British Summer Time

During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.[1][2]

BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995, the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union have been aligned[3] – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET, which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March and fourth Sunday in October.[4]

The following table lists recent-past and near-future start and end dates of British Summer Time:[5]

Year Start End
2016 27 March 30 October
2017 26 March 29 October
2018 25 March 28 October
2019 31 March 27 October
2020 29 March 25 October
2021 28 March 31 October
2022 27 March 30 October
British Summer Time
World Time Zones Map
  British Summer Time
UTC offset
BSTUTC+01:00
Current time
11:12, 16 February 2019 GMT [refresh]
Observance of DST
This time zone is only used for DST. For the rest of the year, GMT is used.
Time zones of Europe
Time in Europe:
light blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
red Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
yellow Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
golden Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
light green Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed.

Instigation and early years

Early history

British Summer Time was first established by the Summer Time Act 1916, after a campaign by builder William Willett. His original proposal was to move the clocks forward by 80 minutes, in 20-minute weekly steps on Sundays in April and by the reverse procedure in September.[6] In 1916, BST began on 21 May and ended on 1 October.[7] Willett never got to see his idea implemented, having died in early 1915.

Periods of deviation

In the summers of 1941 to 1945, during the Second World War, Britain was two hours ahead of GMT and operating on British Double Summer Time (BDST). To bring this about, the clocks were not put back by an hour at the end of summer in 1940; in subsequent years, clocks continued to be advanced by one hour each spring and put back by an hour each autumn until July 1945. The clocks were brought back in line with GMT at the end of summer in 1947.[8][9]

An inquiry during the winter of 1959–60, in which 180 national organisations were consulted, revealed a slight preference for a change to all-year GMT+1, but instead the length of summer time was extended as a trial.[10] A further inquiry during 1966–1967 led the government of Harold Wilson to introduce the British Standard Time experiment, with Britain remaining on GMT+1 throughout the year. This took place between 27 October 1968 and 31 October 1971, when there was a reversion to the previous arrangement.

Analysis of accident data for the first two years of the experiment, published by HMSO in October 1970, indicated that while there had been an increase in casualties in the morning, there had been a substantially greater decrease in casualties in the evening, with a total of around 2,500 fewer people killed and seriously injured during the first two winters of the experiment,[11][12] at a time when about 1,000 people a day were killed or injured on the roads.[13][14] However, the period coincided with the introduction of drink-driving legislation; the estimates were later modified downwards in 1989.[12]

The trial was the subject of a House of Commons debate on 2 December 1970[15] when, on a free vote, the House of Commons voted by 366 to 81 votes to end the experiment.[16]

Debates on reform

Campaigners, including the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) and environmental campaigners 10:10, have made recommendations that British Summer Time be maintained during the winter months, and that a "double summertime" be applied to the current British Summer Time period, putting the UK one hour ahead of GMT during winter, and two hours ahead during summer. This proposal is referred to as "Single/Double Summer Time" (SDST), and would effectively mean the UK adopting the same time zone as European countries such as France, Germany, and mainland Spain (Central European Time and Central European Summer Time).

RoSPA has suggested that this would reduce the number of accidents over this period as a result of the lighter evenings. RoSPA have called for the 1968–71 trial to be repeated with modern evaluation methods.[17]

10:10's "Lighter Later" campaign, in addition to publicising the risk reductions described above, also highlights the potential energy benefits of Single/Double Summer Time, arguing that the change could "save almost 500,000 tonnes of CO2 each year, equivalent to taking 185,000 cars off the road permanently".[18]

These proposals are opposed by some farmers and other outdoor workers and by many residents of Scotland and Northern Ireland, [19] as it would mean that in northern Britain and Northern Ireland the winter sunrise would not occur until 10:00 or even later. However, in March 2010, the National Farmers' Union indicated that it was not against Single/Double Summer Time, with many farmers expressing a preference for the change.[20] Other opponents of daylight saving measures say that darker mornings, especially in Scotland, could affect children going to school and people travelling to work.

Others have proposed the abolition of BST entirely, favouring GMT all year round. Advocates of this cite in their support a lack of practical gains from the adjustment of time, arguing instead that changes in school or business hours would achieve similar results without disrupting a scientific standard.

