Britannia

Britannia (/brɪˈtæniə/) has been used in several different senses. The name is a Latinisation of the native Brittonic word for the island, Pretanī, which also produced the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally, in the fourth to the first centuries BC, designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Britain. In Modern Welsh the name remains Prydain. By the 1st century BC, Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. After the Roman conquest in 43 AD, Britannia meant Roman Britain, a province covering the island south of Caledonia (roughly Scotland). When Roman Britain was divided into four provinces in 197 AD, two were called Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. Britannia is the name given to the female personification of the island, and it is a term still used to refer to the whole island.

Iter.Britanniarum
Iter Britanniarum, a map of the Roman roads of Britannia, according to the Antonine Itinerary showing approximate routes and stations

In the 2nd century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet. The name Britannia long survived the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Especially following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British maritime power and unity, most notably in "Rule, Britannia!".

A British cultural icon, she was featured on all modern British coinage series until the redesign in 2008, and still appears annually on the gold and silver "Britannia" bullion coin series. In 2015 a new definitive £2 coin was issued, with a new image of Britannia. She is also depicted in the Brit Awards statuette, the British Phonographic Industry's annual music awards.

Britannia-Statue
The Armada Memorial in Plymouth depicting Britannia, the female personification of Britain

Greek and Roman periods

The first writer to use a form of the name was the Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas in the 4th century BC. Pytheas referred to Prettanike or Brettaniai, a group of islands off the coast of North-Western Europe. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus referred to Pretannia,[1] a rendering of the indigenous name for the Pretani people whom the Greeks believed to inhabit the British Isles.[2][3] Following the Greek usage, the Romans referred to the Insulae Britannicae in the plural, consisting of Albion (Great Britain), Hibernia (Ireland), Thule (possibly Iceland or Orkney) and many smaller islands. Over time, Albion specifically came to be known as Britannia, and the name for the group was subsequently dropped.[1]

Although emperor Claudius is commonly attributed with the creation and unification of the province of Britannia in 43 AD, Julius Caesar had already established Roman authority over the Southern and Eastern Britain dynasties during his two expeditions to the island in 55 and 54 BC.[4] Just as Caesar himself had been an obside in Bithynia as a youth, he also had taken the King's sons as obsides[5] or hostages, back to Rome, partially to be educated.

The Roman conquest of the island began in AD 43, leading to the establishment of the Roman province known in Latin as Britannia. The Romans never successfully conquered the whole island, building Hadrian's Wall as a boundary with Caledonia, which covered roughly the territory of modern Scotland, although the whole of the boundary marked by Hadrian's Wall lies within modern-day Northern England. A southern part of what is now Scotland was occupied by the Romans for about 20 years in the mid-2nd century AD, keeping in place the Picts to the north of the Antonine Wall. People living in the Roman province of Britannia were called Britanni, or Britons. Ireland, inhabited by the Scoti, was never invaded and was called Hibernia. Thule, an island "six days' sail north of Britain, and [...] near the frozen sea", possibly Iceland, was also never invaded by the Romans.

Antoninus Pius Æ As RIC 0934
An As coin from the reign of Antoninus Pius struck in 154 AD showing Britannia on the reverse

The Emperor Claudius paid a visit while Britain was being conquered and was honoured with the agnomen Britannicus as if he were the conqueror; a frieze discovered at Aphrodisias in 1980 shows a bare breasted and helmeted female warrior labelled BRITANNIA, writhing in agony under the heel of the emperor.[6] She appeared on coins issued under Hadrian, as a more regal-looking female figure.[7] Britannia was soon personified as a goddess, looking fairly similar to the goddess Minerva. Early portraits of the goddess depict Britannia as a beautiful young woman, wearing the helmet of a centurion, and wrapped in a white garment with her right breast exposed. She is usually shown seated on a rock, holding a spear, and with a spiked shield propped beside her. Sometimes she holds a standard and leans on the shield. On another range of coinage, she is seated on a globe above waves: Britain at the edge of the (known) world. Similar coin types were also issued under Antoninus Pius.

