Brigid of Kildare

Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Irish: Naomh Bríd; Latin: Brigida; c. 451 – 525) is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba. Irish hagiography makes her an early Irish Christian nun,[3] abbess, and foundress of several monasteries of nuns, including that of Kildare in Ireland, which was famous and was revered. Her feast day is 1 February, which was originally a pagan festival called Imbolc, marking the beginning of spring. Her feast day is shared by Dar Lugdach, who tradition says was her student, close companion, and the woman who succeeded her.

The saint shares her name with an important Celtic goddess and there are many legends and folk customs associated with her.

Saint Brigid of Kildare
Naomh Bríd Chill Dara
St. Bride, John Duncan - 1913
St. Bride Carried By Angels, a painting by Scottish artist, John Duncan, 1913.
Virgin, abbess, inspirer
Bornc. 451
Faughart, Dundalk,[1][2] Ireland
(in modern County Louth)
Diedc. 525 (age 72)
Kildare, Ireland
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Feast1 February
Patronagebabies; blacksmiths; boatmen; brewers; cattle; chicken farmers; children whose parents are not married; children with abusive fathers; children born into abusive unions; Clan Douglas; dairymaids; dairy workers; Florida; fugitives; infants; Ireland; Leinster, mariners; midwives; milk maids; nuns; poets; poor; poultry farmers; poultry raisers; printing presses; sailors; scholars; travellers; watermen

Name

The saint has the same name as the goddess Brigid, derived from the Proto-Celtic *Brigantī "high, exalted" and ultimately originating with Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ-. In Old Irish her name was spelled Brigit and pronounced [ˈbʲrʲiɣʲidʲ]. In Modern Irish she is called Bríd. In Welsh she is called Ffraid (lenited to Fraid), as in several places called Llansanffraid, "St Brigit's church"). She is sometimes referred to as "the Mary of the Gael".

Historicity

There is some debate over whether St Brigid was a real person. She has the same name, associations and feast day as the Celtic goddess Brigid, and there are many supernatural events, legends and folk customs associated with her.

Some scholars suggest that the saint is a Christianization of the goddess, others that she was a real person whose mythos took on the goddess's attributes. Medieval art historian Pamela Berger argues that Christian monks "took the ancient figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions onto her Christian counterpart".[4] Professor Dáithí Ó hÓgáin and others suggest that the saint had been chief druid at the temple of the goddess Brigid, and was responsible for converting it into a Christian monastery. After her death, the name and characteristics of the goddess became attached to the saint.[5][6][7]

Life

Probably the earliest biography, The Life of St Brigid, was written by Cogitosus, a monk of Kildare in the eighth century, and is a fine example of Irish scholarship in the mid-eighth century. A second First Life or Vita Prima of St Brigid is by an unknown author, although it is often attributed to St Broccán Clóen (d. 650). This book is occasionally argued to be the first written Life of St. Brigid, although most scholars reject this claim. The Life attributed to Coelan dating ca. 625, derives further significance from the fact that a foreword was later added to it by St Donatus, also an Irish monk, who became Bishop of Fiesole in 824. Donatus refers to earlier biographies by St Ultan and St Aileran. These differing biographies, giving conflicting accounts of her life, have much literary merit in themselves.[8]

In the controversy about the historical existence of Brigid that erupted in the last third of the 20th century, researchers noted that eleven people with whom Brigid is associated in her Lives are independently attested in annalistic sources which place her death at AD 523 (in the Annals of Tigernach and Chronicon Scotorum) and her birth at 451 (calculated from her reputed age of 72 at death).[9]

Early life

According to tradition, Brigid was born in the year 451 AD in Faughart,[10] just north of Dundalk[1][2] in County Louth, Ireland. Because of the legendary quality of the earliest accounts of her life, there is debate among many secular scholars and Christians as to the authenticity of her biographies. Three biographies agree that her mother was Brocca, a Christian Pict slave who had been baptized by Saint Patrick. They name her father as Dubhthach, a chieftain of Leinster.[11]

The vitae say that Dubthach's wife forced him to sell Brigid's mother to a druid when she became pregnant. Brigid herself was born into slavery. Legends of her early holiness include her vomiting when the druid tried to feed her, due to his impurity; a white cow with red ears appeared to sustain her instead.[11]

As she grew older, Brigid performed miracles, including healing and feeding the poor. According to one tale, as a child, she once gave away her mother's entire store of butter. The butter was then replenished in answer to Brigid's prayers .[12] Around the age of ten, she was returned as a household servant to her father, where her habit of charity led her to donate his belongings to anyone who asked.