Current statute and parliamentary attempts at change

The current arrangement is now defined by the Summer Time Order 2002 which defines BST as "... the period beginning at one o'clock, Greenwich mean time, in the morning of the last Sunday in March and ending at one o'clock, Greenwich mean time, in the morning of the last Sunday in October."[21] This period was stipulated by a directive (2000/84/EC) of the European Parliament which required European countries to implement a common summer time (as originally introduced in 1997, in Directive 97/44/EC).[22]

In part because of Britain's longitudinal length, debate emerges most years over the applicability of BST, and the issue is the subject of parliamentary debate. In 2004, English MP Nigel Beard tabled a Private Member's Bill in the House of Commons proposing that England and Wales should be able to determine their own time independently of Scotland and Northern Ireland.

In 2005, Lord Tanlaw introduced the Lighter Evenings (Experiment) Bill[23] into the House of Lords, which would advance winter and summer time by one hour for a three-year trial period at the discretion of "devolved bodies", allowing Scotland and Northern Ireland the option not to take part. The proposal was opposed by the government. The bill received its second reading on 24 March 2006; however, it did not pass into law.[24] The Local Government Association has also called for such a trial.[25]

Daylight Saving Bill 2010–12

The Daylight Saving Bill 2010–12, a private member's bill by Conservative backbench MP Rebecca Harris, would have required the government to conduct an analysis of the potential costs and benefits of advancing time by one hour for all, or part of, the year. If such an analysis were to find that a clock change would benefit the UK, the bill required that the government should then initiate a trial clock change to determine the full effects.[26]

In 2010, Prime Minister David Cameron stated he would seriously consider proposals in the bill. The bill was only likely to be passed with government support. Despite initial opposition in Scotland to the move, Cameron stated his preference was for the change to apply across the United Kingdom, stating "We are a United Kingdom. I want us to have a united time zone."[27] A survey in late October 2010 of about 3,000 people for British energy firm npower suggested that a narrow majority of Scots may be in favour of this change, though the Scottish Government remained opposed.[28]

The bill was debated again in Parliament in November 2011 and sent to committee in December 2011.[29] In January 2012, the bill was again debated on the floor of the House of Commons where it was filibustered out of Parliament by opponents.[30] Angus MacNeil, MP for Na h-Eileanan an Iar, argued that it would adversely affect the population of Northern Scotland, while Jacob Rees-Mogg, MP for North East Somerset, tried to introduce an amendment to give Somerset its own time zone, 15 minutes behind London, in order to highlight what he saw as the absurdities of the bill.[31][32] With all its allocated time used up, the bill could proceed no further through Parliament.[33]

European Union bill 2018–

The commission of the European Union has after investigating the opinion among people, in 2018 proposed to abandon summer time in the European Union. The legislative bodies, that is the council and the parliament have supported this, although with a slower timetable than proposed. The time of introduction is 2021. UK is after having left the EU not bound by this, but might have to consider following it. See Summer Time in Europe#Future.

