Brian Josephson

Brian David Josephson FRS[3] (born 4 January 1940) is a Welsh theoretical physicist and professor emeritus of physics at the University of Cambridge.[5] Best known for his pioneering work on superconductivity and quantum tunnelling, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 for his prediction of the Josephson effect, made in 1962 when he was a 22-year-old PhD student at Cambridge University. Josephson is the only Welshman to have won a Nobel Prize in Physics. He shared the prize with physicists Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever, who jointly received half the award for their own work on quantum tunnelling.[6]

Josephson has spent his academic career as a member of the Theory of Condensed Matter group at Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory. He has been a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge since 1962, and served as professor of physics from 1974 until 2007.[6]

In the early 1970s Josephson took up transcendental meditation and turned his attention to issues outside the boundaries of mainstream science. He set up the Mind–Matter Unification Project at the Cavendish to explore the idea of intelligence in nature, the relationship between quantum mechanics and consciousness, and the synthesis of science and Eastern mysticism, broadly known as quantum mysticism.[7] Those interests have led him to express support for topics such as parapsychology, water memory and cold fusion, and have made him a focus of criticism from fellow scientists.[6]

Brian Josephson
photograph
Josephson in March 2004
Born
Brian David Josephson

4 January 1940 (age 79)
Cardiff, Wales, UK
Alma materUniversity of Cambridge (BA, MA, PhD)
Known forJosephson effect
Spouse(s)
Carol Anne Olivier (m. 1976)
[1]
Childrenone daughter[1][2]
Awards
Scientific career
Institutions
ThesisNon-linear conduction in superconductors (1964)
Doctoral advisorBrian Pippard[4]
Websitewww.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10

Early life and career

Education

The Cavendish Laboratory - geograph.org.uk - 631839
Entrance to the old Cavendish Laboratory on Free School Lane, Cambridge.

Josephson was born in Cardiff, Wales, to Jewish parents, Mimi (née Weisbard, 1911–1998) and Abraham Josephson.[2] He attended Cardiff High School,[1] where he credits some of the school masters for having helped him, particularly the physics master, Emrys Jones, who introduced him to theoretical physics.[8] In 1957 he went up to Cambridge, where he initially read mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge. After completing Maths Part II in two years, and finding it somewhat sterile, he decided to switch to physics.[9]

Josephson was known at Cambridge as a brilliant, but shy, student. Physicist John Waldram recalled overhearing Nicholas Kurti, an examiner from Oxford, discuss Josephson's exam results with David Shoenberg, reader in physics at Cambridge, and asking: "Who is this chap Josephson? He seems to be going through the theory like a knife through butter."[10] While still an undergraduate, he published a paper on the Mössbauer effect, pointing out a crucial issue other researchers had overlooked. According to one eminent physicist speaking to Physics World, Josephson wrote several papers important enough to assure him a place in the history of physics even without his discovery of the Josephson effect.[11]

He graduated in 1960 and became a research student in the university's Mond Laboratory on the old Cavendish site, where he was supervised by Brian Pippard.[12] American physicist Philip Anderson, also a future Nobel Prize laureate, spent a year in Cambridge in 1961–1962, and recalled that having Josephson in a class was "a disconcerting experience for a lecturer, I can assure you, because everything had to be right or he would come up and explain it to me after class."[13] It was during this period, as a PhD student in 1962, that he carried out the research that led to his discovery of the Josephson effect; Cambridge unveiled a plaque on the Mond Building dedicated to the discovery in November 2012.[14] He was elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1962, and obtained his PhD in 1964 for a thesis entitled Non-linear conduction in superconductors.[4][15]

Discovery of the Josephson effect

Josephson was 22 years old when he did the work on quantum tunnelling that won him the Nobel Prize. He discovered that a supercurrent could tunnel through a thin barrier, predicting, according to physicist Andrew Whitaker, that "at a junction of two superconductors, a current will flow even if there is no drop in voltage; that when there is a voltage drop, the current should oscillate at a frequency related to the drop in voltage; and that there is a dependence on any magnetic field."[16] This became known as the Josephson effect and the junction as a Josephson junction.[17]

NISTvoltChip
One-volt NIST Josephson junction array standard with 3020 superconducting junctions.

His calculations were published in Physics Letters (chosen by Pippard because it was a new journal) in a paper entitled "Possible new effects in superconductive tunnelling," received on 8 June 1962 and published on 1 July.[18] They were confirmed experimentally by Philip Anderson and John Rowell of Bell Labs in Princeton; this appeared in their paper, "Probable Observation of the Josephson Superconducting Tunneling Effect," submitted to Physical Review Letters in January 1963.[19]

Before Anderson and Rowell confirmed the calculations, the American physicist John Bardeen, who had shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics (and who shared it again in 1972), objected to Josephson's work. He submitted an article to Physical Review Letters on 25 July 1962, arguing that "there can be no such superfluid flow." The disagreement led to a famous confrontation in September that year at Queen Mary College, London, at the Eighth International Conference on Low Temperature Physics. When Bardeen (then one of the most eminent physicists in the world) began speaking, Josephson (still a student) stood up and interrupted him. The men exchanged views, reportedly in a civil and soft-spoken manner.[20]

Whitaker writes that the discovery of the Josephson effect led to "much important physics," including the invention of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices), which are used in geology to make highly sensitive measurements, as well as in medicine and computing.[21] IBM used Josephson's work in 1980 to build a prototype of a computer that would be up to 100 times faster than the IBM 3033 mainframe.[22]

Nobel Prize

Mond building, Cambridge
Mond Building on the old Cavendish site where Josephson worked. (The crocodile is there in honour of Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937).)[23]

Josephson was awarded several important prizes for his discovery, including the 1969 Research Corporation Award for outstanding contributions to science,[24] and the Hughes Medal and Holweck Prize in 1972. In 1973 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics, sharing the $122,000 award with two other scientists who had also worked on quantum tunnelling. Josephson was awarded half the prize "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects."[25]