In two Lives, Dubthach was so annoyed with her that he took her in a chariot to the King of Leinster to sell her. While Dubthach was talking to the king, Brigid gave away his jewelled sword to a beggar to barter it for food to feed his family. The king recognized her holiness and convinced Dubthach to grant his daughter her freedom.[13]

Religious life

Saint Non's Chapel - Fenster 3 St.Bride
Saint Brigid as depicted in Saint Non's chapel, St Davids, Wales.

It is said that Brigid was "veiled" or received either by St Mac Caill at Croghan, or by St Mél of Ardagh at Mág Tulach (the present barony of Fartullagh, County Westmeath), who granted her abbatial powers. It is said that in about 468, she and St Maughold (Macaille) followed St Mél into the Kingdom of Tethbae, which was made up of parts of the modern counties Meath, Westmeath and Longford.

According to tradition, around 480 Brigid founded a monastery at Kildare (Cill Dara: "church of the oak"), on the site of a pagan shrine to the Celtic goddess Brigid, served by a group of young women who tended an eternal flame. The site was under a large oak tree on the ridge of Drum Criadh.[14]

Brigid, with an initial group of seven companions, is credited with organizing communal consecrated religious life for women in Ireland.[15] She founded two monastic institutions, one for men, and the other for women, and invited Conleth (Conláed), a hermit from Old Connell near Newbridge, to help her in Kildare as pastor of them. It has often been said that she gave canonical jurisdiction to Conleth, Bishop of Kildare, but Archbishop Healy says that she simply "selected the person to whom the Church gave this jurisdiction", and her biographer tells us that she chose Saint Conleth "to govern the church along with herself". For centuries, Kildare was ruled by a double line of abbot-bishops and of abbesses, the Abbess of Kildare being regarded as superior general of the monasteries in Ireland.[8] Her successors have always been accorded episcopal honour.[16] Brigid's oratory at Kildare became a centre of religion and learning, and developed into a cathedral city.[8]

Brigid is credited with founding a school of art, including metalwork and illumination, which Conleth oversaw. The Kildare scriptorium made the Book of Kildare, which drew high praise from Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis), but disappeared during the Reformation. According to Giraldus, nothing that he ever saw was at all comparable to the book, every page of which was gorgeously illuminated, and the interlaced work and the harmony of the colours left the impression that "all this is the work of angelic, and not human skill".[8]

According to the Trias Thaumaturga Brigid spent time in Connacht and founded many churches in the Diocese of Elphin. She is said to have visited Longford, Tipperary, Limerick, and South Leinster.[10] Her friendship with Saint Patrick is noted in the following paragraph from the Book of Armagh: "inter sanctum Patricium Brigitanque Hibernesium columpnas amicitia caritatis inerat tanta, ut unum cor consiliumque haberent unum. Christus per illum illamque virtutes multas peregit" (Between St Patrick and St Brigid, the pillars of the Irish people, there was so great a friendship of charity that they had but one heart and one mind. Through him and through her Christ performed many great works.)[8]

Death

The monk Ultan of Ardbraccan, who wrote a life of Brigid, recounts a story that Darlugdach, Brigid's favourite pupil, fell in love with a young man and, hoping to meet him, sneaked out of the bed in which she and Brigid were sleeping. However, recognising her spiritual peril, she prayed for guidance, then placed burning embers in her shoes and put them on. “Thus, by fire,”Ultan wrote, “she put out fire, and by pain extinguished pain.”[17] She then returned to bed. Brigid feigned sleep, but was aware of Darlugdach's departure. The next day, Darlugdach revealed to Brigid the experience of the night before. Brigid reassured her that she was “now safe from the fire of passion and the fire of hell hereafter”[18] and then healed her student's feet. So devoted was the student to her teacher that when Brigid lay dying Darlughdach expressed the wish to die with her, but Brigid replied that Darlugdach should die on the anniversary of her (Brigid's) death.

St Brigid is said to have been given the last rites by St Ninnidh when she was dying. Afterwards, he reportedly had his right hand encased in metal so that it would never be defiled, and became known as "Ninnidh of the Clean Hand".[8] Tradition says she died at Kildare on 1 February 525.[19]

Upon St Brigid's death, Darlugdach became the second abbess of Kildare. Brigid's prediction has traditionally been considered to have been realized inasmuch as the Catholic Church records Darlugdach's date of death as 522 and Brigid's as 521 and has assigned February 1 as the feast day of both saints.[20] (The name Darlugdach (also spelled Dar Lugdach, Dar Lugdacha, or Dar Lughdacha) means "daughter of the god Lugh".)[21]

Miracles associated with Brigid

Brigid is celebrated for her generosity to the poor. In her case, most of the miracles associated with her relate to healing and household tasks usually attributed to women.