See also

References

  1. ^ Text of the Summer Time Act 1972 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
  2. ^ Text of the Interpretation Act 1978 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
  3. ^ "Summer Time Dates". National Physical Laboratory. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "When Do the Clocks Change?", Gov.uk. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  6. ^ Rose Wild "The battle for British Summer Time", The Times, 6 May 2010
  7. ^ Oliver Bennett "British Summer Time and the Daylight Saving Bill 2010–11", House of Commons Library, p. 4 (last updated 6 January 2012)
  8. ^ Hollingshead, Iain (June 2006). "Whatever happened to Double Summer Time?". The Guardian.
  9. ^ Cockburn, Jay (2016-03-26). "The time when the clocks changed by more than an hour". BBC Newsbeat. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
  10. ^ David Ennals "British Standard Times Bill [Lords]", Hansard, House of Commomns Debate, 23 January 1968, vol 757 cc290-366, 290–92
  11. ^ Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents information sheet on the BST Experiment
  12. ^ a b Bennett, p.4-5
  13. ^ Cited by Peter Doig, MP, Hansard, HC 2 December 1970, c1354
  14. ^ Keep, Matthew (12 March 2013). "Reported Road Accident Statistics". Social and General Statistics Section, House of Commons Library. p. 4. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  15. ^ "British Standard Time", Hansard (HC), 2 December 1970, vol 807 cc1331-422
  16. ^ Bennett, p.6
  17. ^ "Press Release October 22, 2008 It's Time for a Change to Save Lives and Reduce Injuries". RoSPA Press Office. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009."British Summer Time (BST)". NMM – National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009.
  18. ^ Jha, Alok (29 March 2010). "Lighter Later Guardian Article". The Guardian. London.
  19. ^ "'Time for change' call as clocks alter in UK". BBC. 30 October 2010.
  20. ^ "Should We Change the Clocks?". National Farmers Union. 18 March 2010. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  21. ^ "Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 262 The Summer Time Order 2002". HMSO. 20 February 2002. ISBN 0-11-039331-7.
  22. ^ European Parliament, Council (19 January 2001). "Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements". EUR-Lex. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  23. ^ "Lighter Evenings (Experiment) Bill [HL]". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  24. ^ "Lighter Evenings (Experiment) Bill".
  25. ^ "Clock change 'would save lives'". BBC News. 28 October 2006.
  26. ^ Oliver Bennett "Daylight Saving Bill 2010–11" Archived 4 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, House of Commons Library, (last updated 1 December 2010)
  27. ^ Kirkup, James (12 August 2010). "Give me sunshine: David Cameron considers double summertime". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  28. ^ "Scots back 'keeping' summer time". BBC News. 29 October 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  29. ^ "Bill stages — Daylight Saving Bill 2010–12".
  30. ^ "Conservative backbenchers halt effort to move clocks forward". 21 January 2012.
  31. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debate for 20 Jan 2012 (pt 0001)".
  32. ^ Jacob Rees-Mogg Proposes Somerset Time Zone.
  33. ^ "Daylight Saving Bill 2010–12".

Further reading

External links

British Summer Time (concerts)

Barclaycard presents British Summer Time Hyde Park (BST Hyde Park) is a music festival held over two weekends once a year in London's Hyde Park. It was the first event AEG Presents held in Hyde Park since they acquired the rights to host concerts there, and features a wide range of musical genres. Since 2013, BST Hyde Park has seen headliners such as The Rolling Stones, Bon Jovi, Lionel Richie, Kylie Minogue, Black Sabbath, Neil Young, The Libertines, Arcade Fire, The Who, Blur, The Strokes and Taylor Swift. In 2018, headliners included Roger Waters, The Cure, Eric Clapton, Michael Bublé, Bruno Mars and Paul Simon.

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.

As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October).A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time.

Dougie Poynter

Dougie Lee Poynter (born 30 November 1987) is an English musician, songwriter, fashion model, clothing designer, author, actor and philanthropist. He is the bassist and youngest member of the pop rock band McFly, as well as bassist for A. In 2018, he formed the rock band INK. with fellow members, Todd Dorigo, vocals and guitar, and Corey Alexander, drums.

Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+03:00 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) is used.

Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

English speakers often use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); but this meaning can differ from UTC by up to 0.9 s. The term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes.Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time".

Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon, while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Moscow Time

Moscow Time (Russian: моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 permanently on 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round since 27 March 2011.Moscow Time is used to schedule trains, ships, etc. throughout Russia, but airplane travel is scheduled using local time. Trains are going to follow local time by 1 August. Times in Russia are often announced throughout the country on radio stations as Moscow Time, which is also registered in telegrams, etc. Descriptions of time zones in Russia are often based on Moscow Time rather than UTC. For example, Yakutsk (UTC+09:00) is said to be MSK+6 in Russia.

Never Ending Tour 2019

The Never Ending Tour is the popular name for Bob Dylan's endless touring schedule since June 7, 1988.

South Lakeland

South Lakeland is a local government district in Cumbria, England. The population of the non-metropolitan district at the 2011 Census was 103,658. Its council is based in Kendal. It includes much of the Lake District as well as northwestern parts of the Yorkshire Dales.

