Bride of Frankenstein

The Bride of Frankenstein is a 1935 American science-fiction horror film, the first sequel to Universal Pictures' 1931 hit Frankenstein. It is considered one of the few sequels to a great film that is even better than the original film on which it is based. As with the first film, Bride of Frankenstein was directed by James Whale and stars Boris Karloff as the Monster.[3] The sequel features Elsa Lanchester in the dual role of Mary Shelley and the Monster's mate at the end of the film. Colin Clive reprises his role as Henry Frankenstein, and Ernest Thesiger plays the role of Doctor Septimus Pretorius.

The movie starts as an immediate sequel to the events that concluded the earlier film, and is rooted in a subplot of the original Mary Shelley novel, Frankenstein (1818). In the film, a chastened Henry Frankenstein abandons his plans to create life, only to be tempted and finally coerced by his old mentor Dr. Pretorius, along with threats from the Monster, into constructing a mate for the Monster.

The preparation to film the sequel began shortly after the premiere of the first film, but script problems delayed the project. Principal photography began in January 1935, with creative personnel from the original returning in front of and behind the camera. Bride of Frankenstein was released to critical and popular acclaim, although it encountered difficulties with some state and national censorship boards. Since its release the film's reputation has grown, and it has been hailed as Whale's masterpiece. In 1998, the film was added to the United States National Film Registry, having been deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".[4][5]

The Bride of Frankenstein
Movie poster with the head of Frankenstein's monster at the center, looking forward with a somber expression. Elevated above him is a woman looking down towards the center of the image. Near the bottom of the image is the Bride of Frankenstein, looking off to the right of the image as her hair surrounds the head of Frankenstein's monster and the body of the woman. Text at the top of the image states "Warning! The Monster Demands a Mate!" The bottom of the image includes the film's title and credits.
Original US pressbook cover
Directed byJames Whale
Produced byCarl Laemmle Jr.
Screenplay byWilliam Hurlbut
Story by
Based onPremise suggested by Frankenstein
by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
Starring
Music byFranz Waxman
CinematographyJohn J. Mescall
Edited byTed J. Kent
Production
company
Distributed byUniversal Pictures
Release date
  • April 19, 1935 (Chicago)
  • April 20, 1935 (United States)
Running time
75 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$397,000[2]
Box office$2 million

Plot

On a stormy night, Percy Bysshe Shelley (Douglas Walton) and Lord Byron (Gavin Gordon) praise Mary Shelley (Elsa Lanchester) for her story of Frankenstein and his Monster. Reminding them that her intention was to impart a moral lesson, Mary says she has more of the story to tell. The scene shifts to the end of the 1931 Frankenstein, in 1899.

Villagers gathered around the burning windmill cheer the apparent death of the Monster (Boris Karloff). Their joy is tempered by the realization that Henry Frankenstein (Colin Clive) is also apparently dead. Hans (Reginald Barlow), father of the girl the creature drowned in the previous film, wants to see the Monster's bones. He falls into a flooded pit underneath the mill, where the Monster – having survived the fire – strangles him. Hauling himself from the pit, the Monster casts Hans' wife (Mary Gordon) to her death. He next encounters Minnie (Una O'Connor), who flees in terror.

Henry's body is returned to his fiancée Elizabeth (Valerie Hobson) at his ancestral castle home. Minnie arrives to sound the alarm about the Monster, but her warning goes unheeded. Elizabeth, seeing Henry move, realizes he is still alive. Nursed back to health by Elizabeth, Henry has renounced his creation, but still believes he may be destined to unlock the secret of life and immortality. A hysterical Elizabeth cries that she sees death coming, foreshadowing the arrival of Henry's former mentor, Doctor Septimus Pretorius (Ernest Thesiger). In his rooms, Pretorius shows Henry several homunculi he has created, including a miniature queen, king, archbishop, devil, ballerina, and mermaid. Pretorius wishes to work with Henry to create a mate for the Monster and offers a toast to their venture: "To a new world of gods and monsters!" Upon forcing Henry to help him, Pretorius will grow an artificial brain while Henry gathers the parts for the mate.

The Monster saves a young shepherdess (Anne Darling) from drowning. Her screams upon seeing him alert two hunters, who shoot and injure the creature. The hunters raise a mob that sets out in pursuit. Captured and trussed to a pole, the Monster is hauled to a dungeon and chained. Left alone, he breaks his chains, kills the guards and escapes into the woods.

That night, the Monster encounters a gypsy family and burns his hand in their campfire. Following the sound of a violin playing "Ave Maria", the Monster encounters an old blind hermit (O. P. Heggie) who thanks God for sending him a friend. He teaches the monster words like "friend" and "good" and shares a meal with him. Two lost hunters stumble upon the cottage and recognize the Monster. He attacks them and accidentally burns down the cottage as the hunters lead the hermit away.

Taking refuge from another angry mob in a crypt, the Monster spies Pretorius and his cronies Karl (Dwight Frye) and Ludwig (Ted Billings) breaking open a grave. The henchmen depart as Pretorius stays to enjoy a light supper. The Monster approaches Pretorius, and learns that Pretorius plans to create a mate for him.

Henry and Elizabeth, now married, are visited by Pretorius. He is ready for Henry to do his part in their "supreme collaboration". Henry refuses and Pretorius calls in the Monster who demands Henry's help. Henry again refuses and Pretorius orders the Monster out, secretly signaling him to kidnap Elizabeth. Pretorius guarantees her safe return upon Henry's participation. Henry returns to his tower laboratory where in spite of himself he grows excited over his work. After being assured of Elizabeth's safety, Henry completes the Bride's body.