  • Brigid, who had a reputation as an expert dairywoman and brewer, was reputed to turn water into beer.[13]
  • The prayers of Saint Brigid were said to still the wind and the rain.[22]
  • When Brigid was of marital age, a man by the name of Dubthach maccu Lugair came to woo her. Since Brigid had offered her virginity to God, she told the man that she could not accept him but that he should go to the woods behind his house where he would find a beautiful maiden to marry. Everything that he said to the maiden's parents would be pleasing to them. The man followed her instructions and it was as she said.[11]
  • In one story, Brigid protected a woman from a nobleman who had entrusted a silver brooch to the woman for safekeeping but then secretly had thrown it into the sea. He charged her with stealing it, knowing that he could take her as a slave if a judge ruled in his favour. The woman fled and sought refuge with Brigid's community. By chance, one of her fishermen hauled in a fish which, when cut open, proved to have swallowed the brooch. The nobleman freed the woman, confessed his sin, and bowed in submission to Brigid.[13] A similar story is told of Saint Mungo.
  • On an occasion when Brigid was travelling to see a doctor for a headache, she stayed at the house of a Leinster couple who had two mute daughters. The daughters were travelling with Brigid when her horse startled, causing her to fall and graze her head on a stone. A touch of Brigid's blood healed the girls of their muteness.[13]
  • When on the bank of the River Inny, Brigid was given a gift of apples and sweet sloes. She later entered a house where many lepers begged her for these apples, which she offered willingly. The woman who had given the gift to Brigid was angered by this, saying that she had not given the gift to the lepers. Brigid was angry at the nun for withholding from the lepers and cursed her trees so they would no longer bear fruit. Yet another woman also gave Brigid the same gift, and again Brigid gave them to begging lepers. This woman asked that she and her garden be blessed. Brigid then said that a large tree in the virgin's garden would have twofold fruit from its offshoots, and this was done.[11]
  • One of the more commonly told stories is of Brigid asking the King of Leinster for land. She told the king that the place where she stood was the perfect spot for a convent. It was beside a forest where the members could collect firewood and berries, there was a lake nearby that would provide water and the land was fertile. The king laughed at her and refused to give her any land. Brigid prayed and asked God to soften the king's heart. Then she smiled at the king and said, "Will you give me as much land as my cloak will cover?" The king thought that she was joking and agreed. She told four of her sisters to take up the cloak, but instead of laying it flat on the turf, each sister, with face turned to a different point of the compass, began to run swiftly, the cloth growing in all directions. The cloak began to cover many acres of land. "Oh, Brigid!" said the frighted king, "what are you about?" "I am, or rather my cloak is about covering your whole province to punish you for your stinginess to the poor." "Call your maidens back. I will give you a decent plot of ground." The saint was persuaded, and if the king held his purse-strings tight in future, she had only to allude to her cloak to bring him to reason. Soon afterwards, the king became a Christian, began to help the poor and commissioned the building of the convent. Legend has it, the convent was known for making jam from the local blueberries which was sought for all over Ireland. A new tradition is to eat jam on 1 February in honour of this miracle.[23][24]
  • After Brigid promised God a life of chastity, her brothers were annoyed at the loss of a bride price. When she was outside carrying a load past a group of poor people, some began to laugh at her. A man named Bacene said to her, "The beautiful eye which is in your head will be betrothed to a man though you like it or not." In response, Brigid thrust her finger in her eye and said, "Here is that beautiful eye for you. I deem it unlikely that anyone will ask you for a blind girl." Her brothers tried to save her and wash away the blood from her wound, but there was no water to be found. Brigid said to them, "Put my staff about this sod in front of you", and after they did, a stream came forth from the ground. Then she said to Bacene, "Soon your two eyes will burst in your head" and it happened as she said.[11]
  • She is associated with the preservation of a nun's chastity in unusual circumstances. Liam de Paor (1993)[25] and Connolly & Picard (1987), in their complete translations of Cogitosus, give substantially the same translation[26] of the account of Brigid's ministry to a nun who had failed to keep her vow of chastity, and become pregnant. In the 1987 translation: "A certain woman who had taken the vow of chastity fell, through youthful desire of pleasure and her womb swelled with child. Brigid, exercising the most potent strength of her ineffable faith, blessed her, causing the child to disappear, without coming to birth, and without pain. She faithfully returned the woman to health and to penance."

