British Americans

British American usually refers to Americans whose ancestral origin originates wholly or partly in the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). In the 2017 American Community Survey 1,891,234 individuals or 0.6% of the responses self-identified as British.[1] It is primarily a demographic or historical research category for people who have at least partial descent from peoples of Great Britain and the modern United Kingdom, i.e. English, Scottish, Welsh, Scotch-Irish, Manx and Cornish Americans. There has been a significant drop overall, especially from the 1980 census where 49.59 million people reported English ancestry.[3]

Demographers regard current figures as a serious under-count, as a large proportion of Americans of British descent have a tendency to identify as 'American' since 1980 where over 13.3 million or 5.9% of the total U.S. population self-identified as "American" or "United States", this was counted under "not specified".[4] This response is highly overepresented in the Upland South a region settled historically by the British.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Many of mixed European ancestry, may identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.[11] Of the top ten family names in the United States (2010), seven have English origins or having possible mixed British Isles heritage, the other three being of Spanish origin.[12]

Not to be confused when the term is also used in an entirely different (although possibly overlapping) sense to refer to people who are dual citizens of both the United Kingdom and the United States.

British Americans
Flag of the United Kingdom
Flag of the United States
Total population
Self-identified as British
1,891,234Increase (2017)[1]
0.6% of the total U.S. population.
Other estimates: 72,065,000 [2]
23.3% of the total U.S. population
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the entire United States except parts of the Midwest
Predominantly in the South, Northeast and West regions.
Languages
English (American English, British English), Goidelic languages, Scots, Welsh
Religion
Christian
Mainly Protestant (especially Baptist, Congregationalist, Episcopalian, Methodist, Presbyterian and Quaker) and to a lesser extent Catholic and Mormon
Related ethnic groups

Sense of heritage

United Kingdom United States Locator
     UK       United States.

Americans of British heritage are often seen, and identify, as simply "American" due to the many historic, linguistic and cultural ties between Great Britain and the U.S. and their influence on the country's population. A leading specialist, Charlotte Erickson, found them to be ethnically "invisible,".[13] This may be due to the early establishment of British settlements; as well as to non-English groups having emigrated in order to establish significant communities.[14]

Number of British Americans

Table below shows the results from 1980 when ancestry was first collected by the U.S. census and the 2010 American Community Survey. Response rates for the ancestry question was 90.4% in 1990 and 80.1% in 2000 for the total US population.

American Ancestrial Plurality (2010)
British American plurality in light green. (2010)
Year Ancestral origin Number % of population
British; totals 61,327,867 31.67%
1980 English 49,598,035 26.34%
Scottish 10,048,816 4.44%
Welsh 1,664,598 0.88%
Northern Irelander 16,418 0.01%
Total 46,816,175 18.8%
1990 English 32,651,788 13.1%
Scottish 5,393,581 2.2%
Scotch-Irish 5,617,773 2.3%
Welsh 2,033,893 0.8%
British 1,119,140 0.4%
Total 36,564,465 12.9%
2000 English 24,515,138 8.7%
Scottish 4,890,581 1.7%
Scotch-Irish 4,319,232 1.5%
Welsh 1,753,794 0.6%
British 1,085,720 0.4%
Total 37,619,881 14.4%
2010 English 25,927,345 8.4%
Scottish 5,460,679 3.1%
Scotch-Irish 3,257,161 1.9%
Welsh 1,793,356 0.6%
British 1,181,340 0.4%
Source:United States Census Bureau.[15][16][17][18][19]

Studies on origins, 1790

The ancestry of the 3,929,214 population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources by sampling last names in the very first United States official census and assigning them a country of origin.[20] There is debate over the accuracy between the studies with individual scholars and the Federal Government using different techniques and conclusion for the ethnic composition.[21][20] A study published in 1909 titled A Century of Population Growth by the Census Bureau estimated the British origin combined were around 90% of the white population.[22][23][24]

Another source by Thomas L. Purvis in 1984[25] estimated that people of British ancestry made up about 62% of the total population or 74% of the white or European American population.[26] Some 81% of the total United States population was of European heritage.[27] Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves.[28]