British revival

GillrayBritannia
In James Gillray's Britannia between Scylla and Charybdis (1793), Britannia is shown without the weapons which would invariably characterise her in the 19th century

Medieval use

After the Roman withdrawal, the term "Britannia" remained in use in Britain and abroad. Latin was ubiquitous amongst native Brythonic writers and the term continued in the Welsh tradition that developed from it. Writing with variations on the term Britannia (or Prydein in the native language) appeared in many Welsh works such as the Historia Britonum, Armes Prydein and the 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae, which gained unprecedented popularity throughout western Europe during the High Middle Ages.

Following the migration of Brythonic Celts, the term Britannia also came to refer to the Armorican peninsula (at least from the 6th century).[8] The modern English, French, Breton and Gallo names for the area, all derive from a literal use of Britannia meaning "land of the Britons". The two "Britannias" gave rise to the term Grande Bretagne (Great Britain) to distinguish the island of Britain from the continental peninsula.

Following the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, the term '"Briton" only referred to the native British, Celtic-speaking inhabitants of the province; this remained the case until the modern era. The use of the term as an inhabitant of the island of Great Britain or the UK is relatively recent.[9]

Renaissance and British Empire

It was during the reign of Elizabeth I that "Britannia" came to be viewed as a personification of Britain. In his 1576 General and rare memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation, John Dee used a frontispiece figure of Britannia kneeling by the shore beseeching Elizabeth I, to protect her empire by strengthening her navy.[10]

With the death of Elizabeth in 1603 came the succession of her Scottish cousin, James VI, King of Scots, to the English throne. He became James I of England, and so brought under his personal rule the Kingdoms of England (and the dominion of Wales), Ireland and Scotland. On 20 October 1604, James VI and I proclaimed himself as "King of Great Brittaine, France and Ireland", a title that continued to be used by many of his successors.[11] When James came to the English throne, some elaborate pageants were staged. One pageant performed on the streets of London in 1605 was described in Anthony Munday's Triumphs of Reunited Britannia:

On a mount triangular, as the island of Britain itself is described to be, we seat in the supreme place, under the shape of a fair and beautiful nymph, Britannia herself...

Britain's first road atlas was updated in a series of editions titled from the early 18th into the early 19th century using the title Britannia Depicta.

During the reign of Charles II, Britannia made her first appearance on English coins on a farthing of 1672 (see Depiction on British coinage and postage stamps below). With the constitutional unification of England with Scotland in 1707 and then with Ireland in 1800, Britannia became an increasingly important symbol and a strong rallying point among Britons.

Gillray - The First Kiss
A later Gillray cartoon, on the 1803 Peace of Amiens, features a fat and non-martial Britannia kissing "Citizen François"
Battle of Trafalgar Poster 1805
Britannia Triumphant, poster celebrating the Battle of Trafalgar

British power, which depended on a liberal political system and the supremacy of the navy, lent these attributes to the image of Britannia. By the time of Queen Victoria, Britannia had been renewed. Still depicted as a young woman with brown or golden hair, she kept her Corinthian helmet and her white robes, but now she held Poseidon's trident and often sat or stood before the ocean and tall-masted ships representing British naval power. She also usually held or stood beside a Greek hoplite shield, which sported the British Union Flag: also at her feet was often the British Lion, an animal found on the arms of England, Scotland and the Prince of Wales.

Neptune is shown symbolically passing his trident to Britannia in the 1847 fresco "Neptune Resigning to Britannia the Empire of the Sea" by William Dyce, a painting Victoria commissioned for her Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.

New Zealanders adopted a similar personification of their country in Zealandia, Britannia's daughter, who appeared on postage stamps at the turn of the 20th century[12] and still features in the New Zealand Coat of Arms.[13]

Triple Entente
1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente – Britannia (right) and Marianne (left) in the company of Mother Russia. In this depiction, Britannia's association with the sea is provided by her holding an anchor, an attribute usually represented by Poseidon's Trident.