Veneration

Brigid is said to have been buried at the right of the high altar of Kildare Cathedral, and a costly tomb raised over her[8] "adorned with gems and precious stones and crowns of gold and silver".[27] Over the years her shrine became an object of veneration for pilgrims, especially on her feast day, 1 February. About the year 878, owing to the Scandinavian raids,[8] Brigid's purported relics were reburied in the tomb of Patrick and Columba.[19] In 1185, John de Courcy had their remains reburied in Down Cathedral.[28]

Brigid, "the Mary of the Gael," is esteemed highly in Ireland.[29]

St Brigid's popularity made the name Brigid (or its variants such as Brigitte, Bridie, and Bree) popular in Ireland over the centuries. One writer noted that at one time in history “every Irish family had a Patrick and a Brigid”.[30] In the nineteenth century as many Irish women emigrated to England seeking jobs as housemaids, the name Brigid became virtually synonymous with the word woman.[31]

Relics

Saint Brigid's cross
Saint Brigid's Cross or Crosóg Bhríde

According to Denis Murphy, when the relics of the saints were destroyed in the sixteenth century during the deputyship of Lord Grey, Brigid's head was saved by some of the clergy who took it to the Neustadt, in Austria. In 1587 it was presented to the church of the Society of Jesus in Lisbon by Emperor Rudolph II.[32] A skull said to be Brigid's has been preserved in the Igreja São João Baptista (Church of St. John the Baptist 38°46′29″N 9°09′54″W / 38.774583928349486°N 9.164973624690733°W) on Lumiar in Portugal (near Lisbon Airport) since 1587 and is venerated on 2 February (not 1 February, as in Ireland).[33] St Brigid's head was reputedly carried to King Denis of Portugal in 1283 by Irish knights travelling to the Aragonese Crusade.

The inscription on the tomb in Lumiar reads: "Here in these three tombs lie the three Irish knights who brought the head of St Brigid, Virgin, a native of Ireland, whose relic is preserved in this chapel. In memory of which, the officials of the Altar of the same Saint caused this to be done in January AD 1283."[34]

In 1884 Cardinal Archbishop Moran of Sydney obtained a relic of the saint's tooth from the parochial church of St Martin of Tours in Cologne,Germany and gave it to the Brigidine Sisters in Melbourne. The Cardinal wrote about the circumstances in which he obtained the tooth in a letter to the Rev.Mother of this Convent dated 13 March 1906:

I went all the way to Cologne on my return from Rome in 1884, on my appointment of Archbishop of Sydney to secure a portion of the precious relic of St. Brigid preserved there for over a thousand years. It is venerated at present in the Parochial Church of St. Martin to which in olden times was attached a famous Irish monastery….. The relic is, if I remember aright, a tooth of the Saint. At Cologne I found great difficulty in securing a portion of this relic. It was at first peremptorily refused. The Pastor of St. Martin’s declared that his parishioners would be at once in revolt if they heard that their great parochial treasure was being interfered with. I then had to invoke the aid of an influential Canon of the Cathedral of Cologne, whom I had assisted in some of his literary pursuits and he set his heart on procuring the coveted relic. One of his arguments was somewhat amusing: It was the first time that an Irish Archbishop of the remote See of Sydney had solicited a favour from Cologne. It was the new Christian world appealing to the old for a share of its sacred wealth. At all events our pleading was successful and, and I bore away with me a portion of the bone, duly authenticated, which is now the privilege of you good Sisters to guard and venerate….[35]

In 1905 Sister Mary Agnes of the Dundalk Convent of Mercy took a purported fragment of the skull to St Bridget's [sic] Church in Kilcurry. In 1928, Fathers Timothy Traynor and James McCarroll requested another fragment for St Brigid's Church in Killester, a request granted by the Bishop of Lisbon, António Mendes Belo.[36]

The city of Armagh had several associations with St Brigid. In the twelfth century, the city had two crosses dedicated to Brigid, though, according to the Monasticon Hibernicum, purported relics of the saint reposing in Armagh were lost in an accidental fire in 1179. In the seventeenth century Armagh also had a street named Brigid located near Brigid's church in the area called “Brigid’s Ward.”[37]

Iconography

Gross stmartin brigida von kildare
Brigida von Kildare, Gross St Martin, Köln

In liturgical iconography and statuary Saint Brigid is often depicted holding a reed cross, a crozier of the sort used by abbots, and a lamp. Early hagiographers portray Brigid's life and ministry as touched with fire. According to PW Joyce, tradition holds that nuns at her monastery kept an eternal flame burning there.[10] Leitmotifs, some of them borrowed from the apocrypha such as the story where she hangs her cloak on a sunbeam, are associated with the wonder tales of her hagiography and folklore. In her Lives, Brigid is portrayed as having the power to multiply such things as butter, bacon and milk, to bestow sheep and cattle and to control the weather.

Plant motifs associated with St Brigid include the white Lilium candidum popularly known since medieval times as the Madonna Lily for its association with the Virgin Mary, and the Windflower Anemone coronaria, called the "Brigid anemone" since the early 19th century. Kildare, the church of the oak Quercus petraea, is associated with a tree sacred to the druids. The colour associated with Brigid is white, worn not only by the Kildare United Irishmen during the 1798 rebellion, but also by Kildare sports teams in more recent times.