The other half of the award was shared equally by Japanese physicist Leo Esaki of the Thomas Watson Research Center in Yorktown, New York, and Norwegian-American physicist Ivar Giaever of General Electric in Schenectady, New York, "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively."[26] Unusually, none of the winners had held professorships before being awarded the prize.[27]

Positions held

Josephson spent a postdoctoral year in the United States (1965–1966) as research assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. After returning to Cambridge, he was made assistant director of research at the Cavendish Laboratory in 1967, where he remained a member of the Theory of Condensed Matter group, a theoretical physics group, for the rest of his career.[28] He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1970,[3] and the same year was awarded a National Science Foundation fellowship by Cornell University, where he spent one year. In 1972 he became a reader in physics at Cambridge and in 1974 a full professor, a position he held until he retired in 2007.[29]

A practitioner of transcendental meditation (TM) since the early seventies, Josephson became a visiting faculty member in 1975 of the Maharishi European Research University in the Netherlands, part of the TM movement.[30] He also held visiting professorships at Wayne State University in 1983, the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 1984, and the University of Missouri-Rolla in 1987.[31]

Parapsychology

Early interest and transcendental meditation

TrinityCollegeCamGreatCourt
Josephson became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1962.

Josephson became interested in philosophy of mind in the late sixties and, in particular, in the mind–body problem, and is one of the few scientists to argue that parapsychological phenomena (telepathy, psychokinesis and other paranormal themes) may be real.[32] In 1971 he began practising transcendental meditation (TM), which had become popular with several celebrities, most famously the Beatles.[33]

Winning the Nobel Prize in 1973 gave him the freedom to work in less orthodox areas, and he became increasingly involved – including during science conferences, to the irritation of fellow scientists – in talking about meditation, telepathy and higher states of consciousness.[34] In 1974 he angered scientists during a colloquium of molecular and cellular biologists in Versailles by inviting them to read the Bhagavad Gita (5th – 2nd century BCE) and the work of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of the TM movement, and by arguing about special states of consciousness achieved through meditation. "Nothing forces us," one scientist shouted at him, "to listen to your wild speculations." Biophysicist Henri Atlan wrote that the session ended in uproar.[35]

In May that year Josephson addressed a symposium held to welcome the Maharishi to Cambridge.[36] The following month, at the first Canadian conference on psychokinesis, he was one of 21 scientists who tested claims by Matthew Manning, a Cambridgeshire teenager who said he had psychokinetic abilities; Josephson apparently told a reporter that he believed Manning's powers were a new kind of energy.[37] He later withdrew or corrected the statement.[38]

Josephson said that Trinity College's tradition of interest in the paranormal meant that he did not dismiss these ideas out of hand.[39] Several presidents of the Society for Psychical Research had been fellows of Trinity, and the Perrott-Warrick Fund, set up in Trinity in 1937 to fund parapsychology research, is still administered by the college.[40] He continued to explore the idea that there is intelligence in nature, particularly after reading Fritjof Capra's The Tao of Physics (1975),[41] and in 1979 took up a more advanced form of TM, known as the TM-Sidhi program. According to Anderson, the TM movement produced a poster showing Josephson levitating several inches above the floor.[42] Josephson argued that meditation could lead to mystical and scientific insights, and that, as a result of it, he had come to believe in a creator.[43]

Fundamental Fysiks Group

External image
Fundamental Fysiks Group in 1975. Left to right: Jack Sarfatti, Saul-Paul Sirag, Nick Herbert, and Fred Alan Wolf (seated)
Plaque on the Mond Building, Cambridge, for Brian Josephson
Cambridge unveiled a plaque on the Mond Building in November 2012 dedicated to the discovery of the Josephson effect.[14]

Josephson became involved in the mid-seventies with a group of physicists associated with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, who were investigating paranormal claims. They had organized themselves loosely into something called the Fundamental Fysiks Group, and had effectively become the Stanford Research Institute's (SRI) "house theorists," according to historian of science David Kaiser.[44]

There was a lot of popular and government interest at the time in quantum mechanics – the American government was financing research at SRI into telepathy – and physicists able to understand it found themselves in demand. The Fundamental Fysiks Group used ideas from quantum physics, particularly Bell's theorem and quantum entanglement, to explore issues such as action at a distance, clairvoyance, precognition, remote viewing and psychokinesis.[45]

In 1976 Josephson travelled to California to meet two leading members of the group, laser physicists Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, authors of Mind Reach (1977). Targ and Puthoff had set up a parapsychology ("psi") lab at SRI and had had papers published about their work – which included testing later-discredited claims by Uri Geller that he could make objects move using psychokinesis – in Nature and other peer-reviewed journals. The San Francisco Chronicle covered Josephson's visit.[46]

Josephson co-organized a symposium on consciousness at Cambridge in 1978, publishing the proceedings as Consciousness and the Physical World (1980),[47] with neuroscientist V. S. Ramachandran. A conference on "Science and Consciousness" followed a year later in Cordoba, Spain, attended by physicists and Jungian psychoanalysts, and addressed by Josephson, Fritjof Capra and David Bohm (1917–1992).[48]

By 1996 he had set up the Mind–Matter Unification Project at the Cavendish Laboratory to explore intelligent processes in nature.[49] In 2002 he told Physics World: "Future science will consider quantum mechanics as the phenomenology of particular kinds of organised complex system. Quantum entanglement would be one manifestation of such organisation, paranormal phenomena another."[11]

Reception and views on the scientific community

Josephson delivered the Pollock Memorial Lecture in 2006, the Hermann Staudinger Lecture in 2009 and the Sir Nevill Mott Lecture in 2010.[50]

Cmglee Cambridge Wikimedia Meetup 23 tour Brian Josephson
Josephson on a Cambridge Wikimedia walk in September 2014

Matthew Reisz wrote in Times Higher Education in 2010 that Josephson has long been one of physics' "more colourful figures."[51] His support for unorthodox causes has attracted criticism from fellow scientists since the 1970s, including from Philip Anderson.[52] Josephson regards the criticism as prejudice, and believes that it has served to deprive him of an academic support network.[53]

