Brighton and Hove

Brighton and Hove (/ˈbraɪtən ... ˈhoʊv/) is a seaside city in East Sussex, in South East England. The towns of Brighton and Hove formed a unitary authority in 1997 and in 2001 were granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II. "Brighton" is often referred to synonymously with the official "Brighton and Hove" although many locals still consider the two to be separate towns. At the 2011 census, the city was England's most populous seaside resort, with a population of 273,400.

Brighton and Hove

City of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove shown within East Sussex and England
Brighton and Hove shown within East Sussex and England
Brighton and Hove is located in Southeast England
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Location of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove is located in the United Kingdom
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove (the United Kingdom)
Brighton and Hove is located in Europe
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove (Europe)
Coordinates: 50°49′40″N 0°09′10″W / 50.82778°N 0.15278°WCoordinates: 50°49′40″N 0°09′10″W / 50.82778°N 0.15278°W
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
RegionSouth East England
Historic county Sussex
Ceremonial countyEast Sussex
Administrative seatHove
Established1 April 1997
City status31 January 2001
 • TypeUnitary authority
 • BodyBrighton and Hove City Council
 • GovernanceCommittee system
 • ExecutiveNOC (Labour administration)
 • LeaderNancy Platts
 • MayorAlex Phillips
 • MPsPeter Kyle (L)
Caroline Lucas (G)
Lloyd Russell-Moyle (L)
 • City and unitary authority33.80 sq mi (82.79 km2)
 • Urban
34.5 sq mi (89.4 km2)
Area rank229th
 (mid-2018 est.)
 • City and unitary authority290,395
 • Rank44th
 • Density9,000/sq mi (3,480/km2)
 • Urban
474,485 (15th)
 • Urban density13,740/sq mi (5,304/km2)
 • Metro
769,000 (15th)
 • Ethnicity
(2011 Census)
80.5% White British
8.5% Other White
3.7% Mixed Race
3% Asian
1.5% Black
1.1% Chinese
0.8% Arab
2.1% Other
Time zoneUTC (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
BN (1, 2, 3, 41)
ONS code00ML (ONS)
E06000043 (GSS)
ISO 3166-2GB-BNH


Brighton and Hove is the result of a number of historic local government reorganisations:

City Council

Political composition

Elections are held every four years, with the last elections occurring on 2 May 2019[1]

Party Councillors
Labour 20
Green 19
Conservative 14
Independent 1
Total 54
Source: Brighton & Hove City Council

Brighton and Hove was the first ever council in the United Kingdom where the Green Party were both the largest group and led the council (from May 2011 to May 2015).

In February 2019 long-standing Labour councillor Anne Meadows defected to the Conservatives. She was deselected as a candidate for the 2019 elections by the Moulsecoomb and Bevendean ward Labour Party in 2018.

Former Labour group leader Councillor Warren Morgan left the Labour Party in February 2019. He affiliated with The Independent Group (TIG) along with fellow former Labour councillor Michael Inkpen-Leissner.

This change in political structure saw the Conservatives become the largest party on the council, as one former Labour seat was vacant following a councillor’s resignation within six months of elections.

In March 2019, an extraordinary council meeting was called by the Conservatives in a bid to take control of the authority in the final weeks before the May 2019 elections. This move was defeated as Green and TIG councillors voted with Labour.

Industrial relations

In 2013 the council was obliged to finalise single status across its workforce, resulting in a strike of its refuse collectors and street cleaners. Their council reformed their allowances to equalise them with other staff at the organisation conducting similar work.[2]


The Leader of the Council and Labour minority administration since April 2018 is Councillor Daniel Yates (Lab Co-op). [3]

The mayor of Brighton and Hove for 2018–2019 is Councillor Dee Simson [4] Geoff Raw is the current chief executive.[5]

DVLA database ban

In 2012 it was revealed that the Brighton and Hove unitary authority has been permanently banned from accessing information from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. This information is normally made available to local authorities for purposes such as enforcing parking fines, but access can be withdrawn if they are found to be misusing the service. The Big Brother Watch organisation, which obtained the information about the ban under a Freedom of Information request, claimed that "the public are right to be worried that their privacy is at risk across a range of government services."[6]


The first census of Brighton was in 1801.