Perhaps the best analogy is that Britannia is to the United Kingdom and the British Empire what Marianne is to France or perhaps what Columbia is to the United States. Britannia became a very potent and more common figure in times of war, and represented British liberties and democracy.

Modern associations

During the 1990s the term Cool Britannia (drawn from a humorous version by the Bonzo Dog Band of the song "Rule Britannia", with words by James Thomson [1700–1748], which is often used as an unofficial national anthem), was used to describe the contemporary United Kingdom.[14] The phrase referred to the fashionable scenes of the era, with a new generation of pop groups and style magazines, successful young fashion designers, and a surge of new restaurants and hotels. Cool Britannia represented late-1990s Britain as a fashionable place to be.[15]

Depiction on British currency and postage stamps

Coinage

British pre-decimal halfpenny 1936 reverse
Britannia depicted on a halfpenny of 1936

Although the archetypical image of Britannia seated with a shield first appeared on Roman bronze coins of the 1st century AD struck under Hadrian, Britannia's first appearance on British coinage was on the farthing in 1672, though earlier pattern versions had appeared in 1665, followed by the halfpenny later the same year. The figure of Britannia was said by Samuel Pepys to have been modelled on Frances Teresa Stuart, the future Duchess of Richmond,[7] who was famous at the time for refusing to become the mistress of Charles II, despite the King's strong infatuation with her. Britannia then appeared on the British halfpenny coin throughout the rest of the 17th century and thereafter until 1936. The halfpennies issued during the reign of Queen Anne have Britannia closely resembling the queen herself.[16] When the Bank of England was granted a charter in 1694, the directors decided within days that the device for their official seal should represent 'Brittannia sitting on looking on a Bank of Mony' (sic). Britannia also appeared on the penny coin between 1797 and 1970, occasional issues such as the fourpence under William IV between 1836 and 1837, and on the 50 pence coin between 1969 and 2008.[17] See "External Links" below for examples of all these coins and others.

In the spring of 2008, the Royal Mint unveiled new coin designs "reflecting a more modern twenty-first century Britain"[18] which do not feature the image of Britannia. This decision courted some controversy, with tabloid press campaigns, in particular that of the Daily Mail, launched to "save Britannia". The government has pointed out, however, that earlier-design 50p coins will remain in circulation for the foreseeable future.[19] Also Britannia still appeared on the gold and silver "Britannia" bullion coins issued annually by the Royal Mint.

A new definitive £2 coin was issued in 2015, with a new image of Britannia. In late 2015, a limited edition (100000 run) £50 coin was produced, bearing the image of Britannia on one side and Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse.[20]

Banknotes

Bank of England £5 note 1952
A 1952 Bank of England five pound note or "white fiver" showing Britannia in the top left corner.

A figure of Britannia appeared on the "white fiver" (a five pound note printed in black and white) from 1855 for more than a century, until 1957.[21]

From 1928 "Britannia Series A" ten shilling and one pound notes were printed with a seated Britannia bearing both a spear and an olive branch.[22]

The 25 cents fractional paper currency of the Dominion of Canada (1870, 1900 and 1923 respectively) all depict Britannia.

Postage stamps

Stamp irl 1922 2N6se
A 1922 King George V Seahorses postage stamp, featuring Britannia with an Irish Free State overprint.

Britannia also featured on the high value Great Britain definitive postage stamps issued during the reign of George V (known as 'seahorses') and is depicted on the £10 stamp first issued in 1993.

Britannia watermark in paper

The Britannia watermark has been widely used in papermaking, usually showing her seated. An example can be found at papermoulds.typepad.com

Brit Awards

Britannia is depicted in the Brit Award statuette, the British Phonographic Industry's annual music awards.[23][24] The statuette of Britannia is regularly redesigned by some of the best known British designers, stylists and artists, including Dame Vivienne Westwood, Damien Hirst, Tracey Emin, Sir Peter Blake and the late Dame Zaha Hadid.[23][24]

Namesakes

First-class rater Britannia.2
King George V's famed racing yacht HMY Britannia in the 1890s

