British undergraduate degree classification

The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading structure for undergraduate degrees or bachelor's degrees and integrated master's degrees in the United Kingdom. The system has been applied (sometimes with significant variations) in other countries and regions.

History

The classification system as currently used in the United Kingdom was developed in 1918. Honours were then a means to recognise individuals who demonstrated depth of knowledge or originality, as opposed to relative achievement in examination conditions.

Concern exists about possible grade inflation. It is claimed that academics are under increasing pressure from administrators to award students good marks and grades with little regard for those students' actual abilities, in order to maintain their league table rankings. It is also claimed that academics who enforce rigorous standards risk receiving poor student course evaluations.[1] The percentage of graduates who receive a First has grown from 7% in 1997 to 26% in 2017, with the rate of growth sharply accelerating toward the end of this period.[2] A 2018 study by the UK Standing Committee for Quality Assessment concluded that improvements in faculty skill and student motivation are only two of many factors driving average grades upward, that grade inflation is real, that the British undergraduate degree classifications will become less useful to students and employers, and that inflation will undermine public confidence in the overall value of higher education.[3] Students already believe that a First or upper Second, by itself, is no longer sufficient to secure a good job, and that they need to engage in extra-curricular activities to build their CV.[4]

Degree classification

A bachelor's degree can be an honours degree (bachelor's with honours) or an ordinary degree (bachelor's without honours). Honours degrees are classified, usually based on a weighted average (with higher weight given to marks in the later years of the course, and often zero weight to those in the first year) of the marks gained in exams and other assessments. Grade boundaries can vary by institution, but typical values are given below.

  • First-class honours (1st, 1 or I) – typically 70% or higher
  • Second-class honours;
    • Upper division (2:1, 2i or II-1) – typically 60–69%
    • Lower division (2:2, 2ii or II-2) – typically 50–59%
  • Third-class honours (3rd, 3 or III) – typically 40–49%

Students who do not achieve honours may be awarded an ordinary degree, sometimes known as a "pass". Ordinary degrees, and other exit awards such as the Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE; for completing the first two years of a degree course) and Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE; for completing the first year of a degree course), may be unclassified (pass/fail) or, particularly in Scotland where the ordinary degree is offered as a qualification in its own right, classified into pass, merit and distinction. Foundation degrees are normally classified into pass, merit and distinction.[5][6]

Integrated master's degrees are usually classified with honours in the same way as a bachelor's honours degree, although some integrated master's degrees are classified like postgraduate taught master's degrees into pass (usually 50%), merit (60%) and distinction (70%).[7][8]

At most institutions, the system allows a small amount of discretion.[9] A candidate may be elevated to the next degree class if his or her average marks are close to (or the median of their weighted marks achieves) the higher class, and if they have submitted several pieces of work worthy of the higher class. However, even students with a high average mark may be unable to take honours if they have failed part of the course and so have insufficient credits.

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a bachelor's degree with honours normally takes three years of full-time study and usually requires 360 credits, of which at least 90 are at level 6 (final year of a bachelor's degree) level, while an ordinary bachelor's degree normally requires 300 credits, of which 60 are at level 6.[10] In Scotland, the honours bachelor's degree takes four years and requires 480 credits with a minimum of 90 at level 10 of the Scottish framework (last year of the honours degree) and 90 at level 9 (penultimate year), while the ordinary degree takes three years and requires 360 credits with a minimum of 60 at level 9 (last year of the ordinary degree).[11]

In Scotland, it is possible to start university a year younger than in the rest of the United Kingdom, as the Scottish Higher exams are often taken at age 16 or 17 (as opposed to 18), so Scottish students often end a four-year course at the same age as a student from elsewhere in the UK taking a three-year course, assuming no gap years or students skipping the first year (direct entry to 2nd year).[12]

When a candidate is awarded a degree with honours, "(Hons)" may be suffixed to their designatory letters — for example, BA (Hons), BSc (Hons), BMus (Hons), MA (Hons).[13] An MA (Hons) would generally indicate a degree award from certain Scottish universities (c.f. Scottish MA) and is at the same level as a bachelor's degree.