A storm rages as final preparations are made to bring the Bride to life. Her bandage-wrapped body is raised through the roof. Lightning strikes a kite, sending electricity through the Bride. Henry and Pretorius lower her and realize their success. "She's alive! Alive!" Henry cries. They remove her bandages and help her to stand. "The bride of Frankenstein!" Doctor Pretorius declares.

The Monster comes down the steps after killing Karl on the rooftop and sees his mate (Elsa Lanchester). The excited Monster reaches out to her, asking, "Friend?" The Bride, screaming, rejects him. "She hate me! Like others" the Monster dejectedly says. As Elizabeth races to Henry's side, the Monster rampages through the laboratory. The Monster tells Henry and Elizabeth "Yes! Go! You live!" To Pretorius and the Bride, he says "You stay. We belong dead." While Henry and Elizabeth flee, the Monster sheds a tear and pulls a lever to trigger the destruction of the laboratory and tower.

Cast

Production

Frankenstein's monster (Boris Karloff)
Boris Karloff as Frankenstein's monster in Bride of Frankenstein (1935)

Universal considered making a sequel to Frankenstein as early as its 1931 preview screenings, following which the film's original ending was changed to allow for Henry Frankenstein's survival.[6] James Whale initially refused to direct Bride, believing he had "squeezed the idea dry"[7] on the first film. Following the success of Whale's The Invisible Man, producer Carl Laemmle, Jr. realized that Whale was the only possible director for Bride; Whale took advantage of the situation in persuading the studio to let him make One More River.[8] Whale believed the sequel would not top the original, so he decided instead to make it a memorable "hoot".[7] According to a studio publicist, Whale and Universal's studio psychiatrist decided "the Monster would have the mental age of a ten-year old boy and the emotional age of a lad of fifteen".[7]

Screenwriter Robert Florey wrote a treatment entitled The New Adventures of Frankenstein — The Monster Lives!, but it was rejected without comment early in 1932.[9] Universal staff writer Tom Reed wrote a treatment under the title The Return of Frankenstein, a title retained until filming began.[10] Following its acceptance in 1933, Reed wrote a full script that was submitted to the Hays office for review. The script passed its review, but Whale, who by then had been contracted to direct, complained that "it stinks to heaven".[11] L. G. Blochman and Philip MacDonald were the next writers assigned, but Whale also found their work unsatisfactory. In 1934, Whale set John L. Balderston to work on yet another version, and it was he who returned to an incident from the novel in which the creature demands a mate. In the novel Frankenstein creates a mate, but destroys it without bringing it to life. Balderston also created the Mary Shelley prologue. After several months Whale was still not satisfied with Balderston's work and handed the project to playwright William J. Hurlbut and Edmund Pearson. The final script, combining elements of a number of these versions, was submitted for Hays office review in November 1934.[12] Kim Newman reports that Whale planned to make Elizabeth the heart donor for the bride,[13] but film historian Scott MacQueen states that Whale never had such an intention.[9]

Sources report that Bela Lugosi and Claude Rains were considered, with varying degrees of seriousness, for the role of Frankenstein's mentor, Pretorius;[14] others report that the role was created specifically for Ernest Thesiger.[15] Because of Mae Clarke's ill health, Valerie Hobson replaced her as Henry Frankenstein's love interest, Elizabeth.[9] Early in production, Whale decided that the same actress cast to play the Bride should also play Mary Shelley in the film's prologue, to represent how the story — and horror in general — springs from the dark side of the imagination.[16] He considered Brigitte Helm and Phyllis Brooks before deciding on Elsa Lanchester. Lanchester, who had accompanied husband Charles Laughton to Hollywood, had met with only moderate success while Laughton had made a strong impact with several films including The Private Life of Henry VIII (for which he had won an Oscar) and Whale's own The Old Dark House. Lanchester had returned alone to London when Whale contacted her to offer her the dual role.[17] Lanchester modeled the Bride's hissing on the hissing of swans. She gave herself a sore throat while filming the hissing sequence, which Whale shot from multiple angles.[18]

Colin Clive and Boris Karloff reprised their roles from Frankenstein as creator and creation, respectively. Hobson recalled Clive's alcoholism had worsened since filming the original, but Whale did not recast the role because his "hysterical quality" was necessary for the film.[16] Karloff strongly objected to the decision to allow the Monster to speak. "Speech! Stupid! My argument was that if the monster had any impact or charm, it was because he was inarticulate – this great, lumbering, inarticulate creature. The moment he spoke you might as well ... play it straight."[19] This decision also meant that Karloff could not remove his dental plate, so now his cheeks did not have the sunken look of the original film.[9] Whale and the studio psychiatrist selected 44 simple words for the Monster's vocabulary by looking at test papers of ten-year-olds working at the studio.[7] Dwight Frye returned to play the doctor's assistant, Karl, having played the hunchback Fritz in the original. Frye also filmed a scene as an unnamed villager and the role of "Nephew Glutz", a man who murdered his uncle and blamed the death on the Monster.[9] Boris Karloff is credited simply as KARLOFF, which was Universal's custom during the height of his career.[20] Elsa Lanchester is credited for Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, but in a nod to the earlier film, the Monster's bride is credited only as "?" just as Boris Karloff had been in the opening credits of Frankenstein.

