Archived 21 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Britten Norman, Retrieved: 25 March 2016.
  26. ^ "Pilatus Britten-Norman will adopt Islander silencer." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 7 January 1998.
  27. ^ Lowton, Edward. "“At what altitude did you have your baby?” National Museum of Flight seeks mothers who gave birth midflight." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Culture 24, 16 June 2015.
  28. ^ "Getting here is easy, by sea or air." Westray and Papa Westray, Retrieved: 25 March 2016.
  29. ^ "Final trip for Orkney shortest flight pilot." Archived 4 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 23 May 2013.
  30. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David. "VIDEO: Loganair brings back 'world's shortest' flight." Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 28 February 2011.
  31. ^ "March 1, 1975 Stol Air Commuter system timetable". Archived from the original on 2 February 2001. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "July 15, 1981 Wings Airways system timetable". Archived from the original on 2 February 2001. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  34. ^ Simpson 1991, pp. 78–79.
  35. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident PADC/Pilatus Britten-Norman BN-2T Islander P2-SBC Kiunga Airport (UNG)". Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  36. ^ Ripley and Chappel 1993, p. 30.
  37. ^ Lake 2008, pp. 44–45.
  38. ^ "Islander BN2T CC Mk2." Archived 4 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Royal Air Force. Retrieved: 22 November 2008. Note: While officially described as communications and photo survey aircraft, these aircraft are believed to also operate in a surveillance role.
  39. ^ Lake 2008, pp. 45—46.
  40. ^ "Flight test: Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander". Pilot Mag. 15 December 2017. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2019.

Bibliography

  • Fricker, John. "The Britten-Norman Islander." Flying, April 1968. Vol. 82, No. 4. ISSN 0015-4806. pp. 75–77.
  • Green, William. The Observer's Book of Aircraft. London. Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd., 1976. ISBN 0-7232-1553-7.
  • Hamilton-Paterson, James. Empire of the Clouds: When Britain's Aircraft Ruled the World. Faber & Faber, 2010. ISBN 0-5712-7173-1.
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). London: Orbis Publishing, 1985.
  • Lake, Jon. "Aircraft of the RAF - Part 8 Islander." Air International, Vol 75 Number 6, December 2008, pp. 44–46.
  • Ripley, Tim and Chappel, Mike. Security forces in Northern Ireland (1969-92). Osprey, 1993. ISBN 1-8553-2278-1.
  • Simpson, R.W. Airlife's General Aviation. London: Airlife Publishing, 1991, p. 190. ISBN 1-85310-194-X.

External links

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Air BVI went insolvent liquidation in 1991, although it continued to operate out of bankruptcy for nearly two and a half years. In May 1993 it suffered its only major incident when one of its aircraft overran the runway at Beef Island on an aborted takeoff, and landed in the sea. However, the accident resulted in no significant injuries.

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Air ambulances in the United Kingdom

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Commuter turboprop and prop aircraft operated by Dorado Wings during its existence included:

Thirteen (13) Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander (BN-2A models)

Five (5) de Havilland Canada DHC-6-300 Twin Otter

Three (3) Handley Page Jetstream

One (1) Piper Navajo

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3rd Squadron (Falcon) - transport. Operating the Casa 212-200 and Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander.

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8th Squadron (Scorpion) - Agusta-Bell 412SP

New England Airlines

New England Airlines is a regional airline based in Westerly, Rhode Island, USA. With a main base at Westerly State Airport, it provides scheduled service to Block Island and operates charters to other destinations.

No. 1 Flight AAC

No. 1 Flight AAC was an independent flight within the British Army's Army Air Corps.

Aircraft operated:

Saunders-Roe Skeeter AOP.12

Sioux AH.1

Westland Scout AH.1

de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver AL.1

Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander AL.1

Papa Stour Airstrip

Papa Stour Airstrip is a small airstrip in the village of Biggings on the island of Papa Stour. Shetland, Scotland. It is the most northerly airport in the United Kingdom with regularly scheduled passenger flights. The airport has a direct flight to Tingwall Airport on the Shetland Mainland operated by Directflight using a Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander

Rediske Air

Rediske Air was a small air taxi charter airline operating out of Alaska.

Rhodesia United Air Carriers

Rhodesia United Air Carriers (RUAC) was a company formed in 1957 by the amalgamation of several existing charter companies; Air Carriers Limited and Flights (1956) Limited of Salisbury, and Fishair of Victoria Falls. Commercial Air Services (Rhodesia) of Bulawayo was integrated into RUAC in August 1960, following the merger of its holding company, Airwork Ltd (also known as Airwork Services), with Hunting-Clan (which had owned Air Carriers Ltd), a subsidiary of the maritime company Clan Line.

RUAC was the Beechcraft agent for Central Africa. It operated a fleet of Beech Barons, a Beech Queen Air, several Piper Apache and Aztec aircraft, a Cessna 180 and a Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander.