Distribution of classes

The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) has published the number of degrees awarded with different classifications since 1994/5. The relative proportions of different classes have changed over this period, with increasing numbers of students being awarded higher honours. The table below shows the percentage of classified degrees (i.e. not including fails or unclassified degrees such as MBBS) in each class at five year intervals; note that HESA stopped giving statistics separately for third class honours and pass degree after 2003 and that a small number of undivided second class honours degrees (shown under "other" along with "unknown", which makes up the bulk of this category) were awarded up to 1996.

Class 1995[14] 2000[15] 2005[16] 2010[17] 2015[18]
1st 7.0 8.2 11.6 14.4 22.0
2:1 40.3 42.9 47.4 48.3 49.5
2:2 34.8 34.0 33.1 29.8 23.0
3rd 5.8 5.3 8.0 7.5 5.5
Pass 11.7 9.6
Other 0.3[19]

First-class honours

First-class honours, referred to as a "first", is the highest honours classification and indicates high academic achievement.

In 2010 and 2011, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) reported that approximately 15% of all degree candidates graduated with first-class honours.[20][21] The percentages of graduates achieving a first vary greatly by university and course studied.[22] For example, students of law are least likely to gain a first, whereas students of mathematical sciences are most likely to gain a first.[23] In 2006–2007 and 2010–2011, 5.8% and 8.1% of law students gained a first, respectively; however, in those years, 28.9% and 30.0% of mathematics students gained a first, respectively.[23]

Upper second-class honours

The upper division is commonly abbreviated to "2:1" or "II.i" (pronounced two-one). The 2:1 is a minimum requirement for entry to many postgraduate courses in the UK. It is also required for the award of a research council postgraduate studentship in the UK, although possession of a master's degree can render a candidate eligible for an award if their initial degree was below the 2:1 standard. The percentage of candidates who achieve upper second-class honours can vary widely by degree subject, as well as by university.[21]

Lower second-class honours

This is the lower division of second-class degrees and is abbreviated as "2:2" or "II.ii" (pronounced two-two). It is also informally known as a "Desmond", named after Desmond Tutu.

Third-class honours

Third-class honours, referred to as a "third", is the lowest honours classification in most modern universities. Historically, the University of Oxford awarded fourth-class honours degrees and, until the late 1970s, did not distinguish between upper and lower second-class honours degrees.[24]

Informally, the third-class honours degree is referred to as a "gentleman's degree" (cf. the "gentleman's C" in the U.S.).[25]

Approximately 7.2% of students graduating in 2006 with an honours degree received a third-class honours.[21]

Ordinary degree

While most university bachelor's degree courses lead to honours degrees, some universities offer courses leading to ordinary degrees.[26] Some honours courses permit students who do not gain sufficient credits in a year by a small margin to transfer to a parallel ordinary degree course. Ordinary degrees may also sometimes be awarded to honours degree students who do not pass sufficient credits in their final year to gain an honours degree, but pass enough to earn an ordinary degree.[27]

Some Scottish universities offer three-year ordinary degrees as a qualification in their own right, as well as an honours degree over four years. This is in contrast to English universities that have honours degrees with three years of study. An ordinary degree in Scotland is not a failed honours degree, as in certain English universities. Students can decide, usually at the end of their second or third year, whether or not they wish to complete a fourth honours year. Scottish universities may also award their ordinary degrees with distinction if a student achieves a particularly good grade average, usually 70% or above. A common example of a Scottish ordinary degree is the Bachelor of Laws course taken by graduates of other subjects, as this is sufficient (without honours) for entry into the legal profession. In other countries, Malawi for example, Mzuzu University offers four year ordinary degrees. The degree follows the same classification as those in the United Kingdom. Grades attained in the last two years ( year three and four) including internship and dissertation, contribute to the final degree classification.

Aegrotat

An aegrotat (/ˈiːɡroʊtæt/; from Latin aegrotat, meaning 'he/she is ill')[28] degree is an honours or ordinary degree without classification, awarded under the presumption that, had a candidate who was unable to undertake their exams due to illness or even death completed those exams, they would have satisfied the standard required for that degree.[29][30][31][32][33] Aegrotat degrees are often qualified with an appended "(aegrotat)".