Brideoffrankenstein
Elsa Lanchester and Boris Karloff in Bride of Frankenstein. The bride's conical hairdo, with its white lightning-trace streaks on each side, has become an iconic symbol of both the character and the film.

Universal makeup artist Jack Pierce paid special attention to the Monster's appearance in this film. He altered his 1931 design to display the after-effects of the mill fire, adding scars and shortening the Monster's hair.[20] Over the course of filming, Pierce modified the Monster's makeup to indicate that the Monster's injuries were healing as the film progressed.[9] Pierce co-created the Bride's makeup with strong input from Whale, especially regarding the Bride's iconic hair style,[17] based on Nefertiti.[10] Lanchester's hair was given a Marcel wave over a wire frame to achieve the style.[9] Lanchester disliked working with Pierce, who she said "really did feel that he made these people, like he was a god ... in the morning he'd be dressed in white as if he were in hospital to perform an operation."[10] To play Mary Shelley, Lanchester wore a white net dress embroidered with sequins of butterflies, stars, and moons, which the actress had heard required 17 women 12 weeks to make.[7]

Kenneth Strickfaden created and maintained the laboratory equipment. Strickfaden recycled a number of the fancifully named machines he had created for the original Frankenstein for use in Bride, including the "Cosmic Ray Diffuser",[21] and the "Nebularium".[22] A lightning bolt generated by Strickfaden's equipment has become a stock scene, appearing in any number of films and television shows.[23] The man behind the film's special photographic effects was John P. Fulton, head of the special effects department at Universal Studios at the time.[24] Fulton and David S. Horsely created the homunculi over the course of two days by shooting the actors in full-size jars against black velvet and aligning them with the perspective of the on-set jars. The foreground film plate was rotoscoped and matted onto the rear plate. Diminutive actor Billy Barty is briefly visible from the back in the finished film as a homunculus infant in a high chair, but Whale cut the infant's reveal before the film's release.[9]

Whale met Franz Waxman at a party and asked him to score the picture. "Nothing will be resolved in this picture except the end destruction scene. Would you write an unresolved score for it?" asked Whale.[18] Waxman created three distinctive themes: one for the Monster; one for the Bride; and one for Pretorius. The score closes, at Whale's suggestion, with a powerful dissonant chord, intended to convey the idea that the on-screen explosion was so powerful that the theater where the film was being screened was affected by it.[25] Constantin Bakaleinikoff conducted 22 musicians to record the score in a single nine-hour session.[26]

Shooting began on January 2, 1935,[27] with a projected budget of US$293,750 ($5.37 million as of 2019) – almost exactly the budget of the original – and an estimated 36-day shooting schedule.[28][29] On the first day, Karloff waded in the water below the destroyed windmill wearing a rubber suit under his costume. Air got into the suit and expanded it like an "obscene water lilly".[10] Later that day, Karloff broke his hip, necessitating a stunt double.[19] Clive had also broken his leg.[16] Shooting was completed on March 7, 1935. The film was ten days over schedule because Whale shut down the picture for ten days until Heggie became available to play the Hermit.[30] With a final cost of $397,023 ($9.08 million as of 2019), Bride was more than $100,000 ($1.83 million as of 2019) over budget.[28][27] As originally filmed, Henry died fleeing the exploding castle. Whale re-shot the ending to allow for their survival, although Clive is still visible on-screen in the collapsing laboratory.[13] Whale completed his final cut, shortening the running time from about 90 to 75 minutes and re-shooting and re-editing the ending, only days before the film's scheduled premiere date.[1]

Censorship

Karloff-whale-mescall-bride opt2
Boris Karloff, director James Whale, and cinematographer John J. Mescall on set of Bride of Frankenstein (1935)

Bride of Frankenstein was subjected to censorship, both during production by the Hays office and following its release by local and national censorship boards. Joseph Breen, lead censor for the Hays office, objected to lines of dialogue in the originally submitted script in which Henry Frankenstein and his work were compared to that of God. He continued to object to such dialogue in revised scripts,[31] and to a planned shot of the Monster rushing through a graveyard to a figure of a crucified Jesus and attempting to "rescue" the figure from the cross.[32] Breen also objected to the number of murders, both seen and implied by the script and strongly advised Whale to reduce the number.[9] The censor's office, upon reviewing the film in March 1935, required a number of cuts. Whale agreed to delete a sequence in which Dwight Frye's "Nephew Glutz"[9] kills his uncle and blames the Monster,[1] and shots of Elsa Lanchester as Mary Shelley in which Breen felt too much of her breasts were visible. Curiously, despite his earlier objection, Breen offered no objection to the cruciform imagery throughout the film – including a scene with the Monster lashed Christ-like to a pole – nor to the presentation of Pretorius as a coded homosexual.[31] Bride of Frankenstein was approved by the Production Code office on April 15, 1935.[1]

Following its release with the Code seal of approval, the film was challenged by the censorship board in the state of Ohio.[31] Censors in England and China objected to the scene in which the Monster gazes longingly upon the as-yet unanimated body of the Bride, citing concerns that it looked like necrophilia.[33] Universal voluntarily withdrew the film from Sweden because of the extensive cuts demanded, and Bride was rejected outright by Trinidad, Palestine, and Hungary. One unusual objection, from Japanese censors, was that the scene in which Pretorius chases his miniature Henry VIII with tweezers constituted "making a fool out of a king".[31]

