Brickworks

A brickworks, also known as a brick factory, is a factory for the manufacturing of bricks, from clay or shale. Usually a brickworks is located on a clay bedrock (the most common material from which bricks are made), often with a quarry for clay on site.

Brickyard5
Large bricks on a conveyor belt in a modern European factory setting

Equipment

Most brickworks have some or all of the following:

  • A kiln, for firing, or 'burning' the bricks.
  • Drying yard or shed, for drying bricks before firing.
  • A building or buildings for manufacturing the bricks.
  • A quarry for clay.
  • A pugmill or clay preparation plant (see below).

Brick making

Bricks were originally made by hand, and that practice continues in developing countries and a few specialty suppliers. In a large industrial brickworks, clay is taken from the quarry, and then carried by conveyor belt or truck/lorry to the main factory, although it may be stockpiled outside before entering the machinery. When the clay enters the preparation plant (Clay Prep) it is crushed, and mixed with water and other additives which may include breeze, a very fine anthracite that aids firing. This process, which is also known as pugmilling, improves the consistency, firing qualities, texture, and colour of the brick. From here, the processed clay can be extruded into a continuous strip and cut with wires, or put into moulds or presses (also referred to as forming) to form the clay into its final shape. After the forming or cutting, the bricks must be dried, either in the open air, in drying sheds, or in special drying kilns. When the bricks have been dried, they must then be fired or 'burnt' in a kiln, to give them their final hardness and appearance.

Ziegelei Schwarting
Men working in the yard of a brickworks in Germany, the tall chimney of the kiln visible, 1890
Ciglana EKO Međimurje - stovarište
Packed bricks stored in a brickworks in Croatia
Brick production in Songea, Tanzania
Bricks set out to dry in Songea, Tanzania
Building blocks of success (10692932653)
A brick-making machine in Tanzania

The brick manufacturing process was revolutionised in the mid nineteenth century with the development of automated brickmaking machines such as the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’.[1]

The largest single brickworks site in the world currently able to manufacture one million bricks per day is located on the banks of the Swan River in Perth, Western Australia.[2]

Enviromental effects

Zigzag brick kilns are recommended over traditional brick kilns because they consume less coal.[3]

Historical notes

In the past, clay was often transported from the quarry to the brickworks by narrow gauge railway or aerial ropeway.

Notable brickworks

See also

References

  1. ^ The First Hundred Years: the Early History of Bradley & Craven, Limited, Wakefield, England by Bradley & Craven Ltd (1963)
  2. ^ https://www.midlandbrick.com.au/Resources/Blog/October-2016/Celebrating-70-Years
  3. ^ Understanding Zig Zag Kilns
  4. ^ Bursledon Brickworks Industrial Museum. "The History". www.bursledonbrickworks.org.uk. Bursledon Brickworks Industrial Museum. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  5. ^ Visit Hampshire. "Bursledon Brickworks Museum". Retrieved 14 October 2015.
Athad Now Brickworks

Athad Now Brickworks (Persian: كوره اجرپزي اتحادنو‎ – Kūreh Ajorpazī Atḥād Now) is a company town and village in Narjeh Rural District, in the Central District of Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 17, in 7 families.

Brickworks, Khorramabad, Qazvin

Brickworks, Khorramabad (Persian: مجموعه كوره هاي اجرپزي‎ – Mojamowʿah Kūreh Hāy Ajorpazī) is a company town and village in Khorramabad Rural District, Esfarvarin District, Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 294, in 56 families.

Brickworks, Singapore

Brickworks is a subzone of Bukit Batok, Singapore. It is bounded by Bukit Batok West Avenue 3/2/5 and Bukit Batok Road. This area is beside the planned HDB town, Tengah. There are also several new housing developments in this area. A new bus service, 944, was launched in Bukit Batok on Aug 27, to serve one such new development in Bukit Batok West.

Brickworks Group Representation Constituency

Brickworks Group Representation Constituency (Traditional Chinese: 磚廠集選區; Simplified Chinese: 砖厂集选区) is a defunct Group Representation Constituency in Bukit Merah, Queenstown and Clementi, Singapore from 1988 to 1997.

Brickworks Limited

Brickworks Limited is an Australian owned and based group of companies engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, and sales of a variety of building materials. In 2014, major brick competitors CSR and Boral merged to create Boral CSR Bricks Pty Ltd.

Brickworks Single Member Constituency

Brickworks Single Member Constituency was a constituency in Singapore. It used to exist from 1976 to 1988. It merged part of Leng Kee and Pasir Panjang.

Froghall Brickworks

Froghall Brickworks is a 0.26 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Chalfont St Giles in Buckinghamshire.The site is Pleistocene gravel above Reading beds. The gravel was deposited by the proto-River Thames, before it was diverted south by the Anglian Ice Age around 450,000 years ago. It is described by Natural England as very important because it is the only known exposure of the Westland Green Gravel in the Middle Thames area.The site is on private land with no public access.

Greatness Brickworks

Greatness Brickworks is a 7.8-hectare (19-acre) geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Sevenoaks in Kent. It is a Geological Conservation Review site.This Cretaceous site is highly fossiliferous, with many ammonites. It is described by Natural England as "of vital importance in biostratigraphic research on the Gault of the Weald".The site is private land with no public access.

Hajji Shaban Brickworks

Hajji Shaban Brickworks (Persian: كوره اجرپزي حاجي شعبان‎ – Kūreh Ajorpazī Hājjī Shʿabān) is a company town and village in Narjeh Rural District, in the Central District of Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 57, in 8 families.