He has repeatedly criticized "science by consensus," arguing that the scientific community is too quick to reject certain kinds of ideas. "Anything goes among the physics community – cosmic wormholes, time travel," he argues, "just so long as it keeps its distance from anything mystical or New Age-ish." Referring to this position as "pathological disbelief,"[54] he holds it responsible for the rejection by academic journals of papers on the paranormal.[55] He has compared parapsychology to the theory of continental drift, proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener (1880–1930) to explain observations that were otherwise inexplicable, which was resisted and ridiculed until evidence led to its acceptance after Wegener's death.[56]

Science writer Martin Gardner criticized Josephson in 1980 for complaining to the New York Review of Books, along with three other physicists, about an article by J. A. Wheeler that ridiculed parapsychology.[57] Several physicists complained in 2001 when, in a Royal Mail booklet celebrating the Nobel Prize's centenary, Josephson wrote that Britain was at the forefront of research into telepathy.[58] Physicist David Deutsch said the Royal Mail had "let itself be hoodwinked" into supporting nonsense, although another physicist, Robert Matthews, suggested that Deutsch was skating on thin ice given the latter's own work on parallel universes and time travel.[59]

In 2004 Josephson criticized an experiment by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry to test claims by Russian schoolgirl Natasha Demkina that she could see inside people's bodies using a special kind of vision. The experiment involved her being asked to match six people to their confirmed medical conditions (plus one with none); to pass the test she had to make five correct matches, but made only four.[60] Josephson argued that this was statistically significant, and that the experiment had set her up to fail. One of the researchers, Richard Wiseman, professor of psychology at the University of Hertfordshire, responded that Josephson had no record of publishing on parapsychology.[61] Keith Rennolis, professor of applied statistics at the University of Greenwich, supported Josephson's position, asserting that the experiment was "woefully inadequate" to determine any effect.[62]

Josephson's reputation for promoting unorthodox causes was cemented by his support for the ideas of water memory and cold fusion, both of which are rejected by mainstream scientists. Water memory is purported to provide an explanation for homeopathy; it is mostly dismissed by scientists as pseudoscience, although Josephson has expressed support for it since attending a conference at which French immunologist Jacques Benveniste first proposed it.[63] Cold fusion is the hypothesis that nuclear reactions can occur at room temperature. When Martin Fleischmann, the British chemist who pioneered research into it, died in 2012, Josephson wrote a supportive obituary in the Guardian and complained to Nature that its obituary had failed to give Fleischmann due credit.[64] Antony Valentini of Imperial College London withdrew Josephson's invitation to a 2010 conference on the de Broglie-Bohm theory because of his work on the paranormal, although it was reinstated after complaints.[65]

Awards

Selected works

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c JOSEPHSON, Prof. Brian David. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. closed access publication – behind paywall (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b International Who's Who, 1983-84, Europa Publications Limited, 1983, p. 672.
  3. ^ a b c d "Professor Brian Josephson FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-24.
  4. ^ a b Josephson, Brian David (1964). Non-linear conduction in superconductors (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge.
  5. ^ "Emeritus Faculty Staff List" Archived 25 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge.
  6. ^ a b c "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica.
  7. ^ "Mind–Matter Unification Project (TCM Group, Cavendish Laboratory)", University of Cambridge.

    Brian Josephson, "Foreword," in Michael A. Thalbourne and Lance Storm (eds.), Parapsychology in the Twenty-First Century: Essays on the Future of Psychical research, McFarland, 2005, pp. 1–2.

    Brian Josephson, "We Think That We Think Clearly, But That's Only Because We Don't Think Clearly," in Patrick Colm Hogan and Lalita Pandit (eds.), Rabindranath Tagore: Universality and Tradition, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2003, pp. 107–115.

    Jessica Utts and Brian Josephson, "Do you believe in psychic phenomena? Are they likely to be able to explain consciousness?", Times Higher Education, 8 April 1996.

  8. ^ Brian Josephson, "Brian Josephson: The Path to the Discovery", Cavendish Laboratory bdj50 conference, University of Cambridge, June 2012, from 8:20 mins.
  9. ^ John Waldram, "John Waldram: Reminiscences", Lectures from the Cavendish Laboratory's bdj50 conference, University of Cambridge, 18 July 2012, 01:19 mins.
  10. ^ Waldram 2012, 2:58 mins; for the shyness, Alexei Kojevnikov, "Interview with Dr. Philip Anderson", Session III, Princeton Physics Department Building, 23 November 1999.
  11. ^ a b Edwin Cartlidge, "Pioneer of the Paranormal", Physics World, May 2002.
  12. ^ For year of graduation, "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica; for the Mond Laboratory, Anderson 1970 Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Philip Anderson, "How Josephson Discovered His Effect" Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Physics Today, November 1970.
  14. ^ a b "Unveiling of B D Josephson commemorative plaque", University of Cambridge, November 2012.
  15. ^ For the year of his fellowship, see "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica. For the thesis, Brian Josephson, "Non-linear conduction in superconductors", Newton Library Catalogue, University of Cambridge.
  16. ^ Andrew Whitaker, The New Quantum Age: From Bell's Theorem to Quantum Computation and Teleportation, Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 273.
  17. ^ James S. Trefil, "Josephson Effect," The Nature of Science, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003, p, 225.

    Also see A Century of Excellence in Measurements, Standards, and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication, 1988, p. 315ff.

  18. ^ B. D. Josephson, "Possible new effects in superconductive tunnelling", Physics Letters, 1(7), 1 July 1962 (received 8 June 1962), pp. 251–253.

    Also see Brian Josephson, "The History of the Discovery of Weakly Coupled Superconductors," in John Roche (ed.), Physicists Look Back: Studies in the History of Physics, CRC Press, 1990, p. 375.

  19. ^ Philip Anderson and John Rowell, "Probable Observation of the Josephson Superconducting Tunneling Effect", Physical Review Letters, 10(6), 15 March 1963 (received 11 January 1963), pp. 230–232.
  20. ^ Donald G. McDonald, "The Nobel Laureate Versus the Graduate Student", Physics Today, July 2001, pp. 46–51.