Reception

Bride gip
Colin Clive, Elsa Lanchester, Boris Karloff, and Ernest Thesiger

Bride of Frankenstein was profitable for Universal, with a 1943 report showing that the film had by then earned approximately $2 million ($29 million in 2019 money) for the studio, a profit of about $950,000 ($13.8 million as of 2019).[28][34] The film was critically praised upon its release, although some reviewers did qualify their opinions based on the film's being in the horror genre. The New York World-Telegram called the film "good entertainment of its kind".[35] The New York Post described it as "a grotesque, gruesome tale which, of its kind, is swell".[35] The Hollywood Reporter similarly called the film "a joy for those who can appreciate it".[35]

Variety did not so qualify its review. "[It is] one of those rare instances where none can review it, or talk about it, without mentioning the cameraman, art director, and score composer in the same breath as the actors and director." Variety also praised the cast, writing that "Karloff manages to invest the character with some subtleties of emotion that are surprisingly real and touching ... Thesiger as Dr Pretorious [is] a diabolic characterization if ever there was one ... Lanchester handles two assignments, being first in a preamble as author Mary Shelley and then the created woman. In latter assignment she impresses quite highly."[36]

In another unqualified review, Time wrote that the film had "a vitality that makes their efforts fully the equal of the original picture ... Screenwriters Hurlbut & Balderston and Director James Whale have given it the macabre intensity proper to all good horror pieces, but have substituted a queer kind of mechanistic pathos for the sheer evil that was Frankenstein."[37] The Oakland Tribune concurred it was "a fantasy produced on a rather magnificent scale, with excellent stagecraft and fine photographic effects".[38] While the Winnipeg Free Press thought that the electrical equipment might have been better suited to Buck Rogers, nonetheless the reviewer praised the film as "exciting and sometimes morbidly gruesome", declaring that "All who enjoyed Frankenstein will welcome his Bride as a worthy successor."[39] The New York Times called Karloff "so splendid in the role that all one can say is 'he is the Monster.'"[40] The Times praised the entire principal cast and Whale's direction in concluding that Bride is "a first-rate horror film",[40] and presciently suggested that "The Monster should become an institution, like Charlie Chan."[40] Bride was nominated for one Academy Award, for Best Sound Recording (Gilbert Kurland).[41][42]

The film's reputation has persisted and grown since its release. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 100% based on 41 reviews, with an average rating of 9.1/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "An eccentric, campy, technically impressive, and frightening picture, James Whale's Bride of Frankenstein has aged remarkably well."[43] In 1998, the film was added to the United States National Film Registry, having been deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".[4][5] Frequently identified as James Whale's masterpiece,[44] the film is lauded as "the finest of all gothic horror movies".[45] Time rated Bride of Frankenstein in its "ALL-TIME 100 Movies", in which critics Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel overruled the magazine's original review to declare the film "one of those rare sequels that is infinitely superior to its source".[46] In 2008, Bride was selected by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.[47] Also in 2008, the Boston Herald named it the second greatest horror film after Nosferatu.[48] In 2016, James Charisma of Playboy ranked the film #7 on a list of 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals.[49] Entertainment Weekly considers the film superior to Frankenstein.[50]

Interpretations

Christian imagery

Christian imagery appears throughout the film. In addition to the scenes of the Monster trussed in a cruciform pose and the crucified figure of Jesus in the graveyard, the New Testament figure-looking hermit has a crucifix on the wall of his hut – which, to Whale's consternation, editor Ted Kent made glow during a fade-out[9] – and the Monster consumes the Christian sacraments of bread and wine at his "last supper" with the hermit. Horror scholar David J. Skal suggests that Whale's intention was to make a "direct comparison of Frankenstein's monster to Christ".[51] Film scholar Scott MacQueen, noting Whale's lack of any religious convictions, disputes the notion that the Monster is a Christ-figure. Rather, the Monster is a "mockery of the divine" since, having been created by Man rather than God, it "lacks the divine spark". In crucifying the Monster, he says, Whale "pushes the audience's buttons" by inverting the central Christian belief of the death of Christ followed by the resurrection. The Monster is raised from the dead first, then crucified.[9]

Queer reading

In the decades since its release, modern film scholars have noted the possible queer reading of the film. Director James Whale was openly gay, and some of the actors in the cast, including Ernest Thesiger and Colin Clive, were believed to be gay or bisexual.[52] Although James Curtis, Whale's biographer, rejects the notion that Whale would have identified with the Monster from a homosexual perspective,[53] scholars have perceived a gay subtext suffused through the film, especially a camp sensibility,[54] particularly embodied in the character of Pretorius and his relationship with Henry.

Gay film historian Vito Russo, in considering Pretorius, stops short of identifying the character as gay, instead referring to him as "sissified",[55] "sissy" itself being Hollywood code for "homosexual". Pretorius serves as a "gay Mephistopheles",[15] a figure of seduction and temptation, going so far as to pull Frankenstein away from his bride on their wedding night to engage in the unnatural act of creating non-procreative life. A novelization of the film published in England made the implication clear, having Pretorius say to Frankenstein "'Be fruitful and multiply.' Let us obey the Biblical injunction: you of course, have the choice of natural means; but as for me, I am afraid that there is no course open to me but the scientific way."[56]