1980

The 1980 census was the first that asked people's ancestry.[29] The 1980 United States Census reported 61,327,867 individuals or 31.67% of the total U.S. population self-identitfied as having British descent. In 1980 16,418 Americans reported ‘Northern Islander’. No Scots-Irish (descendants of Ulster-Scots) ancestry was recorded, however over ten million people identified as Scottish.[30] This figure fell to over 5 million each in the following census when the Scotch-Irish were first counted.[31]

1990

Over 90.4% of the United States population reported at least one ancestry, 9.6% (23,921,371) individuals as "not stated" with a total of 11.0% being "not specified".[32] Additional responses were Cornish (3,991), Northern Irish 4,009 and Manx 6,317.[33]

2000

Most of the population who stated their ancestry as "American" (20,625,093 or 7.3%) are said to be of old colonial British stock.[34]

Comparison between the 1790 and 2000 census
1790 estimates[35] 2000 Census[36]
Ancestry Number % of total Ancestry Number % of total
English 2,605,699 66.3 German 42,885,162 15.2
Other Race 756,770 19.3 African 36,419,434 12.9
Scottish 221,562 5.6 Irish 30,594,130 10.9
German 176,407 4.5 English 24,515,138 8.7
Dutch 78,959 2.0 Mexican 20,640,711 7.3
Irish 61,534 1.6 Italian 15,723,555 5.6
French 17,619 0.4 French 10,846,018 3.9
Other European 10,664 0.3 Hispanic 10,017,244 3.6
Polish 8,977,444 3.2
Scottish 4,890,581 1.7
Dutch 4,542,494 1.6
Norwegian 4,477,725 1.6
Scotch-Irish 4,319,232 1.5
United States 3,929,214 [37] 100 United States 281,421,906 100

Geographical distribution

English1346
English
Census Bureau Scottish Americans in the United States
Scottish
Scotch irish1346
Scots-Irish
Welsh1346
Welsh

Following are the top 10 highest percentage of people of English, Scottish and Welsh ancestry, in U.S. communities with 500 or more total inhabitants (for the total list of the 101 communities, see references)[38][39][40]

English

  1. Hildale, UT 66.9%
  2. Colorado City, AZ 52.7%
  3. Milbridge, ME 41.1%
  4. Panguitch, UT 40.0%
  5. Beaver, UT 39.8%
  6. Enterprise, UT 39.4%
  7. East Machias, ME 39.1%
  8. Marriott-Slaterville, UT 38.2%
  9. Wellsville, UT 37.9%
  10. Morgan, UT 37.2%

Scottish

  1. Lonaconing, MD town 16.1%
  2. Jordan, IL township 12.6%
  3. Scioto, OH township 12.1%
  4. Randolph, IN township 10.2%
  5. Franconia, NH town 10.1%
  6. Topsham, VT town 10.0%
  7. Ryegate, VT town 9.9%
  8. Plainfield, VT town 9.8%
  9. Saratoga Springs, UT town 9.7%
  10. Barnet, VT town 9.5%

Welsh

  1. Malad City, ID city 21.1
  2. Remsen, NY town 14.6
  3. Oak Hill, OH village 13.6
  4. Madison, OH township 12.7
  5. Steuben, NY town 10.9
  6. Franklin, OH township 10.5
  7. Plymouth, PA borough 10.3
  8. Jackson, OH city 10.0
  9. Lake, PA township 9.9
  10. Radnor, OH township 9.8

History

Overview

The British diaspora consists of the scattering of British people and their descendants who emigrated from the United Kingdom. The diaspora is concentrated in countries that had mass migration such as the United States and that are part of the English-speaking world. A 2006 publication from the Institute for Public Policy Research estimated 5.6 million British-born people lived outside of the United Kingdom.[41][42]

After the Age of Discovery the British were one of the earliest and largest communities to emigrate out of Europe, and the British Empire's expansion during the first half of the 19th century saw an "extraordinary dispersion of the British people", with particular concentrations "in Australasia and North America".[43]

The British Empire was "built on waves of migration overseas by British people",[44] who left the United Kingdom and "reached across the globe and permanently affected population structures in three continents".[43] As a result of the British colonization of the Americas, what became the United States was "easily the greatest single destination of emigrant British".[43]

Historically in the 1790 United States Census estimate and presently in Australia, Canada and New Zealand "people of British origin came to constitute the majority of the population" contributing to these states becoming integral to the Anglosphere.[44] There is also a significant population of people with British ancestry in South Africa.