The name "Britannia", symbolising Britain and British patriotism, has been adopted for a variety of purposes, including:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Snyder, p. 12.
  2. ^ Allen, p. 174.
  3. ^ Davies, p. 47.
  4. ^ Creighton, John (2006-01-31). Britannia: The Creation of a Roman Province. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 9781134318407.
  5. ^ "obsides is Latin, meaning hostage".
  6. ^ Roman Britain By Timothy W. Potter and Catherine Johns, University of California Press, 1992 p.40
  7. ^ a b "Britannia on British Coins". Chard. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
  8. ^ Fleuriot, Léon (1980). Les Origines de la Bretagne: l'émigration [The origins of Brittany: emigration] (in French). Paris: Payot. pp. 52–53. ISBN 2228127108.
  9. ^ "Britishness". Oxford English Dictionary Online. September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  10. ^ Virginia Hewitt, 'Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004
  11. ^ Velde, Francois. "Royal Arms, Styles, and Titles of Great Britain". www.heraldica.org.
  12. ^ 1901 Penny Universal, Stamps NZ. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  13. ^ National Coat of Arms of New Zealand, Heraldry of the World. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  14. ^ J. Ayto, Movers and Shakers: a Chronology of Words that Shaped our Age (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), ISBN 0-19-861452-7, p. 233.
  15. ^ "Cool Britannia". BBC News. Retrieved 9 November 2016
  16. ^ "3 – The Halfpenny". Coins of the UK. Tony Clayton.
  17. ^ Morris, Steven (28 January 2008). "Brown blamed as Britannia gets the boot". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 January 2008.
  18. ^ "2008 Emblems of Britain Silver Proof Collection". The Royal Mint. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008.
  19. ^ "Royal Mint unveils coin designs". BBC News. 2 April 2008.
  20. ^ "Britannia 2015 UK £50 Fine Silver Coin". Royal Mint. Archived 3 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "£5 note, Bank of England". British Museum. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  22. ^ Sharples, BS (17 June 2009). "A Short History of English Banknotes". Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  23. ^ a b "Dame Zaha Hadid's Brit Awards statuette design unveiled". BBC. 1 December 2016.
  24. ^ a b "Damien Hirst's 2013 Brit Award statue unveiled". BBC. 1 December 2016.
  25. ^ Wrecksite: SS Britannia (+1941)
  26. ^ "A thousand rather popular pubs... Where's yours?".

Notes

  • Allen, Stephen (2007). Lords of Battle: The World of the Celtic Warrior. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-948-7.
  • Collingwood, Robin George (1998). Roman Britain and the English Settlements. Biblo & Tannen Publishers. ISBN 0-8196-1160-3.
  • Davies, Norman (2000). The Isles a History. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-69283-7.
  • Hewitt, Virginia. "Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition 2007, accessed 28 Aug 2011
  • Snyder, Christopher (2003). The Britons. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22260-X.
  • M. Dresser (ed.), 'Britannia', Patriotism: the making and unmaking of British national identity, vol. 3
  • R. Samuel, National fictions (1989), pp. 26–49
  • Britannia depicta: quality, value and security, National Postal Museum (1993)
  • H. Mattingly, Nerva to Hadrian, reprint (1976), vol. 3 of Coins of the Roman empire in the British Museum
  • J. M. C. Toynbee, The Hadrianic school: a chapter in the history of Greek art (1974)
  • M. Henig, 'Britannia', Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, 3/1 (1983), pp. 167–69
  • K. T. Erim, 'A new relief showing Claudius and Britannia from Aphrodisias', Britannia, 13 (1982), pp. 277–81
  • H. Peacham, Minerva Britannia, or, A garden of heroical devises (1612)
  • J. Thomson, Britannia: a poem (1729)
  • R. Strong, Gloriana, the portraits of Queen Elizabeth I (1987)
  • H. A. Atherton, Political prints in the age of Hogarth. A study of the ideographic representation of politics (1974)

External links

Bet365 Stadium

The bet365 Stadium is an all-seater football stadium in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England and the home of EFL Championship club Stoke City. The stadium was previously called the Britannia Stadium but was renamed on 1 June 2016 when the club entered into a new stadium-naming-rights agreement with its parent company, bet365. It has a capacity of 30,089 following the completion of expansion works in 2017.The stadium was built in 1997 at a cost of £14.7 million as a replacement for the Victoria Ground. Former player Sir Stanley Matthews' ashes were buried beneath the centre circle of the pitch following his death in February 2000; he had officially opened the stadium on 30 August 1997. In European competitions it is known as the Stoke Stadium due to UEFA regulations on sponsorship.