The Monster, whose affections for the male hermit and the female Bride he discusses with identical language ("friend") has been read as sexually "unsettled" and bisexual.[52] Gender studies author Elizabeth Young writes: "He has no innate understanding that the male-female bond he is to forge with the bride is assumed to be the primary one or that it carries a different sexual valence from his relationships with [Pretorius and the hermit]: all affective relationships are as easily 'friendships' as 'marriages'."[57] Indeed, his relationship with the hermit has been interpreted as a same-sex marriage that heterosexual society will not tolerate: "No mistake – this is a marriage, and a viable one ... But Whale reminds us quickly that society does not approve. The monster – the outsider – is driven from his scene of domestic pleasure by two gun-toting rubes who happen upon this startling alliance and quickly, instinctively, proceed to destroy it", writes cultural critic Gary Morris for Bright Lights Film Journal.[52][58] The creation of the Bride scene, Morris continues, is "Whale's reminder to the audience – his Hollywood bosses, peers, and everyone watching – of the majesty and power of the homosexual creator".[52]

Filmmaker Curtis Harrington, a friend and confidant of Whale's, dismissed this as "a younger critic's evaluation. All artists do work that comes out of the unconscious mind and later on you can analyze it and say the symbolism may mean something, but artists don't think that way and I would bet my life that James Whale would never have had such concepts in mind."[59] Specifically in response to the "majesty and power" reading, Harrington stated, "My opinion is that's just pure bullshit. That's a critical interpretation that has nothing to do with the original inspiration."[59] He concludes, "I think the closest you can come to a homosexual metaphor in his films is to identify that certain sort of camp humor."[59] Whale's companion David Lewis stated flatly that Whale's sexual orientation was "not germane" to his filmmaking, saying, "Jimmy was first and foremost an artist, and his films represent the work of an artist – not a gay artist, but an artist."[60]

Remakes

Universal Pictures has sought to remake Bride of Frankenstein on several occasions.[61] While the novel Frankenstein has been adapted to film many times, Bride of Frankenstein's closest remake was The Bride (1985), starring Sting, Clancy Brown, and Jennifer Beals.[62] In 1991, the studio sought to remake the film for cable television, and Martin Scorsese expressed interest in directing.[61]

Reboot

In the first decade of the 21st century, Universal paired with Imagine Entertainment and contracted Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini, who wrote the screenplay for American Splendor, to write a remake. The screenwriters set the story in contemporary New York. Jacob Estes was also involved with the project at one point and wrote a draft.[62] In June 2009, Universal and Imagine entered discussions with director Neil Burger and his writing partner Dirk Wittenborn,[62] and producer Brian Grazer was assigned to oversee the development of the remake.[63]

In December 2015, Variety reported that David Koepp will write the script.[64] In May 2017, Universal Pictures announced their shared universe film series of rebooted, modern-day interpretations of their classic Universal Monsters titled, Dark Universe. The film series began with the 2017 film The Mummy, and is expected to continue with Bride of Frankenstein on February 14, 2019 with Bill Condon directing the film.[65] By October 2017, it was reported that pre-production had begun when the creative team and studio decided to postpone the release in order to further work on the script with intentions being to improve the story.[66] Deadline reported that Javier Bardem and Angelina Jolie are still attached to the movie as Frankenstein's monster and the film's reluctant bride, respectively.[67] The same month Condon stated that should Jolie decide to leave the project, he would be interested in seeing Gal Gadot play the titular character.[68] But on November 8, 2017, Alex Kurtzman and Chris Morgan moved on to other projects, leaving the future of the Dark Universe in doubt.[69]

In January 2018, it was reported that Condon was assembling a production team, consisting of cinematographer Tobias A. Schliessler, production designer Sarah Greenwood, composer Carter Burwell, and costume designer Jacqueline Durran.[70]