Colonial period

An English presence in North America began with the Roanoke Colony and Colony of Virginia in the late-16th century, but the first successful English settlement was established in 1607, on the James River at Jamestown. By the 1610s an estimated 1,300 English people had travelled to North America, the "first of many millions from the British Isles".[45] In 1620 the Pilgrims established the English imperial venture of Plymouth Colony, beginning "a remarkable acceleration of permanent emigration from England" with over 60% of trans-Atlantic English migrants settling in the New England Colonies.[45] During the 17th century an estimated 350,000 English and Welsh migrants arrived in North America, which in the century after the Acts of Union 1707 was surpassed in rate and number by Scottish and Irish migrants.[46]

Declaration of Independence (1819), by John Trumbull
John Trumbull's famous painting, Declaration of Independence. Most of the Founding Fathers had British ancestors.

The British policy of salutary neglect for its North American colonies intended to minimize trade restrictions as a way of ensuring they stayed loyal to British interests.[47] This permitted the development of the American Dream, a cultural spirit distinct from that of its European founders.[47] The Thirteen Colonies of British America began an armed rebellion against British rule in 1775 when they rejected the right of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them without representation; they proclaimed their independence in 1776, and subsequently constituted the first thirteen states of the United States of America, which became a sovereign state in 1781 with the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. The 1783 Treaty of Paris represented Great Britain's formal acknowledgement of the United States' sovereignty at the end of the American Revolutionary War.[48]

In the original 13 colonies, most laws contained elements found in the English common law system.[49]

The majority—97%-- of the Founding Fathers of the United States were of mixed British extraction. English extraction characterised 57%, Scottish were 16%, 19% were Irish or Scots-Irish, and 5% were Welsh. A minority were of high social status and can be classified as White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP). Many of the prewar WASP elite were Loyalists who left the new nation.[50]

The Great Rapprochement
Uncle Sam embracing John Bull, while Britannia and Columbia hold hands and sit together in the background (1898).

Immigration after 1776

British immigration to the U.S. 1820-2000
Period Arrivals Period Arrivals Period Arrivals
1820-1830 27,489 1901-1910 525,950 1981-1990 159,173
1831-1840 75,810 1911-1920 341,408 1991-2000 151,866
1841-1850 267,044 1921-1930 339,570
1851-1860 423,974 1931-1940 31,572
1861-1870 606,896 1941-1950 139,306
1871-1880 548,043 1951-1960 202,824
1881-1890 807,357 1961-1970 213,822
1891-1900 271,538 1971-1980 137,374
Total arrivals: 5,271,016[51][52][53][54]

Nevertheless, longstanding cultural and historical ties have, in more modern times, resulted in the Special Relationship, the exceptionally close political, diplomatic and military co-operation of United Kingdom – United States relations.[55] Linda Colley, a professor of history at Princeton University and specialist in Britishness, suggested that because of their colonial influence on the United States, the British find Americans a "mysterious and paradoxical people, physically distant but culturally close, engagingly similar yet irritatingly different".[56]

For over two centuries (1789-1989) of early American history, all Presidents with the exception of two (Van Buren and Kennedy) were descended from the varied colonial British stock, from the Pilgrims and Puritans to the Scotch-Irish and English who settled the Appalachia.[57]

Cultural roots

Much of American culture shows influences from nation states of British culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.[58] Summarised as follows:

Historical influence

Apple pieNew England was the first region to experience large-scale English colonization in the early 17th century, beginning in 1620, and it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans. Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders and was the origin of dishes seen today as quintessentially "American", such as apple pie and the oven-roasted Thanksgiving turkey.[63] "As American as apple pie" is a well-known phrase used to suggest that something is all-American.