Bristol Britannia

The Bristol Type 175 Britannia was a British medium-to-long-range airliner built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1952 to fly across the British Empire. During development two prototypes were lost and the turboprop engines proved susceptible to inlet icing, which delayed entry into service while solutions were sought.

By the time development was completed, "pure" jet airliners from France, United Kingdom, and the United States were about to enter service, and consequently, only 85 Britannias were built before production ended in 1960. Nevertheless, the Britannia is considered one of the landmarks in turboprop-powered airliner design and was popular with passengers. It became known as "The Whispering Giant" for its quiet exterior noise and smooth flying, although the passenger interior remained less tranquil.Canadair purchased a licence to build the Britannia in Canada, adding another 72 variants. These were the stretched Canadair CL-44/Canadair CC-106 Yukon, and the greatly modified Canadair CP-107 Argus maritime patrol aircraft.

Britannia, Richmond

The Britannia is a Grade II listed public house at 5 Brewers Lane, Richmond, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.It was built in the 18th century, and the architect is not known.

Britannia (TV series)

Britannia is a British-American historical fantasy series written by Jez Butterworth. The nine-part series is the first co-production between Sky and Amazon Prime Video and stars Kelly Reilly, David Morrissey, Zoë Wanamaker, Liana Cornell, and Stanley Weber. It aired on Sky Atlantic in the UK beginning 18 January 2018 and on Amazon Prime Video in the US beginning 26 January 2018.

Britannia Industries

Britannia Industries Limited is an Indian food-products corporation headquartered in Kolkata, West Bengal. It sells its Britannia and Tiger brands of biscuits, breads and dairy products throughout India and in more than 60 countries across the globe. Britannia has an estimated market share of 38%.The company's principal activity is the manufacture and sale of biscuits, bread, rusk, cakes and dairy products.

The company was established in 1892, with an investment of ₹265. Initially, biscuits were manufactured in a small house in central Kolkata. Later, the enterprise was acquired by the Gupta brothers mainly Nalin Chandra Gupta, an attorney, and operated under V.K Brothers." In 1918, C.H. Holmes, an English businessman in Kolkata, was taken on as a partner and The Britannia Biscuit Company Limited (BBCo) was launched. The Mumbai factory was set up in 1924 and Peek Freans UK, acquired a controlling interest in BBCo. Biscuits were in high demand during World War II, which gave a boost to the company’s sales. The company name was changed to the current "Britannia Industries Limited" in 1979. In 1982 the American company Nabisco Brands, Inc. acquired the parent of Peek Freans and became a major foreign shareholder.

Britannia Mines Concentrator

The Britannia Mines Concentrator is a National Historic Site of Canada. The large, inclined gravity mill was built on the northwest side of Mount Sheer to assist the transfer of copper ore through the chemical and mechanical processes of the plant. It is a landmark in Britannia Beach, British Columbia some forty-five kilometers north of Vancouver.

The nearby volcanic peak of Mount Garibaldi indicates the presence of magmatic inclusions and volcanic cores, in which copper is usually found. As such, the town and mill sit on the western shore of the Britannia Range and defined by the large fjord of Howe Sound.