    Also see Donald G. McDonald, "History of the Josephson Effect" (lecture), IEEE.TV.

  21. ^ Whitaker 2012, pp. 273–274.

    Donald G. McDonald, "Superconducting electronics", Physics Today, February 1981.

    Anthony J. G. Hey and Patrick Walters, The New Quantum Universe, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 154–155.

    Gabrielle Walker, "Technology: How SQUIDs were found where crystals meet", New Scientist, 1776, 6 July 1991.

    Donald G. McDonald, "The Nobel Laureate Versus the Graduate Student", Physics Today, July 2001 (pp. 46–51), p. 51.

    Alexandre T. Filippov, "Josephson Solitons," The Versatile Soliton, Springer, 2010, p. 213ff.

  22. ^ "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica: "Applying Josephson's discoveries with superconductors, researchers at International Business Machines Corporation had assembled by 1980 an experimental computer switch structure, which would permit switching speeds from 10 to 100 times faster than those possible with conventional silicon-based chips, increasing data processing capabilities by a vast amount."

    W. Anacker, "Josephson Computer Technology: A IBM Research Project", IBM Journal of Research and Development, 24(2), March 1980. For speeds, p. 108.

    H. Nakagawa, et al., "Fabrication process for Josephson computer ETL-JC1 using Nb tunnel junctions", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 27(2), 3109–3112, March 1991.

  23. ^ "Why a crocodile?", Cavendish Laboratory.
  24. ^ a b Brian Sullivan, "Physics is Often a Young Man's Game", Associated Press, 17 December 1969.
  25. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973", Nobelprize.org; for $122,000, see "From Stockholm, with Love", Science News, 104(17), 27 October 1973 (pp. 260–261), p. 260.
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973", Nobelprize.org.

    For Esaki's and Giaever's details, see "Nobel Prizes awarded", Associated Press, 24 October 1973.

  27. ^ Marika Griehsel, "Interview with Brian D. Josephson", nobelprize.org, June 2004.
  28. ^ "Cambridge Theory of Condensed Matter group", University of Cambridge, accessed 14 October 2009.
  29. ^ a b "Brian D. Josephson", in Stig Lundqvist (ed.), Nobel Lectures, Physics 1971–1980, World Scientific Publishing Co., 1992.
  30. ^ International Who's Who, 1983-84, Europa Publications Limited, 1983, p. 672; Brian Josephson, "Intelligence and Physics" (lecture), Maharishi European Research University, 21 June 1976.
  31. ^ "Brian D. Josephson", in Lundqvist 1992.
  32. ^ Alison George, "Lone voices special: Take nobody's word for it", New Scientist, 9 December 2006 (pp. 56–57), p. 56.
  33. ^ Bob Oates, Celebrating the Dawn: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the TM technique, Putnam, 1976, p. 204; Emily J. McMurray, Jane Kelly Kosek, and Roger M. Valade, Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists, Gale Research, 1995, p. 1044.

    For celebrities and TM, Lola Williamson, Transcendent in America, NYU Press, 2010, p. 93.

  34. ^ Eliot Marshall, "For Winners, a New Life of Opportunity – and Perils", Science, 294(5541), 12 October 2001 (pp. 293, 295), p. 295.
  35. ^ Henri Atlan, Enlightenment to Enlightenment: Intercritique of Science and Myth, SUNY Press, 1993, pp. 20–21.
  36. ^ "Josephson on transcendental meditation," New Scientist, 16 May 1974, p. 416; Stuart Halperin, "The birth of Creative Intelligence," New Scientist, 23 May 1974, p. 459.
  37. ^ David F. Marks, The Psychology of the Psychic, Prometheus Books, 2000, p. 200.

    A. R. G. Owen; J. L. Whitton, "Report on Demonstration and Experiments performed during the Conference", Proceedings of the First Canadian Conference on Psychokinesis, New Horizons, 1(5), January 1975, p. 191ff.

  38. ^ Matthew Manning, One Foot in the Stars, Thorsons, 1999, pp. 60–61.
  39. ^ Josephson 2005, p. 1.
  40. ^ Former presidents of the Society who were fellows or members of Trinity include Henry Sidgwick (1838–1900); John William Strutt (1842–1919), Cavendish Professor of Physics and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1904; F. W. H. Myers (1843–1901); Edmund Gurney (1847–1888); Arthur Balfour (1848–1930), who became prime minister; his brother Gerald Balfour (1853–1945); and C. D. Broad (1887–1971), Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy.

    Wendy E. Cousins, "Colored Inklings: Altered States of Consciousness and Literature," in Etzel Cardeña and Michael Winkelman (eds.), Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2011, p. 296.

    Jenny Bourne Taylor, "Psychology at the fin de siècle," in Gail Marshall, The Cambridge Companion to the Fin de Siècle, 2007, pp. 26–27.

  41. ^ For higher consciousness and meditation, see Brian Josephson, "A Theoretical Analysis of Higher States of Consciousness and Meditation", Current Topics in Cybernetics and Systems, 1978, pp. 3–4; for Fritjof Capra, George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 56.
  42. ^ For the TM-Sidhi program, Brian Josephson in Pamela Weintraub, The Omni Interviews, Ticknor & Fields, 1984, p. 317.

    For the poster, Jeremy Bernstein, Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Laboratories in the Information Age, CUP Archive, 1987, p. 142.

    Also see Bruce Schechter, The Path of No Resistance: The Story of the Revolution in Superconductivity, Simon & Schuster, 1989, p. 163.

  43. ^ For mystical and scientific insights, Paul Davies, The Mind of God, Simon & Schuster, 1993, p. 227.

    For belief in a creator, Brian Josephson, "There Need Be No Ultimate Conflict Between Science and Religion," in Henry Margenau and Roy Abraham Varghese (eds.), Cosmos, Bios, Theos, Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 50.

  44. ^ David Kaiser, "How the Hippies Saved Physics", MIT School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 2010, from 20:00 mins; for house theorists, from 23:20 mins.
  45. ^ Kaiser 2010, from 20:00 mins.
  46. ^ David Kaiser, How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival, W. W. Norton & Company, 2011, pp. 144, 173; Kaiser 2010, from 32:00 mins.

    Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, "Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding", Nature, 17 October 1974; "Investigating the paranormal", Nature, 18 October 1974.

    Martin Gardner, Science: Good, Bad, and Bogus, Prometheus Books, 1989, p. 95.

  47. ^ Brian Josephson and V.S. Ramachandran (eds.), Consciousness and the Physical World, Pergamon Press, 1980.
  48. ^ Yasuo Yuasa, Overcoming Modernity: Synchronicity and Image-Thinking, SUNY Press, 2009, p. 179.

    Henri Atlan, Enlightenment to Enlightenment: Intercritique of Science and Myth, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 22ff.

    Brian Josephson, "Conscious Experience and its Place in Physics," paper presented at Colloque International Science et Conscience, Cordoba, 1–5 October 1979, in Michel Cazenave (ed.), Science and Consciousness: Two Views of the Universe, Edited Proceedings of the France-Culture and Radio-France Colloquium, Cordoba, Spain, Pergamon Press, 1984.

  49. ^ Matthew Segall, "Mind Matter Unification/The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics", Theory of Condensed Matter group, Cavendish Laboratory, 26 March 1996.

    Brian Josephson, "Mind–Matter Unification Project", Cavendish Laboratory, 27 April 1997.

    Brian Josephson, Homepage, Cavendish Laboratory.

  50. ^ "The Pollock Memorial Lecture" Archived 2 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Royal Society of New South Wales and the University of Sydney; "4th Hermann Staudinger Lecture with Nobel Laureate Brian D. Josephson, 28 October 2009", Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies; "2010 Professor Brian Josephson: Which way for Physics?" Archived 5 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Loughborough University.
  51. ^ Matthew Reisz, "He didn't see that coming, or did he?", Times Higher Education, 19 April 2010.

    Also see Mark Jackson, "The not-so-noble past of the Nobel Prizes", The Conversation, 6 October 2013.

  52. ^ Burton Feldman, The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige, Arcade Publishing, 2001, p. 199; also see Robert L. Park, Superstition: Belief in the Age of Science, Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 156.
  53. ^ Alison George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 57.
  54. ^ Josephson, Brian (30 June 2004). "Pathological Disbelief: Lecture at 54th. Nobel Laureates' meeting at Lindau". Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  55. ^ Alison George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 56; Brian Josephson, "Pathological Disbelief"], lecture, Nobel Laureates' meeting, Lindau, 30 June 2004.
  56. ^ Josephson 2005, pp. 1–2; for Wegener, also see J. W. Grove, "Rationality at Risk: Science against Pseudoscience", Minerva, 23(2), June 1985 (pp. 216–240), p. 218.
  57. ^ Olivier Costa de Beauregard, Richard D. Mattuck, Brian D. Josephson and Evan Harris Walker, "Parapsychology: An Exchange", New York Review of Books, 27, 26 June 1980, pp. 48–51. The other three physicists were Evan Harris Walker (1935–2006), Olivier Costa de Beauregard (1911–2007) and Richard D. Mattuck.
  58. ^ Brian Josephson, "Physics and the Nobel Prizes", Royal Mail, 2001: "Physicists attempt to reduce the complexity of nature to a single unifying theory, of which the most successful and universal, the quantum theory, has been associated with several Nobel prizes, for example those to Dirac and Heisenberg. Max Planck's original attempts a hundred years ago to explain the precise amount of energy radiated by hot bodies began a process of capturing in mathematical form a mysterious, elusive world containing 'spooky interactions at a distance', real enough however to lead to inventions such as the laser and transistor.

    "Quantum theory is now being fruitfully combined with theories of information and computation. These developments may lead to an explanation of processes still not understood within conventional science such as telepathy, an area where Britain is at the forefront of research.

  59. ^ David McKie, "Royal Mail's Nobel guru in telepathy row", The Observer, 30 September 2001; Robert Matthews, "Time Travel", The Daily Telegraph, 8 November 2001.
  60. ^ "Body Shock: The Girl With X-Ray Eyes", Discovery Channel, 2004 (for a display from Demkina's perspective, see part 2, from 04:00 mins; for the second, more controlled, experiment, part 2, from 10:30 mins and part 3).

    Andrew A. Skolnick, "Natasha Demkina: The Girl with Very Normal Eyes", LiveScience, 28 January 2005.

  61. ^ Phil Baty, "Scientists fail to see eye to eye over girl's 'X-ray vision'", Times Higher Education, 10 December 2004.

    Brian Josephson, "Scientists' unethical use of media for propaganda purposes", Cavendish Laboratory, 2004.

    Brian Josephson, "Distorted visions 2", Times Higher Education, 17 December 2004.

    Also see Rupert Sheldrake, "Distorted visions 1", Times Higher Education, 17 December 2004.

  62. ^ Keith Rennolls, "Distorted visions 3", Times Higher Education, 17 December 2004.
  63. ^ George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 56.

    Brian Josephson, "Molecule memories", letters, New Scientist, 1 November 1997.

    Brian Josephson, "Molecular memory", The Independent, 22 March 1999.

    Dana Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution, North Atlantic Books, 2007, p. 130ff.

  64. ^ Brian Josephson, "Martin Fleischmann obituary", The Guardian, 31 August 2012.

    Brian Josephson, "Fleischmann denied due credit", Nature, 490, 4 October 2012, p. 37 (also available here).

    For background on cold fusion, see Thomas F. Gieryn, Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line, University of Chicago Press, 1999, pp. 183–232.

  65. ^ Reisz (Times Higher Education), 19 April 2010.

    Antony Valentini, "Private email, public mob", Times Higher Education, 13 May 2010.

    "21st-century directions in de Broglie-Bohm theory and beyond", Physics World, July 2010.