Following the introduction of current regulations regarding mitigating circumstances, aegrotat degrees are less commonly awarded than they previously were.[34]

Variations in classification

At the University of Cambridge, undergraduate Tripos examinations are split into three parts (e.g. Part IA, IB, and II), or two parts (Part I and II). Part II is taken at the end of final year. Each student receives a formal classification for each part (i.e. Class I, II.I, II.II, or III).[35] Typically, the Part II grade that corresponds with final examinations is quoted, but officially a grade simply exists for every Part of the degree, not for the overall degree.

At the University of Oxford, a formal degree Class is given, and this is typically based on the final examinations. In Oxford, examinations for Prelims or Honour Moderations are also undertaken in first/second year, but these results do not typically affect the final degree classification. Until the 1970s, the four honours divisions in Oxford's moderations and final examinations were named first, second, third and fourth class, but eventually Oxford gave in and adopted the numbering used by other English universities.[24]

Variations of first-class honours

At the University of Cambridge, Triposes were previously split into two parts: Part I and Part II. Attaining First Class Honours in both parts would culminate in graduating with a "Double First".[35] Most Triposes were later split into three parts: "Part IA," "Part IB" and "Part II", or "Part I", "Part IIA" and "Part IIB". Attaining a First Class in all three parts culminates in graduating with a "Triple First".[36][37][38][39][40][41] The frequency of this honour varies with subject, but typically fewer than 3% of students will achieve this distinction. It is possible in some of the humanities Triposes to be awarded a "Starred First", for examination scripts that "consistently exhibit the qualities of first class answers to an exceptional degree."[42] The science Triposes do not award Starred Firsts.

Oxford sometimes grants a congratulatory first, which The New York Times described as "a highly unusual honor in which the examining professors ask no questions about the candidate's written work but simply stand and applaud",[43] and Martin Amis described as "the sort where you are called in for a viva and the examiners tell you how much they enjoyed reading your papers".[44] A "double first" at Oxford usually informally refers to first-class honours in both components of an undergraduate degree, i.e. Moderations/Prelims and the Final Honour School, or in both the bachelor's and master's components of an integrated master's degree.

At University College London, candidates who perform well beyond the requirements of a standard First Class Honours may be nominated to the Dean's List. This is generated once per year and recognizes outstanding academic achievement in final examinations. There are no set criteria for nomination to the list, but typically only a nominal number of students from each faculty are nominated per year.[45]

International comparisons

France

The University of St Andrews gives equivalences between French and British grades for its study-abroad programme.[46] Equivalencies for the purposes of initial teacher training have also been derived by the UK NARIC for 1st, 2:1 and 2:2 degrees, which do not align with St Andrews' table.[47]

British class French grade range
St Andrews UK NARIC
First 15–20 16+
Upper Second 12–14 13+
Lower Second 10–11 12+
Third 7–9
Pass 6

South Africa

The South African Qualifications Authority[48] (SAQA) compares international degrees with local degrees before any international student continues their studies in that country. While the British degree accreditation and classification system allows students to go straight from a three-year bachelor's degree onto a master's degree (normally requiring a 1st or a 2:1 – those with a 2:2 or a 3rd usually require appropriate professional experience),[49] South Africa does not do so unless the student has proven research capabilities. South African Honours degrees prepare the students to undertake a research-specific degree (in terms of master's), by spending an in-depth year (up to 5 modules) creating research proposals and undertaking a research project of limited scope. This prepares students for the research degrees later in their academic career.

Spain

The UK NARIC has derived equivalencies for the grades of the Spanish grado and licenciatura degrees for purposes of initial teacher training bursaries.[47]

British class Spanish equivalent
First 8.5+
Upper Second 7+
Lower Second 6 +

The Netherlands

The Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education (NUFFIC) has compared UK degree classification to Dutch degree grades.[50] Dutch equivalencies have also been calculated by the UK NARIC.[47]

British class Dutch equivalent
NUFFIC UK NARIC
First 8-10 8.5+
Upper Second 7 to 8 6.5+
Lower Second 6 to 7 6+
Third 5.5 to 6

NUFFIC also noted that the grading culture is different in the Netherlands, so that it is very rare for even the best students in the Netherlands to be awarded a 9 or a 10, which represent near perfection and absolute perfection.[50]

United States

British honours degrees are sometimes considered equivalent (by British sources) to a US master's degree, with the US bachelor's degree being equivalent to a British pass degree, due to the much higher degree of specialisation in the UK.[51][52] However, many British institutions accept US bachelor's degrees for admission to postgraduate study (see below) and US comparison services treat British and American degrees as equivalent.[53] When US bachelor's degrees are compared to British honours degrees, equivalencies can be expressed in terms of either US Grade Point Averages (GPAs) or letter grades.