The mining claims were discovered in the 1880s and the Britannia Beach Mining and Smelting Company established in the Edwardian years. Copper was first mined in the area in 1903 and the distance from smelters necessitated the construction of an ore concentrator, a system to deliver ore, and a system to ship the ore concentrate. A primitive concentrator, No. 1, was built in 1904, which was upgraded with two more units, collective known as No.2, built in 1914 and 1915. A fire in 1921 destroyed these, and a concrete and steel structure to house a new concentrator was completed (immediately to the right of the 1914 plant) in early 1923. In the late 1920s, Britannia Mines was the most productive copper mine in the British Empire, and it also produced silver and gold.

Now owned by the Britannia Beach Historical Society, it is part of the Britannia Mine Museum.

Britannia Row Studios

Britannia Row Studios was a recording studio located in Islington, London N1 (1975–1995), and then in Fulham, London SW6, England (1995–2015). The original studio was built by the British rock band Pink Floyd in a three-story block at 35 Britannia Row, Islington, London N1, after their 1975 album Wish You Were Here was released. Pink Floyd used the studio to record their album Animals and parts of The Wall, including the school chorus on "Another Brick in the Wall".

Pink Floyd drummer Nick Mason eventually assumed full ownership of the studio. In the early 1990s, he sold the business to Kate Koumi, who had been managing it since the mid-1980s. Koumi relocated the studio in 1995 to Wandsworth Bridge Road in Fulham, where it operated for the next 20 years. It closed in September 2015 and was converted into flats.Mason retained the original building in Britannia Row, which was developed as serviced offices. In 2012 some of it, including the original studio spaces, was being used as a training facility for the London School of Sound. In 2016, Islington Council granted permission for an extension and conversion of the building into flats with limited office space.An audio equipment rental company, Britannia Row Productions, originally based at Britannia Row, was created to hire out Pink Floyd's tour equipment and keep the skills of its crew together. Early events that it provided sound for included Queen's 1976 show in Hyde Park, with an audience of over 150,000. Pink Floyd sold Britannia Row Productions to its managers in 1985, and it is now based in Twickenham.

Britannia Royal Naval College

Britannia Royal Naval College (BRNC), commonly known as Dartmouth, is the naval academy of the United Kingdom and the initial officer training establishment of the British Royal Navy. It is located on a hill overlooking the port of Dartmouth, Devon, England. Royal Naval officer training has taken place in Dartmouth since 1863. The buildings of the current campus were completed in 1905. Earlier students lived in two wooden hulks moored in the River Dart. Since 1998, BRNC has been the sole centre for Royal Naval officer training.

Britannia Youngstown, Edmonton

Britannia Youngstown is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Originally part of the Town of Jasper Place, it became part of Edmonton when Jasper Place amalgamated with Edmonton in 1964.

The neighbourhood is bounded on the west by Mayfield Road, on the north by 107 Avenue, on the east by 156 Street, and on the south by Stony Plain Road.

The community is represented by the Britannia Youngstown Community League, established in 1959, which maintains a community hall, basketball courts, outdoor rink and a tennis court located at 159 Street and 105 Avenue.

Great Britain

Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and constitutes most of its territory. Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island. The term "Great Britain" is often used to include the whole of England, Scotland and Wales including their component adjoining islands; and is also occasionally but contentiously applied to the UK as a whole in some contexts.A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England (which had already comprised the present-day countries of England and Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union. More than a hundred years before, in 1603, King James VI, King of Scots, had inherited the throne of England, but it was not until 1707 that the two countries' parliaments agreed to form a political union. In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which was renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922.

HMY Britannia

Her Majesty's Yacht Britannia, also known as the Royal Yacht Britannia, is the former royal yacht of the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in service from 1954 until 1997. She was the 83rd such vessel since King Charles II acceded to the throne in 1660, and is the second royal yacht to bear the name, the first being the racing cutter built for the Prince of Wales in 1893. During her 43-year career, the yacht travelled more than a million nautical miles around the globe. Now retired from royal service, Britannia is permanently berthed at Ocean Terminal, Leith in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is a popular visitor attraction with over 300,000 visits each year.