The district was created on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. It was formed from the Kendal borough, Windermere urban district, most of Lakes urban district, South Westmorland Rural District, from Westmorland, Grange and Ulverston urban districts and North Lonsdale Rural District from Lancashire, and Sedbergh Rural District from the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Stop Draggin' My Heart Around

"Stop Draggin' My Heart Around" was the first single from Stevie Nicks' debut solo album, Bella Donna (1981). The track is the album's only song that was neither written nor co-written by Nicks. Written by Tom Petty and Mike Campbell as a Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers song, Jimmy Iovine, who was also working for Stevie Nicks at the time, arranged for her to sing on it. Petty sang with Nicks in the chorus and bridge, while his entire band (save Ron Blair, whose bass track was played by Donald "Duck" Dunn instead) played on the song.

A performance of the song in the studio was used as the promotional video. The video was the 25th video to be played on MTV's launch date on August 1, 1981. Petty and Nicks also sang together on the songs "Insider" (from Petty's 1981 album, Hard Promises) and "I Will Run to You" (from Nicks' 1983 album, The Wild Heart), and frequently performed impromptu live versions of these and 1960s classic "Needles and Pins" in many shows throughout the 1980s.

As of 2017, "Stop Draggin' My Heart Around" remains a mainstay of Stevie Nicks's solo performances, and on July 9, 2017, Nicks performed the song together with Petty and the Heartbreakers at the British Summer Time festival at Hyde Park in London, in what turned out to be their final performance of the song together before Petty's death in October 2017.

The song peaked at No. 3 on the American Billboard Hot 100 for six consecutive weeks. However, in the UK, the song only managed to peak at No. 50. The song also appeared in the 1981 film Taps.

Time in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom uses Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time (UTC) and British Summer Time or Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00).

West Africa Time

West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset). West Africa Time is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01), which makes it the same as Central European Time (CET) during winter, or Western European Summer Time (WEST) and British Summer Time (BST) during the summer.

As most of this time zone is in the tropical region, there is little change in day length throughout the year, so daylight saving time is not observed.

West Africa Time is used by the following countries:

Algeria (as Central European Time)

Angola

Benin

Chad

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Democratic Republic of the Congo (western side only)

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

Morocco (as Greenwich Mean Time + 1 hour)

Niger

Nigeria

Republic of the Congo

Tunisia (as Central European Time)

Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

the Canary Islands

Portugal (including Madeira but not the Azores)

Ireland

the United Kingdom

the British Crown dependencies

the Faroe IslandsWestern European Summer Time is known in the countries concerned as:

British Summer Time (BST) in the United Kingdom.

Irish Standard Time (IST) (Am Caighdeánach na hÉireann (ACÉ)) in Ireland. Also sometimes erroneously referred to as "Irish Summer Time" (Am Samhraidh na hÉireann).The scheme runs from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year. At both the start and end of the schemes, clock changes take place at 01:00 UTC+00:00. During the winter, Western European Time (WET, GMT+0 or UTC±00:00) is used.

The start and end dates of the scheme are asymmetrical in terms of daylight hours: the vernal time of year with a similar amount of daylight to late October is mid-February, well before the start of summer time. The asymmetry reflects temperature more than the length of daylight.

Ireland observes Irish Standard Time during the summer months and changes to UTC±00:00 in winter. As Ireland's winter time period begins on the last Sunday in October and finishes on the last Sunday in March, the result is the same as if it observed summer time.

Western European Time

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe. The following countries and regions use WET in winter months:

Canary Islands, since 1946 (rest of Spain is CET, UTC+01:00)

Faroe Islands, since 1908

North Eastern Greenland (Danmarkshavn and surrounding area)

Iceland, since 1968, without summer time changes

Portugal, since 1912 with pauses (except Azores, UTC−01:00)

Madeira islands, since 1912 with pauses

Ireland (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1916, except between 1968 and 1971

United Kingdom and Crown dependencies (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1847 in England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, and since 1916 in Northern Ireland, with pausesAll the above countries except Iceland implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET. WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is officially known as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but the WET zone does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain which use Central European Time (CET), although these are mostly (France) or completely (the rest) west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland are included although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to WET.

William Willett

William Willett (10 August 1856 – 4 March 1915) was a British builder and a tireless promoter of British Summer Time.

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