British institutions normally state equivalence in terms of GPAs. Approximate mappings between British classifications and GPAs can be inferred from the graduate admissions criteria used by British universities, which often give international equivalents. For example, University College London (UCL) equates the minimum classification for entrance to GPAs using 1st = 3.6, 2:1 = 3.3 and 2:2 = 3.0.[54] However, different universities convert grades differently: the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) considers a GPA (U.S.) of 3.5 or better as equivalent to gaining a 2:1,[55] while the department of English Language and Literature at Oxford considers a GPA of "about 3.8" equivalent to a first class degree.[56] Similarly, the UK NARIC gives equivalent GPAs for determining eligibility for teacher training bursaries.[47] In contrast, Durham University's North American Undergraduate Guide 2017 gives a conversion table as a guide to understanding British classifications (rather than for admission to postgraduate study) of 1st = 3.8–4.0, 2:1 = 3.3–3.7, 2:2 = 2.8–3.2 and 3rd = 2.3–2.7.[57] The GPA conversions are summarised in the following table:

British degree
classification
US GPA Equivalent
UCL[54] Durham[57] NARIC[47] Other
First 3.6+ 3.8–4.0 3.7+ 3.8+ (Oxford)[56]
Upper Second 3.3+ 3.3–3.7 3.2+ 3.5+ (LSE)[55]
Lower Second 3.0+ 2.8–3.2 2.6+
Third 2.3–2.7

Letter grade equivalents are more commonly used by American institutions. World Education Services (WES),[58] a nonprofit organisation which provides qualification conversion services to many universities and employers, gives 1st = A, 2:1 = A-/B+, 2:2 = B, 3rd = B-, Pass = C, which would convert British degrees to higher GPAs than the conversion used by UCL if the guidelines for converting grades to GPA given by Duke University[59] are used. The Fulbright Commission has also created "an unofficial chart with approximate grade conversions between UK results and US GPA."[60]

British degree
classification
US equivalents (Fulbright)[60] US Grade
Equivalent (WES)[58]
Equivalent GPA to WES
Grades (Duke)[59]
Grade GPA
First A 4.00 A 4.0
Upper Second A-/B+ 3.33–3.67 A-/B+ 3.7/3.3
Lower Second B 3.00 B 3.0
Third C+ 2.30 B- 2.7
Pass C 2.00 C 2.0

Canada

Canadian academic grades may be given as letters, percentages, 12-point GPAs or 4-point GPAs. The 4-point GPAs are sometimes seen to differ from the US but other sources treat them as equivalent. The Durham conversion specifies GPAs for the US and letter grades/percentages for Canada[57] while the UK NARIC has separate GPA conversions for the four-year bachelor's honours, baccalauréat and professional bachelor's degrees (which differ from their US GPA equivalents by at most 0.1) and the three-year bachelor's degree (which is seen as a lower standard).[47] The British Graduate Admissions Fact Sheet from McGill University uses the conversion 1st = 4.0; 2:1 = 3.0; 2:2 = 2.7; 3rd = 2.0; Pass = 1.0; Fail = 0.0.[61]

British degree
classification
Canadian equivalent
(Durham)[57]
Canadian GPA equivalent (NARIC)[47] Canadian GPA
equivalent
(McGill)[61]
4-year (Bachelor Honours degree) 3-year (Bachelor's degree)
% Letter GPA % Letter 12-point GPA % Letter 12-point
First 85%+ A – A+ 3.7+ 73% A- 10 3.9+ 90% A 12 4.0
Upper Second 77% – 84% B+ – A- 3.1+ 73% B 8 3.5+ 80% B+ 10 3.0
Lower Second 67% – 76% C+ – B- 2.5 62% C+ 6 3.1 73% B 8 2.7
Third 60% - 66% 2.0
Pass 1.0