In popular culture

In these films we see a scene of Bride broadcast on TV.[71]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Curtis, p. 250
  2. ^ Brunas, et al., p. 116
  3. ^ "Bride of Frankenstein". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  4. ^ a b "'Easy Rider' now listed on National Film Registry". CNN. November 17, 1998. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  5. ^ a b "Films Selected to The National Film Registry, Library of Congress 1989-2007". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  6. ^ Curtis, p. 154
  7. ^ a b c d e Vieria, p. 80
  8. ^ Curtis, p. 234
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l MacQueen, Scott (2004). DVD commentary, Bride of Frankenstein Legacy Collection edition (DVD). Universal Studios.
  10. ^ a b c d Vieira, p. 85
  11. ^ Curtis, p. 134
  12. ^ Curtis, pp. 234–36
  13. ^ a b Newman, Kim (December 2004). "Rewind Masterpiece #18". Empire. p. 181.
  14. ^ Lennig, p. 92
  15. ^ a b Skal, p. 185
  16. ^ a b c Vieira, p. 82
  17. ^ a b Curtis, pp. 243–44
  18. ^ a b Vieira, p. 86
  19. ^ a b Gifford, p. 55
  20. ^ a b Curtis, p. 237
  21. ^ Goldman, p. 165
  22. ^ Goldman, p. 183
  23. ^ Picart, et al., p. 40
  24. ^ Picart, et al., p. 39
  25. ^ Curtis, p. 246
  26. ^ Curtis, p. 249
  27. ^ a b Mank, p. xvii
  28. ^ a b c Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  29. ^ Curtis, p. 241
  30. ^ Curtis, pp. 248–49
  31. ^ a b c d Skal, pp. 187–91
  32. ^ Curtis, p. 247
  33. ^ Johnson, p. 166
  34. ^ Curtis p. 251
  35. ^ a b c Curtis, pp. 250–51
  36. ^ Variety staff (January 1, 1935). "Bride of Frankenstein". Variety. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  37. ^ "The New Pictures". Time. April 29, 1935. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  38. ^ Soanes, Wood (1935-05-25). "Frankenstein stalks again in Roxie play". Oakland Tribune.
  39. ^ "Lyceum screens "Monster" sequel". Winnipeg Free Press. 1935-05-24.
  40. ^ a b c F.S.N. (May 11, 1935). "Bride of Frankenstein At the Roxy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2009. Mr. Karloff is so splendid in the role that all one can say is "he is the Monster." Mr. Clive, Valerie Hobson, Elsa Lanchester, O. P. Heggie, Ernest Thesiger, E. E. Clive, and Una O'Connor fit snugly into the human background before which Karloff moves. ...
  41. ^ "The 8th Academy Awards (1936) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
  42. ^ "Bride of Frankenstein Awards". Allmovie. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  43. ^ "Bride of Frankenstein (1935)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  44. ^ Graham, Bob (October 9, 1998). "`Bride' Is as Lovely as Ever". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  45. ^ French, Philip (December 2, 2007). "Films of the Day: The Bride of Frankenstein". The Observer.
  46. ^ Corliss, Richard; Schickel, Richard (February 12, 2005). "All-Time 100 Movies". Time. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  47. ^ "Empire's The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire magazine. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
  48. ^ Verniere, James (October 27, 2008). "Creepy countdown: The Herald ranks the 10 scariest flicks in film history". Boston Herald. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
  49. ^ Charisma, James (March 15, 2016). "Revenge of the Movie: 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals". Playboy. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  50. ^ The Entertainment Weekly Guide to the Greatest Movies Ever Made. New York: Warner Books. 1996. pp. 99–100.
  51. ^ Skal. p. 189
  52. ^ a b c d Morris, Gary (July 1997). "Sexual Subversion: The Bride of Frankenstein". Bright Lights Film Journal (19). Retrieved January 7, 2008.
  53. ^ Curtis, p. 144
  54. ^ Skal, p. 184
  55. ^ Russo, p. 50
  56. ^ Egremont, Michael, quoted in Skal, p. 189
  57. ^ Young, p. 134
  58. ^ In the parody of this scene in Mel Brooks' Young Frankenstein, the hermit is explicitly gay.
  59. ^ a b c Del Valle, David (November 29, 2009). "Curtis Harrington on James Whale". Films in Review. p. 3. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  60. ^ Quoted in Curtis, p. 144
  61. ^ a b Klady, Leonard (November 8, 1991). "Hopeful Bride". Entertainment Weekly (91).
  62. ^ a b c Zeitchik, Steven (June 18, 2009). "'Bride of Frankenstein' to live again". The Hollywood Reporter. Reuters.
  63. ^ Hart, Hugh (June 17, 2009). "Born-Again Bride of Frankenstein in Works". Wired News. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
  64. ^ Kroll, Justin (December 17, 2015). "'Bride of Frankenstein' Reboot to Be Written by David Koepp". Variety.
  65. ^ http://www.darkuniverse.com/
  66. ^ "'Bride Of Frankenstein' Now Undated; Blumhouse Title To Fill Valentine's Day 2019 Slot".
  67. ^ Jr, Mike Fleming (2017-10-05). "'Bride Of Frankenstein' Back To Lab As London Pre-Production Postponed; Javier Bardem & Angelina Jolie Expected To Wait". Deadline. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
  68. ^ https://www.thewrap.com/bride-frankenstein-gal-gadot-bill-condon-angelina-jolie/
  69. ^ Kit, Borys; Couch, Aaron (November 8, 2017). "Universal's "Monsterverse" in Peril as Top Producers Exit (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  70. ^ Marc, Christopher (January 15, 2018). "Bill Condon's "Bride of Frankenstein' Assembles a Production Team - When Will It Shoot? - Omega Underground". omegaunderground.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  71. ^ "Bride of Frankenstein (1935) - Connections". imdb.com. Retrieved 21 October 2018.

Bibliography

  • Brunas, Michael, John Brunas & Tom Weaver (1990). Universal Horrors: The Studios Classic Films, 1931–46. Qefferson, NC, McFarland & Co.
  • Curtis, James (1998). James Whale: A New World of Gods and Monsters. Boston, Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19285-8.
  • Gelder, Ken (2000). The Horror Reader. New York, Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21355-X.
  • Gifford, Denis (1973) Karloff: The Man, The Monster, The Movies. Film Fan Monthly.
  • Goldman, Harry (2005). Kenneth Strickfaden, Dr. Frankenstein's Electrician. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2064-2.
  • Johnson, Tom (1997). Censored Screams: The British Ban on Hollywood Horror in the Thirties. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0394-2.
  • Lennig, Arthur (1993). The Immortal Count: The Life and Films of Bela Lugosi. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2273-2.
  • Mallory, Michael (2009) Universal Studios Monsters: A Legacy of Horror. Universe. ISBN 0-7893-1896-2.
  • Mank, Gregory W. (1994). Hollywood Cauldron: Thirteen Films from the Genre's Golden Age. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1112-0.
  • Picart, Carolyn Joan, Frank Smoot and Jayne Blodgett (2001). The Frankenstein Film Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31350-4.
  • Russo, Vito (1987). The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies (revised edition). New York, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-096132-5.
  • Skal, David J. (1993). The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-024002-0.
  • Vieira, Mark A. (2003). Hollywood Horror: From Gothic to Cosmic. New York, Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-4535-5.
  • Young, Elizabeth. "Here Comes The Bride". Collected in Gelder, Ken (ed.) (2000). The Horror Reader. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21356-8.