The resident population of Brighton and Hove at the 2011 census was 273,369 persons, 50% male and 50% female.[7]

The 2011 census found the ethnic composition of Brighton and Hove to be 89.1% white (80.5% white British, 1.4% white Irish, 7.1% other white), 4.1% Asian (1.1% Chinese, 1.1% Indian, 0.5% Bangladeshi, 1.2% other Asian), 3.8% mixed race (1.5% mixed black/white, 1.2% mixed white/Asian, 1.0% other mix), 1.5% black and 0.8% Arab.[8]

The 2011 census found the religious composition to be 42.90% Christian, 42.42% nonreligious, 2.23% Muslim, 1.00% Buddhist, 0.98% Jewish. 1.66% were adherents of some other religion, while 8.81% did not state their religion.[8]

In the 2001 census, Brighton and Hove had the highest percentage of citizens indicating their religion as Jedi among all principal areas of England and Wales.[9]

Wording of the Letters Patent

The Letters Patent of 2001 that confers City status is worded thus:


To all whom these Presents shall come Greeting. Whereas We for divers good causes and considerations Us thereunto moving are graciously pleased to confer on the Towns of Brighton and Hove the status of a city. Now Therefore Know Ye that We of Our especial grace and favour and mere motion do by these Presents ordain declare and direct that the TOWNS OF BRIGHTON AND HOVE shall henceforth have the status of a CITY and shall have all such rank liberties privileges and immunities as are incident to a City. In witness whereof We have caused Our Letters to be made Patent Witness Ourself at Westminster the thirty first day of January in the forty ninth year of our reign.

By Warrant under The Queens Sign Manual.[10]

Economy and demography

The economy of the city is service-based with a strong emphasis on creative, digital and electronic technologies. Tourism and entertainment are important sectors for the City, which has many hotels and amusements, as well as Brighton Pier and Shoreham/Portslade Harbour.

The United Kingdom Census 2011 showed a substantial fall in the proportion of the population claiming Jobseeker's Allowance or Income Support, from 10.1% of the resident population in 2001, to 4.5% of the resident population in 2011.[11]

See also


  1. ^ "Brighton & Hove local elections results 2019".
  2. ^ "Allowances modernisation". Brighton & Hove City Council. Brighton & Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  3. ^ "The Leader". Brighton and Hove Council. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  4. ^ "The Mayor of Brighton & Hove". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  5. ^ "The Chief Executive". Brighton and Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  6. ^ DVLA bans councils from database over abuses, BBC News, 8 December 2012, archived from the original on 9 December 2012, retrieved 10 December 2012
  7. ^ "Brighton & Hove City Snapshot – Summary of Statistics 2014" (PDF). Brighton & Hove City Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Brighton and Hove Local Authority (1946157280)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  9. ^ Archived 9 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "The Brighton & Hove crest". Brighton & Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  11. ^ Key Statistics: Population; Quick Statistics: Economic indicators Archived 11 February 2003 at the Wayback Machine. (2011 census and 2001 census) Retrieved 2015-02-27.

External links


Brighton () is a seaside resort on the south coast of England that is part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles (76 km) south of London.Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods. The ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book (1086). The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France. The town also developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses.

In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent, later King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London. Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel (now Hilton) Grand Hotel, the West Pier, and the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, which was granted city status in 2000. Today, Brighton and Hove district has a resident population of about 290,395 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485 (2011 census).Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural, music and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, and is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has also been called the UK's "hippest city", and "the happiest place to live in the UK".

City of Brighton and Hove
East Sussex
Isle of Wight
West Sussex
Northern Ireland
Unitary authorities
Boroughs or districts
Major settlements
Local elections


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