  66. ^ Peter Stubbs, "Tunnelling for physicists", New Scientist, 60(870), 1 November 1973.
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Curriculum Vitae at nobelprize.org

Further reading

100 Welsh Heroes

100 Welsh Heroes was an opinion poll run in Wales as a response to the BBC's 100 Greatest Britons poll of 2002. It was carried out mainly on the internet, starting on 8 September 2003 and finishing on 23 February 2004. The results were announced on 1 March (St David's Day) 2004 and subsequently published in a book.

1940 in Wales

This article is about the particular significance of the year 1940 to Wales and its people.

1973 in Wales

This article is about the particular significance of the year 1973 to Wales and its people.

1973 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1973 in the United Kingdom.

Cavendish Laboratory

The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences. The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site as a laboratory for experimental physics. The laboratory moved to its present site in West Cambridge in 1974. As of 2011, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes. In the Research Excellence Framework the Cavendish Laboratory is ranked as the 7th-equal best physics department in the country.

Closer to Truth

Closer to Truth is a continuing television series on public television originally created, produced and hosted by Robert Lawrence Kuhn. The first premiere series aired in 2000 for 2 seasons, followed by a second series aired in 2003 for a single season. The third series of the program, Closer to Truth: Cosmos. Consciousness. God, launched in 2008, with 15 full seasons to date. See List of Closer to Truth episodes. Closer to Truth has had over 150,000 station broadcasts.

The show is centered on on-camera conversations with leading scientists, philosophers, theologians, and scholars, covering a diverse range of topics or questions from the cause, size and nature of the universe (or multiverse), to the mystery of consciousness and the notion of free will, to the existence and essence of God, to the mystery of existence (why is there anything at all).The Closer to Truth website features extensive conversations in addition to those that have been broadcast on TV (~4,000 videos). It is the world’s largest archive of video interviews with leading experts in cosmos (philosophy of cosmology/physics), consciousness (philosophy of religion), meaning (philosophy of religion) - www.closertotruth.com.

Robert Lawrence Kuhn is the creator, executive producer, writer and presenter of the series. Peter Getzels is the co-creator, producer and director.

Daniel Kennedy (actor)

Daniel Kennedy (born October 24) is an American actor, known for his portrayal of Pete Cortlandt on the ABC daytime drama All My Children in 2008 and 2009.

Ivar Giaever

Ivar Giaever (Norwegian: Giæver, IPA: [ˈiːvɑr ˈjeːvər]; born April 5, 1929) is a Norwegian-American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Leo Esaki and Brian Josephson "for their discoveries regarding tunnelling phenomena in solids". Giaever's share of the prize was specifically for his "experimental discoveries regarding tunnelling phenomena in superconductors". Giaever is a professor emeritus at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, a professor-at-large at the University of Oslo, and the president of the company Applied Biophysics.

Jacques Benveniste

Jacques Benveniste (French: [bɛnvənist]; 12 March 1935 – 3 October 2004) was a French immunologist, born in Paris. In 1979 he published a well-known paper on the structure of platelet-activating factor and its relationship with histamine. He was head of INSERM's Unit 200, directed at immunology, allergy and inflammation.

Benveniste was at the centre of a major international controversy in 1988, when he published a paper in the prestigious scientific journal Nature describing the action of very high dilutions of anti-IgE antibody on the degranulation of human basophils, findings which seemed to support the concept of homeopathy. Biologists were puzzled by Benveniste's results, as only molecules of water, and no molecules of the original antibody, remained in these high dilutions. Benveniste concluded that the configuration of molecules in water was biologically active; a journalist coined the term water memory for this hypothesis. Much later, in the nineties, Benveniste also asserted that this "memory" could be digitized, transmitted, and reinserted into another sample of water, which would then contain the same active qualities as the first sample.

As a condition for publication, Nature asked for the results to be replicated by independent laboratories. The controversial paper published in Nature was eventually co-authored by four laboratories worldwide, in Canada, Italy, Israel, and France. After the article was published, a follow-up investigation was set up by a team including physicist and Nature editor John Maddox, illusionist and well-known skeptic James Randi, as well as fraud expert Walter Stewart who had recently raised suspicion of the work of Nobel Laureate David Baltimore. With the cooperation of Benveniste's own team, the group failed to replicate the original results, and subsequent investigations did not support Benveniste's findings either. Benveniste refused to retract his controversial article, and he explained (notably in letters to Nature) that the protocol used in these investigations was not identical to his own. However, his reputation was damaged, so he began to fund his research himself as his external sources of funding were withdrawn. In 1997, he founded the company DigiBio to "develop and commercialise applications of Digital Biology."

Benveniste died in 2004 in Paris.

January 4

January 4 is the fourth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 361 days remaining until the end of the year (362 in leap years).

Jews in Wales

The history of the Jews in Wales begins in the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, shortly after the English conquest of Wales, Edward I issued the 1290 Edict of Expulsion expelling the Jews from England. Except for one exceptional record, between 1290 and the formal return of the Jews to England in 1655, there is no official trace of Jews on Welsh soil.

Major Jewish settlement in Wales dates from the 19th century, although there are also records of Jewish communities in the 18th century.

Josephson vortex

In superconductivity, a Josepshon vortex (after Brian Josephson from Cambridge University) is a quantum vortex of supercurrents in a Josephson junction (see Josephson effect) The supercurrents circulate around the vortex center which is situated inside the Josephson barrier, unlike Abrikosov vortices in type-II superconductors, which are located in the superconducting condensate.

Abrikosov vortices (after Alexei Abrikosov) in superconductors are characterized by normal cores where the superconducting condensate is destroyed on a scale of the superconducting coherence length ξ (typically 5-100 nm) . The cores of Josephson vortices are more complex and depend on the physical nature of the barrier. In Superconductor-Normal Metal-Superconductor (SNS) Josephson junctions there exist measurable superconducting correlations induced in the N-barrier by proximity effect from the two neighbouring superconducting electrodes. Similarly to Abrikosov vortices in superconductors, Josephson vortices in SNS Josephson junctions are characterized by cores in which the correlations are suppressed by destructive quantum interference and the normal state is recovered. However, unlike Abrikosov cores, having a size ~ξ, the size of the Josephson ones is not defined by microscopic parameters only. Rather, it depends on supercurrents circulating in superconducting electrodes, applied magnetic field etc. In Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junctions the cores are not expected to have a specific spectral signature; they were not observed.