External links

Bali Ha'i

"Bali Ha'i", also spelled "Bali Hai", is a show tune from the 1949 Rodgers and Hammerstein musical South Pacific. The name refers to a mystical island, visible on the horizon but not reachable, and was originally inspired by the sight of Ambae island from neighboring Espiritu Santo in Vanuatu, where author James Michener was stationed in World War II.

Beetlejuice's Rock and Roll Graveyard Revue

Beetlejuice's Graveyard Mash-Up (formerly known as Beetlejuice's Rock and Roll Graveyard Revue) or Beetlejuice's Rockin' Graveyard Revue or Universal Monsters Live Rock and Roll Show is a live stage show based on the film of the same name and Universal's Classic Monsters. It is located at Universal Studios Japan and formerly at Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal Studios Florida. The venue at the Hollywood park was removed in 1999, and replaced by Spider-Man Rocks.On August 25, 2015, Universal announced that the show at Universal Studios Florida would be "closing later this year" to make way for Fast & Furious: Supercharged. Loyal fans of the show have launched campaigns online and via social media to prevent its closure. In the first 48 hours, over 750 signatures were collected for an online petition. The show ultimately closed on January 5, 2016.

Bride of Frankenstein (character)

The Bride of Frankenstein is a fictional character first introduced in the novel, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, and later in the film, Bride of Frankenstein.

Brides of Frankenstein

Not to be confused with the film Bride of Frankenstein"Brides of Frankenstein" is a medley of excerpts from various Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark songs mixed with dance rhythms by Mike "Hitman" Wilson and Steve "Silk" Hurley.

It was released as a 12-inch single in 1988 in the United States and Canada. In 1991, both tracks were released as B-sides of the "Call My Name" CD single.

Colin Clive

Colin Clive (born Colin Glenn Clive-Greig; 20 January 1900 – 25 June 1937) was a British-American stage and screen actor. His most memorable role was Henry Frankenstein in the 1931 monster film Frankenstein and its 1935 sequel, Bride of Frankenstein.

Dig Up Her Bones

"Dig Up Her Bones" is the seventh single by the horror punk band the Misfits. It was the first single released by the re-formed lineup of the band, after the original incarnation broke up in 1983. It was the only single released from their 1997 album American Psycho, and the accompanying music video was the first official Misfits music video ever released.

Doctor Septimus Pretorius

Septimus Pretorius is a fictional character who appears in the Universal film Bride of Frankenstein (1935). He is played by British stage and film actor Ernest Thesiger. Some sources claim he was originally to have been played by Bela Lugosi or Claude Rains. Others indicate that the part was conceived specifically for Thesiger.

Elizabeth Lavenza

Elizabeth Frankenstein (née Lavenza) is a fictional character first introduced in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. In both the novel and its various film adaptations, she is the fiancée of Victor Frankenstein.

Elsa Lanchester

Elsa Sullivan Lanchester (28 October 1902 – 26 December 1986) was an English actress with a long career in theatre, film and television.Lanchester studied dance as a child and after the First World War began performing in theatre and cabaret, where she established her career over the following decade. She met the actor Charles Laughton in 1927, and they were married two years later. She began playing small roles in British films, including the role of Anne of Cleves with Laughton in The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933). His success in American films resulted in the couple moving to Hollywood, where Lanchester played small film roles.

Her role as the title character in Bride of Frankenstein (1935) brought her recognition. She played supporting roles through the 1940s and 1950s. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Come to the Stable (1949) and Witness for the Prosecution (1957), the last of twelve films in which she appeared with Laughton. Following Laughton's death in 1962, Lanchester resumed her career with appearances in such Disney films as Mary Poppins (1964), That Darn Cat! (1965) and Blackbeard's Ghost (1968). The horror film Willard (1971) was highly successful, and one of her last roles was in Murder by Death (1976).

Ernest Thesiger

Ernest Frederic Graham Thesiger, CBE (15 January 1879 – 14 January 1961) was an English stage and film actor. He is noted for his performance as Doctor Septimus Pretorius in James Whale's film, Bride of Frankenstein (1935).

Franz Waxman

Franz Waxman (né Wachsmann; 24 December 1906 – 24 February 1967) was a German and American composer of Jewish descent, known primarily for his work in the film music genre. His film scores include Bride of Frankenstein, Rebecca, Sunset Boulevard, A Place in the Sun, Stalag 17, Rear Window, Peyton Place, The Nun's Story, and Taras Bulba. He received twelve Academy Award nominations, and won two Oscars in consecutive years (for Sunset Boulevard and A Place in the Sun). He also received a Golden Globe Award for the former film. Bernard Herrmann said that the score for Taras Bulba was "the score of a lifetime."

He also composed concert works, including the oratorio Joshua (1959), and The Song of Terezin (1965), a work for orchestra, chorus, and children's chorus based upon poetry written by children in the Theresienstadt concentration camp during World War II. Waxman also founded the Los Angeles Music Festival in 1947 with which he conducted a number of West Coast premieres by fellow film composers, and concert composers alike.

Gay Bride of Frankenstein

Gay Bride of Frankenstein is an American comic-book rock musical written by Dane Leeman and Billy Butler, with music and lyrics by Billy Butler. The concept album was created by Billy Butler and the Monster Makers during the 2008 RPM Challenge and premiered live on stage at the Players' Ring Theatre in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, that same year. It was a top selection in the 2009 New York Musical Theatre Festival, opening September 28 and closing October 11, and played seven sold out performances at the TBG Theater in New York City. It then played at Seacoast Repertory Theatre in 2010 and two concerts at Joe's Pub in 2011. The comic book is drawn by Dan Drew.