Automakers

BuickDavid Dunbar Buick was a Scottish-born American, a Detroit-based inventor, best known for founding the Buick Motor Company.

Motorcycle manufacturer

Founders of Harley-Davidson The North Shore Bulletin Dec 1920
Founders of Harley-Davidson, from left: William A. Davidson, Walter Davidson, Sr., Arthur Davidson and William S. Harley.

Harley-Davidson – The Davidson brothers were of Scottish descent (William. A., Walter and Arthur Davidson) and William S. Harley of English descent. Along with Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Company was the largest and most recognizable American motorcycle manufacturer.[64]

Sports

Baseball - The earliest recorded game of base-ball for which the original source survives, involved none other than the family of the Prince of Wales, played indoors in London in November 1748. The Prince is reported as playing "Bass-Ball" again in September 1749 in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, against Lord Middlesex.[65] The English lawyer William Bray wrote in his diary that he had played a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, also in Surrey.[66][67] English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, Surrey; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008.[68][69] This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America by British immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball. Today, Rounders which has been played in England since Tudor times holds a similarity to Baseball. Although, literary references to early forms of "base-ball" in the United Kingdom pre-date use of the term "rounders".[70]

Continental Colours, 1775-1777

Flag of the United States (1776–1777)
Grand union flag with the thirteen stripes representing the Thirteen colonies.

The Grand Union Flag is considered to be the first national flag of the United States.[71] The design consisted of 13 stripes, red and white, representing the original Thirteen Colonies, the canton on the upper left-hand corner bearing the British Union Flag, the red cross of St. George of England with the white cross of St. Andrew of Scotland. The flag was first flown on December 2, 1775 by John Paul Jones (then a Continental Navy lieutenant) on the ship Alfred in Philadelphia).[72]