Hofman Brickworks

Hofman Brickworks (Persian: كوره اجرفشاري هفمان‎ – Kūreh-ye Ajarfeshārī Hofmān) is a company town and village in Howmeh Rural District, in the Central District of Gonabad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 44, in 14 families.

Khara Brickworks

Khara Brickworks (Persian: شركت اجرفشاري خارا‎ – Sherkat-e Ajarfeshārī Khārā) is a company town and village in Howmeh Rural District, in the Central District of Gonabad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 16, in 5 families.

Khorram Brickworks

Khorram Brickworks (Persian: كوره اجرپزي خرم‎ – Kūreh Ajorpazī Khorram) is a company town and village in Narjeh Rural District, in the Central District of Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 62, in 16 families.

Lushkan Brickworks

Lushkan Brickworks (Persian: مجتمع كوره هائ اجرپزئ لوشكان‎ – Mojatameʿ Kūreh Hāy Ajorpazy Lūshḵān) is a company town and village in Ak Rural District, Esfarvarin District, Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 33, in 8 families.

Mehin, Qazvin

Mehin (Persian: مهين‎, also Romanized as Mehīn, Mahīn, Mīhan, Mihīn, and Mikhin) is a village in Dodangeh-ye Olya Rural District, Ziaabad District, Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 499, in 130 families.

Nur Brickworks

Nur Brickworks (Persian: كوره اجرپزي نور‎ – Kūreh Ajorpazī Nūr) is a company town and village in Narjeh Rural District, in the Central District of Takestan County, Qazvin Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Ridgmont

Ridgmont is a small village and civil parish in Bedfordshire, England. It is located beside junction 13 of the M1 motorway, and close to Milton Keynes and Woburn Abbey. The 2001 census states the total population to be 418, reducing to 411 at the 2011 Census.The parish is first mentioned in the Domesday book of 1086, by its original name of Segenhoe, which was approximately 500m south east from where the village now lies. In 1227 the name Rugemund was first recorded, taken from the French 'rouge mont' which means red hill.The modern village lies on top of a greensand ridge at approximately 350 feet (110 m) above sea level. The surrounding valley has underlying 'Upper Jurassic Oxford Clay' which is suitable for making bricks. In 1935 the Ridgmont Brickworks were built by the Ridgmont Fletton Brick Company. By 1979, as part of the London Brick Company, the works had 25 chimneys and was said to be the second-largest brickworks in the world.The large Amazon.co.uk warehouse now occupies the site of the former brickworks, which is situated beside the Ridgmont railway station.

November 2006 saw work start on the Ridgmont Bypass, and the £15.5 million project was finished in June 2008. The A507 Ridgmont relief road is designed to carry 80 per cent of heavy traffic away from the neighbouring villages.

Slip End

Slip End is a village and civil parish in Luton, Bedfordshire. As well as the village of Slip End, the parish contains the hamlets of Lower Woodside, Woodside and Pepperstock. It has a population of 1,976, reducing to 1,831 at the 2011 Census.The name of Slip End possibly has a connection with brickworks. Slip is an old English word for clay and End is a common part of place names in Bedfordshire and not unknown in other counties. End refers to small settlements outside larger villages. It is, therefore, possible that Slip End was named in the early 19th century because of the small number of houses built near the new brickworks in an area not previously developed with the older settlements of Woodside and Pepperstock to either side. Nearby Markyate has a Slype Lane which may or not be connected.

Stewartby

Stewartby is a model village and civil parish in Bedfordshire, originally built for the workers of the London Brick Company. The village was designed and built to the plans of the company's architect Mr F W Walker, a later and more modern development than such better-known Victorian model villages as Saltaire. Started in 1926, Stewartby also is a later model than Woodlands which was first planned in 1905. The later retirement bungalow development of the 1950s and 1960s with the pavilion community centre in their midst was designed by the neo-Georgian architect Professor Sir Albert Richardson. Today, Stewartby parish also includes Kempston Hardwick.

Yarralumla brickworks

The Yarralumla brickworks, also known as the Commonwealth Brickworks, was one of the earliest construction projects in Canberra, Australia. It was built in the suburb of Yarralumla to produce the bricks used to build many of Canberra's early buildings. It opened in around 1913 and operated until its closure in 1976. It is known for producing the bricks used to build itself.

Narrow gauge goods railway lines for the transportation of bricks linked Yarralumla to some of the major building sites in central Canberra such as Old Parliament House, and the Kingston Power House. No sign of this early Canberra transport system remains today.

The original brick kilns were built according to Walter Burley Griffin's designs with fan forced short chimneys intended to stay below the height of the surrounding pine trees. In 1950 after World War II increased building demands in Canberra meant that a large 46 metre natural-draft chimney was built for the new kilns. This greatly increased brick production capacity. The tall chimney is visible from many locations around central Canberra.

In recent years a report found that the tall chimney was not earthquake-safe. As the chimney was heritage listed and located within falling distance of nearby homes, an engineering firm was called in to make it safe. A frame was built inside the chimney to support it without affecting its external appearance.

The brickworks today is closed to the public but has had various uses over the past 20 years. There have been several recent ideas that haven't eventuated, including using the site for Canberra's new gaol, making the site the new permanent home for Floriade (a yearly Canberra flower festival) or to turn the brickworks into a holiday resort. Future plans for the site are still undecided.

As of February 2015 it was proposed that a housing estate could be constructed on the site, consisting of 1800 dwellings.

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