Degrees in the UK are mapped to levels of the Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies (FHEQ), which includes the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland (FQHEIS), which has an alternative numbering of levels corresponding to those of the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF). Bachelor's degrees (including the Scottish MA, but not including medical degrees, dentistry degrees or degrees in veterinary science) attained in the UK are at FHEQ level 6/FQHEIS level 9 (ordinary) or 10 (honours); master's degrees (including integrated master's degrees and first degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science) are at FHEQ level 7/FQHEIS level 11, and doctoral degrees are at FHEQ level 8/FQHEIS level 12. Bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees map to first, second and third cycle qualifications in the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area.[62][63]

Progression to postgraduate study

Regulations governing the progression of undergraduate degree graduates to postgraduate programmes vary among universities, and are often flexible. A candidate for a postgraduate master's degree is usually required to have at least a 2:2 bachelor honours degree, although candidates with 2:1s are in a considerably stronger position to gain a place in a postgraduate course and to obtain funding, especially in medical and natural sciences. Some institutions specify a 2:1 minimum for certain types of master's program, such as for a Master of Research course.[64][65]

Candidates with a Third or an Ordinary degree are sometimes accepted, provided they have acquired satisfactory professional experience subsequent to graduation. A candidate for a doctoral programme who does not hold a master's degree is nearly always required to have a First or 2:1 at bachelor's level.

Variations

International degrees

Australia

Some universities, such as those in Australia, offer ordinary or pass degrees, (for instance, as a three-year B.A. or a three-year BSc) by default. High-achieving students may be recognised with an honours classification without further coursework or research, as is often the case in engineering, which often contains a research and thesis component,[66][67] or law.[68] However, other courses (such as humanities, arts, social sciences, and sciences) and other universities may recognise high-achieving students with an honours classification with further coursework or research, undertaken either concurrently with, and as part of or in addition to, a bachelor's course,[69] or after completion of a bachelor's course requirements and attaining adequately competitive grades.[70][71]

Some graduate degrees have been or are classified;[72] however, under the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), no graduate-level degrees (i.e., master's by coursework, master's by research, or higher research degrees) may be classified. To comply with this standard, some institutions have commenced, or will commence, offering high-achieving graduates with "distinction".[73] Notably, this is consistent with British graduate degree classification.[74]

British medical and dental degrees

In the United Kingdom, medicine is usually taught as an undergraduate course, with graduates being awarded a master's level qualification: normally the conjoined degrees of Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, BM BCh, MB ChB, etc.) although at Queen's University Belfast (and universities in Ireland) Bachelor in the Art of Obstetrics (BAO) is added, and at some universities only the Bachelor of Medicine is awarded - all of these have equal standing. Unlike most undergraduate degrees, the MBBS is not normally considered an honours degree, and thus is not classified into first class honours, etc. Students may be awarded "Merits" and "Distinctions" for parts of the course or the whole course (depending on the institution) and "Honours" may be awarded at some institutions for exceptional performance throughout the course (as a grade above Distinction).[75][76]

Medical schools split their year groups into one of 10 deciles. These deciles are the major factor in the calculation of Educational Performance Measure (EPM) points used as part of medical students' Foundation Programme applications, with the top decile receiving 43 points, decreasing by a point for each decile (so the lowest gets 34 points); 7 points can be awarded for other educational achievements (other degrees and publications), and the EPM points are combined with up to 50 points from the Situational Judgement Test to give a total out of 100.[77][78]

British Grade Point Average

Following the recommendation of the Burgess report into the honours degree classification system in 2007, the Higher Education Academy ran a pilot in 2013–2014 in collaboration with 21 institutions delivering higher education (ranging from Russell Group universities to Further Education colleges) to investigate how a Grade Point Average (GPA) system would work best in Britain. Two main weighting systems were tested: an American-style average of all marks, weighted only by credit value, and weighting by "exit velocity" in the manner of the honours classification, where modules in the first year are given a low or zero weight and modules in the final year have a higher weight (a third model was only rarely used). Over two thirds of providers preferred exit-velocity weighting to the straight average.[79]

A GPA scale, tied to percentage marks and letter grades, was recommended for use nationally following the study, to run in parallel with the honours degree classification system.[79]

Percentage Grade Grade points
75–100 A+ 4.25
71–74 A 4.00
67–70 A- 3.75
64–66 B+ 3.50
61–63 B 3.25
57–60 B- 3.00
54–56 C+ 2.75
50–53 C 2.50
48–49 C- 2.25
43–47 D+ 2.00
40–42 D 1.50
38–39 D- 1.00
35–37 F+ 0.75
30–34 F 0.50
0–29 F- 0.00

See also

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Academic grading in Bangladesh

This article is a summary of academic grading in Bangladesh.