The company had bases at Salisbury (head office and maintenance base), Bulawayo and Victoria Falls.

Suavanao Airport

Suavanao Airport is an airport on Santa Isabel Island in the Solomon Islands (IATA: VAO, ICAO: AGGV).

The main destination off this airfield is Honiara, Solomon Island's capital. It has very little traffic, providing one flight a week most of the time, depending on the season. Mainly used by Isabel’s inhabitants, it also provides a fast connection to a Papatura Island resort.

The short airstrip is basically a leveled and cleaned up piece of land, surrounded by a dense tropical forest and narrow streams. It is not paved, and can only be used by small regional aircraft like the DHC-6 Twin Otter or Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander of Solomon Airlines. There is a small wooden cabin by the strip, but there’s no electricity nor means of communication with the mainland.

Sunbird Aviation

Sunbird Aviation was an airline in Kenya which merged with Air Kenya in 1987 to form Airkenya Aviation.

TimAir

TimAir is a charter airline based at the Sangster International Airport, Montego Bay, Jamaica.

Virgin Gorda Airport

Virgin Gorda Airport (IATA: VIJ, ICAO: TUPW) is an airport on Virgin Gorda in the British Virgin Islands, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

Wheeler Airlines

Wheeler Airlines was the operating name of Wheeler Flying Service (WHAA), a historically significant company because it was the first black-owned airline certificated in the USA by the FAA and it helped integrate the pilots at major US air carriers by qualifying a large number of black pilots that were subsequently hired by the nation’s major airlines.

Wheeler Flying Service was started by Warren Wheeler in 1969, who at the time was a Captain at Piedmont Airlines, flying Boeing 737-200 jetliners.

Wheeler Flying Service provided flight training, charter services, aircraft maintenance and courier services for banks using Piper PA-28, PA-24 and PA-32, Beechcraft 18, Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander and Ted Smith Aerostar twin engine prop aircraft. Wheeler Flying Service was certificated by the FAA as an air carrier and a repair station.In August 1973, Wheeler Flying Service received a grant from the North Carolina Economic Authority to provide scheduled passenger air service from Raleigh/Durham, NC to Morehead City, NC and Elizabeth City, NC using Cessna 402 commuter twin prop aircraft. No other flying company in North Carolina wanted the contract. This was the beginning of Wheeler Airlines.In 1974, Wheeler Airlines began scheduled passenger flights to Greenville, NC, Asheville, NC and Norfolk, VA. The flights to and from Greenville were requested by the Burroughs-Welcome Drug Company based in the Research Triangle Park and included passengers and a sample box delivered each day to the headquarters from their factory in Greenville. The airline switched to Piper PA-31 Navajo aircraft.

In 1975, Wheeler Airlines briefly operated a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter. The February 1, 1976 Official Airline Guide (OAG) lists scheduled passenger service being flown to Charlotte, NC (CLT), Elizabeth City, NC (ECG), Greenville, NC (PGV), Morehead City, NC (MRH), Norfolk, VA (ORF) and Raleigh/Durham, NC (RDU) with all flights being operated with Cessna 402 twin prop commuter aircraft and the airline using the two letter air carrier code "WR". Wheeler then selected the Beechcraft 99 commuter turboprop aircraft for scheduled service. The airline established joint fares and pass agreements with several major airlines. In 1978 the airline added a larger Fairchild F-27 turboprop with service to New York City and Atlantic City, NJ.The airline experienced significant growth during the early 1980s as major airlines assigned their jet aircraft to major markets. At its peak in 1984, Wheeler Airlines operated a fleet of five Beechcraft 99's. The routes expanded to Wilmington, Delaware, Washington, DC and Tri Cities, Tennessee. The airline hired a relatively large proportion of black pilots with low flight time; including two black women pilots that were the first hired at major airlines Many of the pilots were trained at Wheeler Flying Service under the Federal CEDA Program. Low time pilots started as copilots in the Beech 99. When they reached 1200 hours flight time they were assigned to fly courier routes in piston airplanes. Upon the completion of 2,000 hours the pilot could check out as a Beech 99 Captain if they could pass an aircraft "check ride" conducted by Wheeler himself. All of the pilots gained valuable turbine time while employed at Wheeler Airlines and the vast majority of Wheeler Airline co-pilots black and white were or still are employed as pilots at major air carriers.

Wheeler introduced a number of first in the commuter industry, including one engine turn around's and engine trend monitoring for turbine powered aircraft.In the 1980s the airline experienced competition from other commuter air carriers. Wheeler suffered a major blow when Piedmont Airlines selected another commuter airline for code sharing air services. Realizing Wheeler Airlines was going to fail, Warren Wheeler started Wheeler Regional Airlines (WRA) a much smaller version of Wheeler Airlines specializing in underserved mid Atlantic destinations. In 1986 Wheeler Airlines filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

Britten-Norman and NDN/NAC aircraft
Britten-Norman
NDN/NAC
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