Placenames

Kilbride ("Church of Brigid") is one of Ireland's most widely found placenames, there are 43 Kilbrides located in 19 of Ireland's 32 counties: Antrim (2), Carlow, Cavan, Down, Dublin, Galway, Kildare, Kilkenny (3), Laois, Longford, Louth, Mayo (5), Meath (4), Offaly (4), Roscommon (2), Waterford, Westmeath (2), Wexford (4), and Wicklow (8) as well as two Kilbreedys in Tipperary, Kilbreedia and Toberbreeda in Clare, Toberbreedia in Kilkenny, Brideswell Commons in Dublin, Bridestown and Templebreedy in Cork and Rathbride and Brideschurch in Kildare.[38] A number of placenames are derived from Cnoic Bhríde ("Brigid's Hill"), such as Knockbridge in Louth and Knockbride in Cavan. In Wales, the villages of Llansanffraid Glan Conwy, Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain, Llansantffraed and Llansantffraid, Ceredigion are named after her; "llan" meaning "church of" and "Ffraid" or "Ffraed" being the Welsh for "Bride". In Scotland, East Kilbride and West Kilbride are called after Brigid. Lhanbryde, near Elgin, Scotland is thought to be Pictish for "Church of Brigid".

Biddy's Day Festival, Killorglin

The Biddy is honoured every year at the weekend closest to the feast day of St Brigid, 1 February in the mid-Kerry region, with Biddy groups visiting rural and public houses. They carry a hay-stuffed Brídeóg doll with them to ensure evil spirits are kept away from humans and animals for the coming year. The Biddy heritage is a mixture of Christianity (St Bridgid) and ancient Celtic traditions (Imbolc). Imbolc is one of the four Celtic festivals, along with Lá Bealtaine (Mayday), Lughnasa (1 August) and Samhain (1 November). Traditionally, a visit from the Biddy guaranteed good luck, fertility, prosperity and to not receive a visit was considered a slight. In 2017 a festival was created in Killorglin, Co.Kerry to celebrate the age old Biddy tradition. The highlights of the festival is the torchlight Parade of the Biddys, Traditional Irish music sessions and the King of the Biddies competition.[39]

Other

The artwork The Dinner Party features a place setting for Saint Brigid.[40]

In Haitian Vodou, Saint Brigid (along with the goddess Brigid and Mary Magdalene) is worshipped as the death loa Maman Brigitte, the consort of Baron Samedi.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Story of St. Brigid". St. Brigid's GNS, Glasnevin.
  2. ^ a b "Following Brigid's Way – The Irish Catholic".
  3. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 140–. ISBN 9781576073551. Retrieved 1 February 2013. Brigid of Ireland, or of Kildare, has been venerated since the early Middle Ages, along with Patrick and Columba, as one of the three national Christian patron saints of Ireland. ... At least two Latin Lives had been composed by the end of the seventh century describing her as a nobleman's daughter who chose to consecrate her virginity to God, took the veil as a Christian nun, and became the leader of a community of religious women, or perhaps of both women and men-certainly by the seventh century there was an important double monastery at Kildare that regarded her as its founder.
  4. ^ Berger, Pamela (1985). The Goddess Obscured: Transformation of the Grain Protectress from Goddess to Saint. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807067239.
  5. ^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An Encyclopaedia of the Irish Folk Tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.61
  6. ^ Wright, Brian. Brigid: Goddess, Druidess and Saint. The History Press, 2011. pp.36–37
  7. ^ Robert Lentz & Edwina Gateley. Christ in the Margins. Orbis Books, 2003. p.121
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Brigid of Ireland" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  9. ^ Discussion on dates for the annals and the accuracy of dates relating to St Brigid continues, see AP Smyth, "The earliest Irish Annals: their first contemporary entries and the earliest centres of recording", Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy lxxii C (1972), pp1–48 Daniel McCarthy: The chronology of St Brigit of Kildare, in Peritia, xiv (2000), pp255–81.
  10. ^ a b c Joyce, P.W.,The Wonders of Ireland, 1911
  11. ^ a b c d e "Bethu Brigte".
  12. ^ Wallace, Martin. A Little Book of Celtic Saints. Belfast. Appletree Press, 1995 ISBN 0-86281-456-1, p.13
  13. ^ a b c d "St Brigit of Ireland – Monastic Matrix".
  14. ^ "History of Kildare Town".
  15. ^ "ST. BRIGID OF IRELAND :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Catholic News Agency.
  16. ^ Edward Sellnor, Wisdom of the Celtic Saints (Ave Maria Press, 1993)
  17. ^ "Darlugdach". Dictionary of National Biography. 14: 63. 1888. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  18. ^ "Darlugdach".
  19. ^ a b Our Patroness, Brigidine Sisters Archived 2 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Olden, Thomas, ed. (1885–1900). Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Vol. 14. London: Smith & Elder. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  21. ^ Wright, p.41
  22. ^ Rogers, Rosemary. "Wild Irish Women: Saint Brigid—Mary of the Gaels", Irish American, February/March 2018
  23. ^ Story of St. Brigid, November 14, 2012 Archived 27 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Kennedy, Patrick. St Brigid's Cloak, Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, 1891
  25. ^ St Patrick's World, Liam de Paor, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 1993 – Chapter 33, Page 207-224 Cogitosus's Life of St Brigid the Virgin, accessed 13 February 2012. (rotate counterclockwise once 🔄)
  26. ^ Page 211 in de Paor; page 16, internal chapter 9, of Connolly & Picard
  27. ^ "Essays on the Ancient History, Religion, Learning, Arts, and Government of Ireland". Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 16: 242. 1930. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  28. ^ Johnathan Bardon, A History of Ulster, page 38. The Blackstaff Press, 2007. ISBN 0-85640-764-X
  29. ^ "St. Brigid: Mary of the Gael". Glencairn Abbey. St. Mary's Abbey, Glencairn. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  30. ^ De Blacam, Hugh. "About the Name Brigid". Irish Names from Ancient to Modern. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  31. ^ Bolick, Kate (2015). Spinster: Making a Life of One's Own. New York: Broadway. p. 17, n. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  32. ^ Murphy, Denis. St Brigid of Kildare, Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society and Surrounding Districts, Vol. 1, p.175, County Kildare Archaeological Society, 1895
  33. ^ St. Brigid's skull. 14 December 2007 – via YouTube.
  34. ^ "St. Brigid of Ireland". Catholic Online. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  35. ^ History: St Brigid: Holy Wells, Patterns and Relics by Michael P Peyton and David W Atherton
  36. ^ "St. Brigid of Kildare". VictoriasWay. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  37. ^ Paterson, T. G. F. (1945). "Brigid's Crosses in County Armagh". Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 8: 43. JSTOR 20566478.
  38. ^ "logainm.ie". logainm.ie.
  39. ^ http://www.biddysday.com/
  40. ^ Place Settings. Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.