Degree evaluation with ″class″ in University (e.g., First Class, Second Class, Third class, Pass)

The bachelor's and master's degrees result of the public universities in Bangladesh, e.g., University of Dhaka, Bangladesh National University, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Rajshahi University, University of Chittagong, can be classified according to the British undergraduate degree classification system, when it is evaluated with class grade. GPA above or equal to 3 is equal to 1st Class in honours degree in Bangladesh.

This means,

CGPA 3.00 to 4.00 = 1st Class

CGPA 2.50 to 2.9999 = 2nd Class

CGPA 2.00 to 2.4999 = 3rd Class

BRAC University, American International University-Bangladesh, United International University, North South University, East West University and university of liberal arts Bangladesh follows North American grading standards, so their grading policy is different to those of typical Bangladeshi Universities.

Academic grading in the United Kingdom

This is an article about the grading used below degree level in most of the United Kingdom. The entire United Kingdom does not use the same grading scheme (grades are referred to as marks (points) in the UK). For a degree level, see British undergraduate degree classification.

Alasdair Clayre

Alasdair George S. Clayre (9 October 1935 – 10 January 1984) was a British author, broadcaster, singer-songwriter, and academic.

Bachelor of Science

A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts (BA) by one university but as a BS by another, and some universities offer the choice of either. Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences, while some universities offer only the BS even in non-science fields. At universities that offer both BA and BS degrees in the same discipline, the BS degree is usually more extensive in that particular discipline and is targeted towards students who are pursuing graduate school or a profession in that field.Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service awards Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degrees to all of its undergraduates, although many students major in humanities-oriented fields such as international history or culture and politics. The London School of Economics offers BSc degrees in practically all subject areas, even those normally associated with arts degrees, while the Oxbridge universities almost exclusively award arts qualifications. In both instances, there are historical and traditional reasons. Northwestern University's School of Communication grants BSc degrees in all of its programs of study, including theater, dance, and radio/television/film. University of California, Berkeley grants BS degree in Environmental Economics and Policy in College of Natural Resources (CNR), BS degree in Business Administration in Haas School of Business and BA degree in Environmental Economics and Policy in College of Letters and Science (L&S). Cornell University offers a BS degree in Computer Science from its College of Engineering and a BA degree in Computer Science from its College of Arts and Sciences.

The first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. Prior to this, science subjects were included in the BA bracket, notably in the cases of mathematics, physics, physiology and botany.

Double first class

Double first class may refer to:

British undergraduate degree classification#Variations of first-class honours, a classification of honors in the British undergraduate education

Double First Class University Plan, a university development plan implemented in China to create first class universities and disciplines

First

First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1).

First or 1st may also refer to:

World record, specifically the first instance of a particular achievement

Honors student

An honor student is a student recognized for achieving high grades or high marks in their coursework at school.

Honours degree

The term "honours degree" (or "honors degree") has various meanings in the context of different degrees and education systems. Most commonly it refers to a variant of the undergraduate bachelor's degree containing a larger volume of material or a higher standard of study, or both, rather than an "ordinary", "general" or "pass" bachelor's degree. Honours degrees are sometimes indicated by "Hons" after the degree abbreviation, with various punctuation according to local custom, e.g. "BA (Hons)", "B.A., Hons", etc.

Examples of honours degree include the honors bachelor's degree in the United States, the bachelor's degree with honours in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka and India, the honours bachelor's degree in Ireland, the bachelor with honours and bachelor honours degree in New Zealand, the bachelor with honours and honours bachelor's degree in Canada, and the bachelor honours degree in Australia. In South Africa the bachelor honours degree is a postgraduate degree that follows on from the completion of a bachelor's degree. The undergraduate master of arts degree awarded by the ancient universities of Scotland in place of the bachelor of arts may be awarded as an honours or non-honours degree; these are at the same level as equivalent bachelor's degrees. At master's level, the integrated master's degrees in British universities, which students enter at the same level as bachelor's degrees, are also honours degrees. Honours degrees should not be confused with the Latin honors attached to degrees in the US and some other countries.