List of Code Geass characters

Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion (コードギアス 反逆のルルーシュ, Kōdo Giasu: Hangyaku no Rurūshu) and its sequel series Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 (コードギアス 反逆のルルーシュR2, Kōdo Giasu Hangyaku no Rurūshu Āru Tsū) are Japanese anime made by Sunrise, directed by Gorō Taniguchi, and written by Ichirō Ōkouchi. The series focus around a former prince of the Holy Britannian Empire, Lelouch Lamperouge, who obtains a mysterious power known as Geass and uses said power to destroy the Holy Britannian Empire, a superpower that controls one third of the world and has recently conquered Japan, and to discover the truth behind his mother's death, as well as the various people that he encounters as he heads toward those goals.

This is a list of characters, minor and major, appearing in both Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion, its sequel series, and/or the core series' spin-offs and products. The fictional characters in Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion were designed by the manga studio Clamp.

MV Britannia (2015)

MV Britannia is a cruise ship of the P&O Cruises fleet. She was built by Fincantieri at its shipyard in Monfalcone, Italy.At 143,000 GT, Britannia is the largest of seven ships currently in service with P&O Cruises and she is also the flagship of the fleet, taking the honour from Oriana. She officially entered service on 14 March 2015, and was named by Queen Elizabeth II. Her first captain was Paul Brown.

Britannia features a 94 metres (308 ft) Union Flag on her bow, the largest of its kind in the world.

Namaqualand 0-4-2T Britannia

The Cape Copper Company 0-4-2T Britannia of 1905 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

In 1905, a single 0-4-2 tank locomotive was placed in service by the Cape Copper Company as a shunting engine at Port Nolloth in the Cape of Good Hope.

Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Latin: Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD. It comprised almost the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland.

Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars. According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies. He received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes, and returned to Gaul. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, and 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel on the continent, only to have them gather seashells (musculi) according to Suetonius, perhaps as a symbolic gesture to proclaim Caligula's victory over the sea. Three years later, Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore an exiled king over the Atrebates. The Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, and then organized their conquests as the Province of Britain (Latin: Provincia Britannia). By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way. Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded steadily northward.

The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (77–84), who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia. In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian's side and about 360 on the Roman side. The bloodbath at Mons Graupius concluded the forty-year conquest of Britain, a period that saw between 100,000 and 250,000 Britons killed. In the context of pre-industrial warfare and of a total population of Britain of c.2 million, these are very high figures.Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains. A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the later 4th century. For much of the later period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and often came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders. The final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410; the native kingdoms are considered to have formed Sub-Roman Britain after that.

Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, and architecture. The Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain. After the initial invasions, Roman historians generally only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor. Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire.

Rule, Britannia!

"Rule, Britannia!" is a British patriotic song, originating from the poem "Rule, Britannia" by James Thomson and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740. It is strongly associated with the Royal Navy, but also used by the British Army.

Rural Municipality of Britannia No. 502

Britannia No. 502 is a rural municipality (RM) of 1,734 residents (2011 census) in west-central Saskatchewan, Canada. The RM of Britannia No. 502 was incorporated December 13, 1909. It is home to Sandy Beach Regional Park and the localities of Ashley, Greenstreet, Hewitt Landing, Hillmond, Landrose, Northminster, Rex and Tangleflags.The RM of Britannia No. 502 is bounded by the Saskatchewan-Alberta border/Highway 17 to the west and the North Saskatchewan River to the north. Adjacent municipalities include the City of Lloydminster to the southwest, the County of Vermilion River in Alberta to the west, the RM of Frenchman Butte No. 501 to the north, the RM of Eldon No. 471 to the east and the RM of Wilton No. 472 to the south.

Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (The Roman Society) was founded in 1910 as the sister society to the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.

The Society is the leading organisation in the United Kingdom for those interested in the study of Rome and the Roman Empire. Its scope covers Roman history, archaeology, literature and art.

William Camden

William Camden (2 May 1551 – 9 November 1623) was an English antiquarian, historian, topographer, and herald, best known as author of Britannia, the first chorographical survey of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Annales, the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I of England.

Supra-regional
Britannia
Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Belgica
Gallia Celtica
Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Narbonensis
Germania Inferior
Gallaecia

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