External links

Acta Triadis Thaumaturgae

Acta Triadis Thaumaturgae or The Acts of a Wonder-Working Triad is a hagiography of the Irish saints, Saint Patrick, Brigid of Kildare, and St Columba.

It was published at Leuven in 1647 by John Colgan, O.F.M., mainly at the expense of Thomas Fleming, Archbishop of Dublin. Due to a lack of money not all Colgan's writings could be published, and a catalogue of manuscripts found in his cell after his death, included detailed lives of Irish missionaries in England, Scotland, Belgium, Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy, Germany, and Italy. A small remnant of these unpublished volumes is now in the Franciscan Library, Dublin.

Anam Cara

Anam Cara is a phrase that refers to the Celtic concept of the "soul friend" in religion and spirituality. The phrase is an anglicization of the Irish word anamchara, anam meaning "soul" and cara meaning "friend". The term was popularized by Irish author John O'Donohue in his 1997 book Anam Ċara: A Book of Celtic Wisdom about Celtic spirituality. In the Celtic tradition "soul friends" are considered an essential and integral part of spiritual development. The Martyrology of Óengus recounts an incident where Brigid of Kildare counseled a young cleric that "...anyone without a soul friend is like a body without a head." A similar concept is found in the Welsh periglour.The Anam Cara involves a friendship that psychotherapist William P. Ryan describes as "compassionate presence". According to O'Donohue, the word anamchara originates in Irish monasticism, where it was applied to a monk's teacher, companion, or spiritual guide. However, Edward C. Sellner traces its origin to the early Desert Fathers and Desert Mothers: "This capacity for friendship and ability to read other people's hearts became the basis of the desert elders' effectiveness as spiritual guides." Their teachings were preserved and passed on by the Christian monk John Cassian, who explained that the soul friend could be clerical or lay, male or female.

Bierstadt

Bierstadt is a borough of the city of Wiesbaden, capital of the state of Hesse, Germany. The district is located in the eastern part of the city, directly east of downtown Wiesbaden, and has about 12,300 inhabitants. Formerly an independent municipality, the town was incorporated into Wiesbaden on April 1, 1928. While Bierstadt can be translated Beer Town, the name is actually derived from Saint Brigid of Kildare, Ireland (Birgid in German).

Breage

Breage or Breaca (with many variant spellings) is a saint venerated in Cornwall and southwestern Britain. According to her late hagiography, she was an Irish nun of the 5th or 6th century who founded a church in Cornwall. The village and civil parish of Breage in Cornwall are named after her, and the local Breage Parish Church is dedicated to her.