Many universities and colleges offer both honours and non-honours bachelor's degrees. In most countries where honours degrees are granted, they imply a higher level of achievement than a non-honours degree.

In some countries (e.g. Canada or Australia), an honours degree may also involve a longer period of study than a non-honours degree. Students who complete all the requirements for a non-honours bachelor's degree but do not receive sufficient merit to be awarded the honours degree would normally be awarded the non-honours degree (also known as a "pass", "general" or "ordinary" degree). In England, Northern Ireland and Wales, almost all bachelor's degrees are awarded as honours degrees; in contrast, honours degrees are rarely awarded in the United States.

The current British undergraduate degree classification system, with its division into first, upper and lower second, and third class honours, was developed in 1918 to distinguish between students on the basis of their academic achievement. The concept of an "honours" degree goes back a lot further than this, however, with there being examinations for honours in the original regulations of the University of London in 1839, and Nevil Maskelyne being recorded as taking a bachelor's degree with honours at Cambridge in 1754. Other countries influenced by this system include Australia, Brunei, Canada, New Zealand, Malta, Singapore, South Africa and Hong Kong.

Index of Mauritius-related articles

For a list by topic, see list of Mauritius-related topicsThe following is an index of Mauritius-related topics by alphabetical order.

Latin honors

Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is primarily used in the United States, many countries of continental Europe, and some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although some institutions use translations of these phrases rather than the Latin originals. The honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries.

Generally, a college's or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction. For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, or to graduate early. Each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary widely it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement. Similarly, some institutions may grant equivalent (or additional) non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing.These honors, when they are used, are almost always awarded to undergraduates earning their bachelor's, and, with the exception of law school graduates, much more rarely to graduate students receiving their master's or doctorate degree. The honor is typically indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are often conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J.D., in which case they are generally based upon class rank or grade point average.

Major (academic)

An academic major is the academic discipline to which an undergraduate student formally commits. A student who successfully completes all courses required for the major qualifies for an undergraduate degree. The word "major" is also sometimes used administratively to refer to the academic discipline pursued by a graduate student or postgraduate student in a master's or doctoral program.

An academic major typically requires completion of a combination of prescribed and elective courses in the chosen discipline. In addition, most colleges and universities require that all students take a general core curriculum in the liberal arts. The latitude a student has in choosing courses varies from program to program. An academic major is administered by select faculty in an academic department. A major administered by more than one academic department is called an interdisciplinary major. In some settings, students may be permitted to design their own major, subject to faculty approval.

In the US, students are usually not required to choose their major discipline when first enrolling as an undergraduate. Normally students are required to commit by the end of their second academic year at latest, and some schools even disallow students from declaring a major until this time. A student who declares two academic majors is said to have a double major. A coordinate major is an ancillary major designed to complement the primary one. A coordinate major requires fewer course credits to complete.

Master of Biochemistry

A Master in Biochemistry (MBiochem or MBioch) degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of Biochemistry.

Master of Chemistry

A Master of Chemistry (or M.Chem) degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of Chemistry.

Master of Physics

A Master of Physics (or MPhys (Hons) ) honours degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of physics.

Minor (academic)

An academic minor is a college or university student's declared secondary academic discipline during their undergraduate studies. As with a major, the college or university in question lays out a framework of required classes or class types a student must complete to earn the minor—although the latitude the student is given changes from college to college. Academic minors and majors differ in that the former is subordinate to the latter. To obtain an academic minor, a total of three years of study at a university in a selected subject is the usual requirement.

Some students will prepare for their intended career with their major, while pursuing personal interests with a minor, for example, majoring in civil engineering while minoring in a foreign language or performing arts. Other students may pursue a minor to provide specific specialization and thus make themselves more attractive to employers. It is not infrequent for a physics major to minor in computer science, or an engineering or economics student to minor in mathematics. Students intending to become secondary education teachers often major in their teaching subject area (for example, history or chemistry) and minor in education.

Third class

Third class may refer to:

TransportationEconomy class, a class of travel accommodationsEducationThird class degree; see British undergraduate degree classification

Third class (classe de troisième), a French education level; see National diploma (France)FinanceClass III, a level of creditor; see Preferential creditorComputingThird class objects; see First-class citizenArt and cultureThe Third-Class Carriage (Le Wagon de troisième classe), painting by Honoré Daumier

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