Usually the Josephson vortex's supercurrent loops create a magnetic flux which equals, in long enough Josephson junctions, to Φ0—a single flux quantum. Yet fractional vortices may also exist in Superconductor-Ferromagnet-Superconductor Josephson junctions or in junctions in which superconducting phase discontinuities are present. It was demonstrated by Hilgenkamp et al. that Josephson vortices in the so-called 0-π Long Josephson Junctions can also carry half of the flux quantum, and are called semifluxons. It has been shown that under certain conditions a propagating Josephson vortex can initiate another Josephson vortex. This effect is called flux cloning (or fluxon cloning). Although a second vortex appears, this does not violate the conservation of the single flux quantum.

List of Fritz London Memorial Prizes

The Fritz London Memorial Prize was created to recognize scientists who made outstanding contributions to the advances of the field of Low Temperature Physics. It is traditionally awarded in the first session of the International Conference on Low Temperature Physics, which is sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. The prize is named in honor of Fritz London.

List of Welsh inventors

This is a list of people of Welsh origin who are recognised as innovators or inventors who have made notable contributions to technical or theoretical world advancements.

Edward George Bowen pioneer of radar. Worked at 'Woomera Rocket Testing Base' in Australia. Born in Gendros, Swansea.

David Brunt pioneer of modern meteorology. Head of Meteorological Office, secretary of Royal Society From Penfforddlas, Wales.

Martha Hughes Cannon pioneer in women and children's medicine. The State of Utah's Health Department is named in her honour. Born in Llandudno, Wales.

Archie Cochrane Founder of Cochrane Collaboration, Cochrane library, Cochrane reviews. UK Cochrane Centre in Oxford. Conducted much of his groundbreaking medical research in Wales.

Alan Cox is a programmer heavily involved in the development of the Linux kernel since 1991.

Sir Clifford Darby, geographer and leader in promoting the relationships between geography and other subjects. Knighted in 1988. Born in Neath, South Wales.

Donald Davies Proposed and developed packet switching, an important part of the internet. Born in Treorchy, Rhondda, Wales.

Walter Davies (inventor), along with his brother Thomas, invented the 'Stepney Spare Wheel' used on almost all early motor cars. Born in Llanelli, South Wales

John Dee Founder of the new school of English mathematical scientists in the 16th century. One of the greatest polymaths of all time. Born in Buallt, Radnor.

Bill Frost Welsh carpenter who patented the aeroplane in 1894 and took to the skies in a powered flying machine the following year, eight years before the Wright brothers attempt at Kitty Hawk. Born in Tenby.

William Robert Grove Invented the fuel cell. Born in Swansea, 1811.

John T. Houghton Distinguished meteorologist. Inspiration behind major international conferences on global warming (Rio, Kyoto, Buenos Aires). Born in Wales.

David E. Hughes First transmission of radio waves. Inventor of the microphone and printing telegraph system. A musician and philosopher. Born Corwen, Wales.

John Gwyn Jeffreys conchologist (someone who studies shells). He helped pioneer deep-sea dredging. He corresponded with Charles Darwin and was involved with a number of scientific associations. Born into a long-established Welsh family.

Ernest Jones Introduced psychoanalysis into Britain and North America. Born in Llwchwy, South Wales.

Samuel Milton Jones Inventor, writer and Mayor of Toledo, Ohio, USA. Born in Carnarvonshire.

Steve Jones Professor of genetics at the Galton Laboratory and University College, London. Born in Wales.

William Jones A noted mathematician, published author and early naval navigator. First to use 'Pi' (1706) as a mathematical symbol. Born in Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd.

Brian Josephson Nobel Prize–winning physicist; gave his name to the superconducting Josephson junction. Born Cardiff.

Bernard Knight Forensic pathologist, barrister and writer. Creator of the 'Crowner John' series, historic crime fiction. As a forensic pathologist, worked on the infamous Fred West case, recovering all twelve bodies. Born and spent most of his life in Cardiff.

Francis Lewis Signatory of the US 'Declaration of Independence' as one of the representatives from New York. Born in Llandaff.

Sir Thomas Lewis Born in Taffs Well, (26 December 1881 – 17 March 1945) was a British cardiologist (although he personally disliked the term, preferring cardiovascular disease specialist). He coined the term "clinical science".

Edward Lhuyd Fellow of Jesus College Oxford. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum and the foremost Celtic scholar of his time. Born Oswestry, 1660.

Ronald M Lockley Famous naturalist and author. Best known for his life on Skokholm Island off Pembrokeshire 1927-1940 and at Orielton in the 1950s to early 1960s. Born in Cardiff.

Terry Matthews 'Mitel' and 'Newbridge' Networks founder.

William Morgan Inventor of the vacuum tube, Coolidge tube, Britain's first actuary, founding father of modern actuarial science. The unknowing discoverer of x-rays, a hundred and ten years before Roentgen. Born in Bridgend, 1750, died 1830.

William Henry Preece was an electrical engineer who was a major figure in the development and introduction of wireless telegraphy and the telephone in Great Britain. Born Feb 15 1834 in Bryn Helen.

Richard Price Developer of the times tables for insurance scales. Born at Tynton Farm Llangeinor, South Wales

William Price re-introduced cremation to Britain. Born Llantrisant, South Wales

Pryce Pryce-Jones Gave mail-order (catalogue) shopping to the world. (circa 1859) Born/lived in Newtown, Montgomeryshire (Powys).

Robert Recorde Very influential physician and mathematician. Robert published some of the most important books of his era including the first English language book on algebra which incidentally is where the equals symbol is first seen in use. From Tenby, West Wales.

Isaac Roberts Pioneered deep space photography at the end of the 19th century. Born in Groes near Denbigh in 1829.

Richard Roberts (engineer) Textile machinery, railway locomotives and other industrial inventions. Born Llanymynech, 1789.