Place names

Alabama

Connecticut

Delaware

Maryland

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New York State

Pennsylvania

Virginia

In addition, some places were named after the kings and queens of the former kingdoms of England and Ireland. The name Virginia was first applied by Queen Elizabeth I (the "Virgin Queen") and Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584.,[81] the Carolinas were named after King Charles I and Maryland named so for his wife, Queen Henrietta Maria (Queen Mary).[82]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "About Ancestry.co.uk". Ancestry.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  3. ^ Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 (Supplementary Report PC80-S1-10) Issued: April 1983
  4. ^ Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 (Supplementary Report PC80-S1-10) Issued: April 1983
  5. ^ Ethnic Landscapes of America - By John A. Cross
  6. ^ Census and you: monthly news from the U.S. Bureau... Volume 28, Issue 2 - By United States. Bureau of the Census
  7. ^ Dominic J. Pulera. Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America.
  8. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  9. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  10. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  11. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.
  12. ^ Frequently Occurring Surnames from the 2010 Census - United States Census Bureau
  13. ^ Charlotte Erickson, Invisible immigrants: the adaptation of English and Scottish immigrants in nineteenth-century America (1990)
  14. ^ Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C. (1988). "From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Groups in Contemporary America". Russell Sage Foundation.
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  20. ^ a b Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C. (20 September 1988). "From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Groups in Contemporary America". Russell Sage Foundation. Retrieved 21 August 2017 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ People of Western European origin - CSun
  22. ^ A century of population growth from the first census of the United States to the twelfth - by United States. Bureau of the Census
  23. ^ A Century of Population Growth From the First to the Twelfth. First published 1909.
  24. ^ Surnames in the United States Census of 1790: An Analysis of National Origins of the Population - By American Council of Learned Societies. Committee on Linguistic and National Stocks in the Population of the United States
  25. ^ The European Ancestry of the United States Population, 1790: A Symposium - Thomas L. Purvis (1984)
  26. ^ The European Ancestry of the United States Population, 1790: A Symposium - Thomas L. Purvis (1984)
  27. ^ Historical U.S. population by race Archived 2010-02-25 at WebCite
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  35. ^ Samuel Peter Orth. Our Foreigners: A Chronicle of Americans in the Making.
  36. ^ Szucs, Loretto Dennis; Luebking, Sandra Hargreaves (2006). The Source. Books.google.com. ISBN 9781593312770. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
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  38. ^ "Scottish Ancestry Search - Scottish Genealogy by City". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  39. ^ "Top 101 cities with the most residents of English ancestry (population 500+)". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
  40. ^ "Welsh Ancestry Search - Welsh Genealogy by City". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  41. ^ "Brits Abroad". BBC News. 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
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  44. ^ a b Marshall 2001, p. 254.
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  46. ^ Ember et al 2004, p. 49.
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  48. ^ "Chapter 3: The Road to Independence", Outline of U.S. History, usinfo.state.gov, November 2005, archived from the original on April 9, 2008, retrieved 2008-04-21
  49. ^ "The Colonial Period". Law.jrank.org. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  50. ^ Richard D. Brown, "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A collective view." William and Mary Quarterly (1976) 33#3: 465-480, especially pp 466, 478-79. online
  51. ^ Almost All Aliens: Immigration, Race, and Colonialism in American History ... By Paul Spickard
  52. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States (Page: 89)
  53. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States Immigration by country of origin 1851-1940 (Page: 107)
  54. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States (Page: 92)
  55. ^ James, Wither (March 2006), "An Endangered Partnership: The Anglo-American Defence Relationship in the Early Twenty-first Century", European Security, 15 (1): 47–65, doi:10.1080/09662830600776694, ISSN 0966-2839
  56. ^ Colley 1992, p. 134.
  57. ^ Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America - By David Hackett Fischer (P. 839)
  58. ^ James B. Minahan (2013-03-14). Ethnic Groups of the Americas: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. Books.google.com. p. 9. ISBN 9781610691642. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  59. ^ Fischer, Albion's Seed, pp. 13–206
  60. ^ Fischer, Albion's Seed pp. 207–418
  61. ^ Fischer, Albion's Seed, pp. 419–604
  62. ^ Fischer, Albion's Seed, pp. 605–782
  63. ^ Fischer, pp. 74, 114, 134–39.
  64. ^ "Harley: The Littleport Connection "Without Littleport, there'd be no Harley-Davidson"". clutchandchrome.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  65. ^ "Why isn't baseball more popular in the UK?". Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  66. ^ "Major League Baseball Told: Your Sport Is British, Not American". Telegraph. London. September 11, 2008. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
  67. ^ "History of baseball exposed". BBC News. September 11, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  68. ^ "BBC NEWS - UK - England - Baseball 'origin' uncovered". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  69. ^ "BBC - South Today - Features - Baseball history". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  70. ^ Telegraph staff and agencies (11 September 2008). "Major League Baseball told: Your sport is British, not American". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  71. ^ Popular Mechanics - Oct 1926
  72. ^ Popular Mechanics - Oct 1926
  73. ^ "A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston". Iboston.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
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  75. ^ "ePodunk". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
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  80. ^ "WARMINSTER TOWNSHIP HISTORY". Warminstertownship.org. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  81. ^ In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to lead an exploration of what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional "king" named "Wingina." This was modified later that year by Raleigh and the Queen to "Virginia", perhaps in part noting her status as the "Virgin Queen." Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 22.
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Scholarly sources

  • Oscar Handlin, Ann Orlov and Stephan Thernstrom eds. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980) the standard reference source for all ethnic groups.
  • Rowland Tappan Berthoff. British Immigrants in Industrial America, 1790-1950 (1953).
  • David Hackett Fischer. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways In America (1989).

External links

African Americans in Alabama

African Americans in Alabama are residents of the state of Alabama who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 26.5% of the state's population.

African Americans in California

African-American Californians or Black Californians are residents of the state of California who are of African ancestry. According to U.S. Census Bureau, those identified as African American or black constituted 5.9% or 2,265,387 residents in California in 2015.

African Americans in Florida

African Americans in Florida are residents of the state of Florida who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 16.6% of the state's population. The African-American presence in the peninsula extends as far back as the early 18th century, when African-American slaves escaped from slavery in Georgia into the swamps of the peninsula.