Bridget

Bridget or Brigid is a Gaelic/Irish female name derived from the noun brígh, meaning "power, strength, vigor, virtue". An alternate meaning of the name is "exalted one". Its popularity, especially in Ireland, is largely related to the popularity of Saint Brigid of Kildare, who was so popular in Ireland she was known as "Mary of the Gael". This saint took on many of the characteristics of the early Celtic goddess Brigid, who was the goddess of agriculture and healing and possibly also of poetry and fire. One of her epithets was "Brigid of the Holy Fire". In German and Scandinavian countries, the popularity of the name spread due to Saint Bridget of Sweden.

In the Irish language, the name is spelled Brighid or Bríd and is pronounced "breed" or "breej". In the Scottish Gaelic language, the name is spelled Brìghde and is pronounced "breej-eh" At one time the name was so popular for Irish girls that Bridey was used as a slang term for an Irish girl in English-speaking countries. Some Irish servant girls were called Biddie or Biddy by their employers even if that wasn't their real first name. It has been steadily used in the United States throughout the 20th century, though never among the top 100 most popular names for girls. It was most popular in the 1970s, when it ranked as the 153rd most popular name for girls born in that decade in the United States. In 2006, it was the 349th most popular female given name in the United States; in 2007 it fell to 357th place. It was ranked as the 367th most common name for girls and women in the United States in the 1990 census.

Brigid's cross

Brigid's cross or Brigit's cross (Irish: Cros Bríde, Crosóg Bríde or Bogha Bríde) is a small cross usually woven from rushes. Typically it has four arms tied at the ends and a woven square in the middle. Historically, there were also three-armed versions.Brigid's crosses are associated with Brigid of Kildare, one of the patron saints of Ireland. The crosses are traditionally made in Ireland on St Brigid's feast day, 1 February, which was formerly celebrated as a pagan festival (Imbolc) marking the beginning of spring. Many rituals are associated with the making of the crosses. Traditionally they were set over doorways and windows to protect the home from any kind of harm.

Bénodet

Bénodet (Breton: Benoded) is a commune in the Finistère department and administrative region of Brittany in north-western France. It lies about 16 kilometres south of Quimper. The Breton name Benoded means "mouth of the Odet".

Bénodet has a casino, a thalassotherapy centre, a cinema, a marina, a number of hotels, and several beaches. As with many coastal towns in Brittany, there are many second homes and the population increases sixfold over the summer period. Bénodet is also the site of menhirs and a church, dedicated to the 5th-century Irish saint Brigid of Kildare, which was built at the end of the 11th century and was classed as a historic monument in 1916. The town is home to the Tri Martolod brewery.

Caolánn

Caolánn, Irish monk and author, fl. 7th century.

Dar Lugdach

Dar Lugdach (also Darlugdach d. c.525/527) was the immediate successor of Brigid of Kildare as abbess of Kildare, and is recognised as a saint. She is recorded as having died one year to the day after Brigid, and shares the same feast day as the more famous abbess. Little is known of her family history.

Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau

Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau (English, "Mary's Festival of the Candles") is a Welsh name of Candlemas, celebrated on 2 February. It is the Welsh equivalent of the Goidelic holiday of Imbolc. It was derived from the pre-Reformation ceremony of blessing the candles and distributing them to be carried in a procession. However, just as this Christian ceremony drew on pagan festivals connected with the coming of the Spring, some of the old practices that carried on in parts of Wales until the 20th Century suggest older rituals. The festival of early Spring is not connected with Saint Brigid of Kildare, as it is in Scotland and Ireland, however.

Hill of Down

Hill of Down (Irish: Cnoc an Dúin) is a townland in County Meath located on the Royal Canal. There was also a railway station on the line between Dublin and Galway/Sligo. There is a shop and post office at Hill of Down.The shop also has a pub and all of these are located next to the bridge over the canal (Trim to Kinegad Road). St. Columba, St. Brigid of Kildare and St. Patrick are, according to legend, supposed to be buried within the hill, though this is probably a confusion with the HIll of Down near Downpatrick in the province of Ulster.

List of churches in Copeland

The following is a list of churches in Copeland.

The parishes of Parton, Lowca and Lowside Quarter do not appear to have any active churches.

The borough has an estimated 71 churches for 70,603 inhabitants, a ratio of one church to every 994 people.

Maman Brigitte

Maman Brigitte (English: Mother Brigitte) also written Gran Brigitte, Grann Brigitte, Manman, Manman Brigit, and Maman Brijit, is a death loa and the consort of Baron Samedi in Haitian Vodou. She drinks rum infused with hot peppers and is symbolized by a black rooster. Like Samedi and the Ghede, she is foul-mouthed. She is also the adoptive mother of Ghede Nibo.

As happened under the persecution of slavery in Haiti and the Americas, Maman Brigitte has been syncretized and represented by various saints - usually those depicted with fire or snakes - including Brigid of Kildare and Mary Magdalene.