Bertrand Russell Philosopher, mathematician and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Russell is one of the most highly regarded academics of the 20th century. He popularized mathematics and proposed many ground breaking theories. Born in Trelleck, Monmouthshire, South Wales.

David Thomas in 1837 invented a hot blast furnace process to make iron using anthracite coal in Ystradfera (Swansea Valley). transforming the iron-making process there and later in 1839 after re-locating to Pennsylvania where he became the "father" of the American steel industry with his invention.

Sir Tudor Thomas Eye surgeon from Swansea. He pioneered ophthalmic corneaplasty in the 1930s. Born in Ystradgynlais 23 May 1893.

Philip Vaughan Ironmaster who, in Carmarthen in 1794, patented the first design for a ball bearing.

Alfred Russel Wallace Conferred with Darwin (and Darwin with him) regarding evolution of species and acknowledged as theory co-founder by Darwin in his 'On the Origin of Species'. Born Llanbadoc, near Usk, Monmouthshire.

Evan Williams Physicist, discoverer of the meson sub-atomic particles. Born Cwmsychpant, Llandysul, Wales.

Ernest Willows pioneering aviator. 'The Father of British Airships' Born in Cardiff, 1896.

Winston M Thomas Celtic Engineering Inc. Texas telecommunications. (Inventor) vehicle fuel locking device. Born Llanelli

List of Welsh scientists

A list of Welsh scientists.

David Brunt, meteorologist

Kathleen E. Carpenter, freshwater ecologist

Alan Cox, computer scientist

Edgeworth David, geologist and Antarctic explorer

Donald Davies, computer scientist and co-inventor of packet switching

Dianne Edwards, palaeobotanist

William Frost, pioneer designer of aeroplanes

David Edward Hughes, radio and audio pioneer

Mary Gillham, naturalist

John L. Harper, botanist

Steve Jones, geneticist

William Jones, mathematician

Brian Josephson, theoretical physicist

John Maddox, scientist and science journalist

Lily Newton, botanist and vice-principal at the University of Wales

Emyr Jones Parry, scientist and diplomat.

Emlyn Rhoderick, solid state physicist

Bertrand Russell, philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic

John Meurig Thomas, solid state chemist

Alfred Russel Wallace, naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and evolutionary biologist

Magnetic flux quantum

The magnetic flux, represented by the symbol Φ, threading some contour or loop is defined as the magnetic field B multiplied by the loop area S, i.e. Φ = B ⋅ S. Both B and S can be arbitrary and so is Φ. However, if one deals with the superconducting loop or a hole in a bulk superconductor, it turns out that the magnetic flux threading such a hole/loop is quantized.

The (superconducting) magnetic flux quantum Φ0 = h/(2e) ≈ 2.067833831(13)×10−15 Wb is a combination of fundamental physical constants: the Planck constant h and the electron charge e. Its value is, therefore, the same for any superconductor.

The phenomenon of flux quantization was discovered experimentally by B. S. Deaver and W. M. Fairbank and, independently, by R. Doll and M. Näbauer, in 1961. The quantization of magnetic flux is closely related to the Little–Parks effect, but was predicted earlier by Fritz London in 1948 using a phenomenological model.

The inverse of the flux quantum, 1/Φ0, is called the Josephson constant, and is denoted KJ. It is the constant of proportionality of the Josephson effect, relating the potential difference across a Josephson junction to the frequency of the irradiation. The Josephson effect is very widely used to provide a standard for high-precision measurements of potential difference, which (since 1990) have been related to a fixed, conventional value of the Josephson constant, denoted KJ-90.

Quantum gyroscope

A quantum gyroscope is a very sensitive device to measure angular rotation based on quantum mechanical principles. The first of these has been built by Richard Packard and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley. The extreme sensitivity means that theoretically, a larger version could detect effects like minute changes in the rotational rate of the Earth.

Tunnel diode

A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode that has negative resistance due to the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling. It was invented in August 1957 by Leo Esaki, Yuriko Kurose, and Takashi Suzuki when they were working at Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, now known as Sony. In 1973, Esaki received the Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Brian Josephson, for discovering the electron tunneling effect used in these diodes. Robert Noyce independently devised the idea of a tunnel diode while working for William Shockley, but was discouraged from pursuing it. Tunnel diodes were first manufactured by Sony in 1957, followed by General Electric and other companies from about 1960, and are still made in low volume today.Tunnel diodes have a heavily doped p–n junction that is about 10 nm (100 Å) wide. The heavy doping results in a broken band gap, where conduction band electron states on the n-side are more or less aligned with valence band hole states on the p-side. They are usually made from germanium, but can also be made from gallium arsenide and silicon materials. Their negative differential resistance in part of their operating range allows them to function as oscillators and amplifiers, and in switching circuits using hysteresis. They are also used as frequency converters and detectors. Their low capacitance allows them to function at microwave frequencies, above the range of ordinary diodes and transistors.

Tunnel diodes are not widely used due to their low output power; their RF output is limited to several hundred milliwatts due to their small voltage swing. In recent years, however, new devices that use the tunneling mechanism have been developed. The resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) has achieved some of the highest frequencies of any solid-state oscillator. Another type of tunnel diode is a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) diode, but its present application appears to be limited to research environments due to inherent sensitivities. There is also a metal–insulator–insulator–metal (MIIM) diode, where an additional insulator layer allows "step tunneling" for precise diode control.

Water memory

Water memory is the purported ability of water to retain a memory of substances previously dissolved in it even after an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. It has been claimed to be a mechanism by which homeopathic remedies work, even though they are diluted to the point that no single molecule of the original substance remains.

Water memory defies conventional scientific understanding of physical chemistry knowledge and is not accepted by the scientific community. In 1988, Jacques Benveniste published a study supporting a water memory effect amid controversy in Nature, accompanied by an editorial by Nature's editor John Maddox urging readers to "suspend judgement" until the results could be replicated. In the years following publication, multiple supervised experiments were run by Benveniste's team, the United States Department of Defense, BBC's Horizon programme, and other researchers, but no team has ever reproduced Benveniste's results in controlled conditions.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.