African Americans in Georgia (U.S. state)

African-American Georgians are residents of the U.S. state of Georgia who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 31.2% of the state's population.

African Americans in Louisiana

African Americans in Louisiana are residents of the state of Louisiana who are of African-American ancestry.

African Americans in Mississippi

African Americans in Mississippi are residents of the state of Mississippi who are of African-American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 37.4% of the state's population.

African Americans in North Carolina

African-American North Carolinians are residents of the state of North Carolina who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 22% of the state's population.

American Basketball League (1925–55)

The American Basketball League (ABL) was an early professional basketball league. During six seasons from 1925–26 to 1930–31, the ABL was the first attempt to create a major professional basketball league in the United States. Joseph Carr, who was, in 1925, the president of the recently founded, three year old National Football League, organized the ABL from nine of the best independent pro teams from the East and the Midwest. George Halas of the NFL Chicago Bears was the owner of the Chicago Bruins, and department store magnate Max Rosenblum, a part owner of the NFL's Cleveland Bulldogs, financed the Cleveland Rosenblums. Future NFL (Washington Redskins) owner George Preston Marshall, the owner of a chain of laundries, was owner of the Washington Palace Five. Other teams were the Boston Whirlwinds, Brooklyn Arcadians, Buffalo Bisons, Detroit Pulaski Post Five, Fort Wayne Caseys, and Rochester Centrals. With the exception of 1927–28, the ABL season was divided into two halves, with the winner of the first half playing the winner of the second half for the championship. Five games into the 1926–27 season, the Original Celtics were admitted to replace the Brooklyn franchise, and won 32 of the remaining 37 games, then shifted to New York the following season.

For the 1927–28 season, the ABL had an Eastern (New York, Philadelphia, Rochester and Washington) and Western (Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit and Fort Wayne) division, with the two best teams in each division going to playoffs, and a championship between the playoff winners. Playing in Madison Square Garden, the New York Celtics had a 40–9 record in the regular season and won the championship. At season's end, the champions were voted out of the league by the other owners. The ABL played three more seasons and then, with only five teams playing at the end of 1930–31, folded during the Great Depression.After more than two years, the league was reorganized in 1933, but as an East Coast league, with teams in Pennsylvania and New York City metro area.The league did take some measure to help modernize the game. One of the major issues that had plagued basketball was players jumping from team to team. To combat this, players signed contracts with teams, sometimes for amounts like $1,500 a month, not a bad pay for a time when the average laborer was making $15 a week. Backboard were mandatory, and new rules, such as three second lane violations, and foul outs were implemented. Another rule the ABL implemented was the collegiate rule, which eliminated the double dribble. This was also done to encourage many of the game's top college stars to play in the league.The 1925–26 season saw Cleveland, the second half winner, defeat Brooklyn, winner of the first half of the season, three games to none. The Boston Celtics dropped out of the league. The Celtics were one of the top teams at the time, but refused to join the ABL, instead opting to be an "at Large" member. This conflict resulted in Boston dropping out, and refusing to take part in the second half of the season. One of the early stars for the league was Cleveland's Honey Russell whose 7.4 points was the second highest average in the league. Cleveland drew well, bringing in nearly 10,000 fans a game, while Brooklyn could only draw around 2,000.

Australian Americans

Australian Americans are Americans who have Australian ancestry.

British diaspora

The British diaspora consists of British people and their descendants who emigrated from the present-day United Kingdom, or people who have acquired British Nationality through colonisation. The diaspora is concentrated in countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong, with smaller concentrations in the United States, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, parts of the Caribbean and parts of continental Europe such as Spain. About 1.2 million British citizens live in Australia.Outside of the United Kingdom and its Overseas Territories, the largest proportions of people of self-identified ethnic British descent in the world are found in New Zealand (59%), Australia (46%) and Canada (31%), followed by a considerably smaller minority in the United States (12%) and parts of the Caribbean. The estimate of British Americans is a serious undercount as almost 50 million Americans (25% of the population in the 1980 US census) claimed English or part-English ancestry; 20-35 million have Scots, Scots-Irish and Welsh ancestry. The British ancestry is most often hidden within the category 'American.'