Ninnidh

Ninnidh (alias Ninnidh the Pious, Irish: Ninnidh leth derc, meaning one eyed Ninnidh) was a 6th-century Irish Christian saint. St. Ninnidh is regarded as one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. He is associated with shores of Lough Erne and particularly the island of Inishmacsaint and the parish of Knockninny, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland (derived from the Irish: Cnoc Ninnidh, meaning the Hill of Ninnidh). His feast day is January 18.

Ninnidh of Inismacsaint is often confused with Saint Ninnidh of the Pure Hand who attended Brigid of Kildare on her deathbed.

Noor (Meuse)

The Noor or Langwater (Limburgish: Laankwater) is a river in the Netherlands and Belgium. The Noor is a right-bank tributary to the river Voer, which later joins the Meuse. Rising in Eijsden-Margraten, in the Dutch province of Limburg, the Noor eventually drains in the river Voer in Voeren, in the Belgian province of Limburg.

A source of the Noor can be found at the Brigida spring (Dutch: Sint Brigidabron) in the hamlet of Wesch, north of the village of Noorbeek, in the municipality of Eijsden-Margraten, where water wells up from the chalk underground. The spring and the adjacent 18th century lavoir, named after Brigid of Kildare, patron saint of the village of Noorbeek, form a Dutch national heritage site. From Wesch the river flows south, passing west of the village of Noorbeek (Dutch: Noor river), which was named after the river. Passing Noorbeek the Noor continues southward through the Noor valley, south of the plateau of Margraten, and is one of only few Dutch rivers to flow southward into Belgium. The Dutch part of the Noor valley (Dutch: Noordal) contains a nature reserve, with the same name, managed by the Dutch Society for preservation of Nature Monuments.After crossing the border into Belgium the Noor flows past Castle Altenbroek and the Watermill at Altenbroek in Voeren. This 18th century castle is a Flemish heritage site. The Belgian part of the Noor valley is a Flemish protected landscape as part of the larger Voer valley protected landscape. The Noor eventually drains in the river Voer near the village of 's-Gravenvoeren in the municipality of Voeren.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Columbus

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Columbus (Latin: Dioecesis Columbensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese in the Ecclesiastical Province of Cincinnati covering 23 counties in the U.S. state of Ohio. The episcopal see of the diocese is situated at Columbus. The diocese was erected on March 3, 1868 by Pope Pius IX out of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. On October 21, 1944 the diocese lost territory when Pope Pius XII erected the Diocese of Steubenville.

Saint Brigid of Kildare Monastery (Methodist-Benedictine)

Saint Brigid of Kildare Monastery is a double monastery of The United Methodist Church located in the American city of Saint Joseph, Minnesota.

The guiding sources for the monastery include the Holy Bible, the Rule of Saint Benedict, the Benedictine Breviary, and Methodist texts such as The United Methodist Hymnal, The Book of Discipline, and the writings of John Wesley.

Consultations to explore the possibility of creating an ecumenical monastic community began in 1984 and led to the founding in 1999 of Saint Brigid of Kildare Monastery by Sister Mary Ewing Stamps, OSB, as a Methodist-Benedictine monastery for United Methodist women.

The monastery was dedicated on the feast day of Saint Brigid in 2000 and by 2011 counted 16 members (14 Methodists), some ordained, both women and men, ranging in age from 23 to 82 years.

St Bride’s Church, Onich

St Bride’s Church (alternatively, Saint Brigid of Kildare Church) is a Episcopal parish church in North Ballachulish in the Scottish Highlands. The listed structure was built in 1874 to a design by the architect J. Garden Brown of London. Adjacent to the church is St. Bride's Parsonage, designed by Ross & Macbeth in 1891.The church is noted for its interior inspired by the Arts & Crafts movement with attractive floor tiling and stained glass windows. There is an impressive stone cross in the churchyard commemorating Alexander Chinnery-Haldane, Bishop of Argyll and the Isles.

St Bridget's Church, Chelvey

St. Bridget's Church in Chelvey, Brockley, Somerset, England dates from the 12th century, and has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.The church is dedicated to the Irish saint Brigid of Kildare.

The building includes a Norman south doorway and the octagonal font. There is also an inscribed Purbeck marble slab in the Tynte chapel under the Jacobean altar table. It dates from between 1250 and 1275, and shows the tall figure of an unknown 13th-century knight, clad in a long surcoat, grasping a spear in one hand and the scabbard of a sword in the other.Near the pulpit is a replica sand-filled hour glass in an iron frame, previously used for preachers to time their sermons.The churchyard cross is 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) high and sits on an octagonal base. At the top is a box and ball decoration which was added in 1877.In the late 20th century the building had fallen into a state of disrepair with water seeping into the building, damaging the stonework. In 2008 an appeal was launched which raised money for the restoration, new lighting and a new organ.

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