Gods and Monsters (band)

Gods and Monsters is an American psychedelic rock band from New York City, known for once having singer-songwriter Jeff Buckley as a member in the early 1990s.

Gods and Monsters was founded by ex-Captain Beefheart guitarist, Gary Lucas, and was named after a quotation from the 1935 horror film Bride of Frankenstein: "To a new world of gods and monsters!". Gods and Monsters has performed at Manhattan music venues such as the Knitting Factory and CBGB. Other members of the loosely-knit band have included Jerry Harrison, Billy Ficca, Richard Barone, and Modern Lovers member Ernie Brooks. Emily Duff (Her last name then was her maiden name) replaced Jeff Buckley as lead singer after he left to start his solo career.

Gods and Monsters (film)

Not to be confused with Justice League: Gods and Monsters.Gods and Monsters is a 1998 British-American period drama film that recounts the partly fictionalized last days of the life of film director James Whale, whose experience of war in World War I is a central theme. It stars Ian McKellen as Whale, along with Brendan Fraser, Lynn Redgrave, Lolita Davidovich and David Dukes. The film was directed and written by Bill Condon, based on Christopher Bram's novel Father of Frankenstein.

Gods and Monsters won the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, and was nominated for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Ian McKellen) and Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Lynn Redgrave). The film features reconstructions of the filming of Bride of Frankenstein, a movie Whale directed. The title comes from a line in Bride of Frankenstein, in which the character Dr. Pretorius toasts Dr. Frankenstein, "To a new world of gods and monsters!" The story has also been adapted as a play of the same name which premiered in London at the Southwark Playhouse in February 2015.

James Whale

James Whale (22 July 1889 – 29 May 1957) was an English film director, theater director and actor. He is best remembered for several horror films: Frankenstein (1931), The Old Dark House (1932), The Invisible Man (1933) and Bride of Frankenstein (1935), all considered classics. Whale also directed films in other genres, including the 1936 film version of the musical Show Boat. He became increasingly disenchanted with his association with horror, and many of his non-horror films have fallen into obscurity.

Whale was born into a large family in Dudley, in the Black Country area of the English West Midlands. He discovered his artistic talent early on and studied art. With the outbreak of World War I he enlisted in the British Army and became an officer. He was captured by the Germans and during his time as a prisoner of war he realized he was interested in drama. Following his release at the end of the war he became an actor, set designer and director. His success directing the 1928 play Journey's End led to his move to the US, first to direct the play on Broadway and then to Hollywood, California, to direct films. He lived in Hollywood for the rest of his life, most of that time with his longtime companion, producer David Lewis. Apart from Journey's End (1930), which was released by Tiffany Films, and Hell's Angels (1930), released by United Artists, he directed a dozen films for Universal Pictures between 1931 and 1937, developing a style characterized by the influence of German Expressionism and a highly mobile camera.

At the height of his career as a director Whale directed The Road Back (1937), a sequel to All Quiet on the Western Front. Studio interference, possibly spurred by political pressure from Nazi Germany, led to the film's being altered from Whale's vision and it was a critical and commercial failure. A run of similar box-office disappointments followed and, while he would make one final short film in 1950, by 1941 his film directing career was effectively over. He continued to direct for the stage and also rediscovered his love for painting and travel. His investments made him wealthy and he lived a comfortable retirement until suffering strokes in 1956 that robbed him of his vigor and left him in pain. He committed suicide on 29 May 1957 by drowning himself in his swimming pool.

Whale was openly gay throughout his career, something that was very unusual in the 1920s and 1930s. As knowledge of his sexual orientation has become more common, some of his films, Bride of Frankenstein in particular, have been interpreted as having a gay subtext and it has been claimed that his refusal to remain in the closet led to the end of his career.

Monster Bash (pinball)

Monster Bash is a pinball machine produced by Williams. The game features some Universal Monsters including The Creature from the Black Lagoon, The Wolfman, Frankenstein's monster, the Bride of Frankenstein, Dracula and The Mummy.

Monsters of Legend

Monsters of Legend is the sixteenth album by the band Midnight Syndicate. Advertised as a tribute to the Golden Age of Horror, the packaging features images from Bride of Frankenstein and Dracula. The album features the blend of orchestral instrumental music, sound effects, and audio storytelling that the band has become known for.

Son of Frankenstein

Son of Frankenstein is a 1939 horror film directed by Rowland V. Lee, and is the third entry in Universal Studios' Frankenstein series and the last to feature Boris Karloff as the Monster. It is also the first to feature Bela Lugosi as Ygor. The film is the sequel to James Whale's Bride of Frankenstein, and stars top-billed Basil Rathbone, Karloff, Lugosi and Lionel Atwill.

The film was a reaction to the popular re-releases of Dracula with Lugosi and Frankenstein with Karloff as a double-feature in 1938. Universal's declining horror output was revitalized with the enormously successful Son of Frankenstein, in which the studio cast both stars.

Universal Classic Monsters

Universal Classic Monsters is a phrase used to describe the horror, fantasy, suspense and science fiction films made by Universal Pictures during the decades of the 1920s through the 1950s. They began with The Hunchback of Notre Dame and The Phantom of the Opera, both silent films starring Lon Chaney. Universal continued with talkies including monster franchises Dracula, Frankenstein, The Mummy, The Invisible Man, The Wolf Man and Creature from the Black Lagoon. The films often featured Bela Lugosi, Boris Karloff and Lon Chaney Jr.

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