Hong Kong has the highest proportion of British citizens outside of the United Kingdom and its Overseas Territories, with 47% of Hong Kong residents holding a British National (Overseas) citizenship or a British citizenship.

Dick Bunt

Richard J. Bunt (born July 13, 1930) is a retired American basketball player.

He played collegiately for New York University and was selected by the New York Knicks in the 1952 NBA draft.

Bunt played for the Knicks and Baltimore Bullets in the National Basketball Association (NBA) for 26 games. After he finished his NBA career, he was a physical education teacher at William C. Bryant High School in Astoria, Queens, New York.

English Americans

English Americans (also referred to as Anglo-Americans) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England.

In the 2017 American Community Survey, English Americans are (7.1%) of the total population.The term is distinct from British Americans, which includes not only English Americans but also Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans (Northern Ireland), Welsh Americans, Cornish Americans and Manx Americans from the whole of the United Kingdom.

However, demographers regard this as a serious undercount, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans from English stock have a tendency to identify simply as "Americans" or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.

In the 1980 Census, over 49 million (49,598,035) Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which, even today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. Scotch-Irish Americans are for the most part descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English (specifically - County Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland and Yorkshire) settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.

In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country." The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%. Ben J. Wattenberg argues that this poll demonstrates a general American bias against Hispanics and other recent immigrant populations.The majority—57%--of the Founding Fathers of the United States were of English extraction. English immigrants in the 19th century, as with other groups, sought economic prosperity. They began migrating in large numbers, without state support, in the 1840s and continued into the 1890s.

European Americans

European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry. This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. European Americans are the largest panethnic group (or, variously considered an ethnic group in its own right) in the United States, both historically and at present.

The Spaniards are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the contiguous United States, with Martín de Argüelles (b. 1566) in St. Augustine, then a part of Spanish Florida. Virginia Dare, born August 18, 1587, was the first English child to be born in the Americas. She was born in Roanoke Colony, located in present-day North Carolina, which was the first attempt, made by Queen Elizabeth I, to establish a permanent English settlement in North America.

In the 2016 American Community Survey, German Americans (13.9%), Irish Americans (10.0%), English Americans (7.4%), Italian Americans (5.2%), and Polish Americans (3%) were the five largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming over a third of the total population.

However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves simply as Americans (20,151,829 or 7.2%). In the 2000 census over 56 million or 19.9% of the United States population ignored the ancestry question completely and classified as "unspecified" and "not reported".

Khaleej Times

Khaleej Times (KT) is a daily English language newspaper published in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Launched on April 16, 1978, KT is the UAE's oldest and remains the country's longest running English daily.

List of ships of the Free French Naval Forces

This is an incomplete list of the ships of the Free French Naval Forces.

Manchester British-Americans

The Manchester British-Americans were an American basketball team based in Manchester, Connecticut that was a member of the American Basketball League.

Ralph Polson

Ralph Polson (born October 26, 1929) is a former National Basketball Association (NBA) player. Polson was drafted with the fifth pick in the first round of the 1952 NBA draft. On December 11, 1952 Polson was sold from the Knicks to the Philadelphia Warriors. In Polson's one NBA season, he averaged 3.9 points and 4.3 rebounds per game.

Tongan Americans

Tongan Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to Tonga, officially known as the Kingdom of Tonga. There are approximately 57,000 Tongans and Tongan Americans living in the United States, as of 2012. Tongans are considered to be Pacific Islanders in the United States Census, and are the fourth largest Pacific Islander American group in terms of population, after Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, and Guamanian/Chamorro Americans.

White Americans

White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans (including White Hispanics) constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U.S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding.

The United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race. Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white.

The largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans (17%), Irish Americans (12%), English Americans (9%), Italian Americans (6%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (3%), Scotch-Irish Americans (2%), Dutch Americans (2%), Norwegian Americans (2%) and Swedish Americans (1%). However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (7%), due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States, particularly if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution. The vast majority of white Americans also have ancestry from multiple countries.

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