Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (German: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, IPA: [ˌʃtatɡəmaɪndə ˈbʁeːmən] (listen)) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.5 million people. Bremen is the second most populous city in Northern Germany and eleventh in Germany.[4]

Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremen is home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Übersee-Museum Bremen.[5] Bremen has a reputation as a working-class city.[6] Bremen is home to a large number of multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include the Hachez chocolate company and Vector Foiltec.[7] Four-time German football champions Werder Bremen are also based in the city. Werder Bremen share long feuds with the rival team in the neighbouring city of Hamburg, HSV with brawls at almost every match.

Bremen is some 60 km (37 mi) south of the mouth of the Weser on the North Sea. Bremen and Bremerhaven (at the mouth of the Weser) together comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official German name: Freie Hansestadt Bremen).

Bremen
Clockwise from top: Bremer Marktplatz, Bremen Hauptbahnhof, the Werdersee and the Town Musicians statue
Clockwise from top: Bremer Marktplatz, Bremen Hauptbahnhof, the Werdersee and the Town Musicians statue
Flag of Bremen
Flag
Coat of arms of Bremen
Coat of arms
Location of Bremen
Bremen is located in Germany
Bremen
Bremen
Bremen is located in Bremen
Bremen
Bremen
Coordinates: 53°5′N 8°48′E / 53.083°N 8.800°ECoordinates: 53°5′N 8°48′E / 53.083°N 8.800°E
CountryGermany
StateBremen
Government
 • First MayorCarsten Sieling (SPD)
 • Governing partiesSPD / Greens
Area
 • City317.88 km2 (122.73 sq mi)
 • Metro
11,627 km2 (4,489 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[3]
 • City568,006
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,400,000
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
28001–28779
Dialling codes0421
Vehicle registrationHB (with 1 to 2 letters and 1 to 4 digits)[1]
WebsiteBremen online

History

Braun Bremen UBHD
Bremen, 16th century

The marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12,000 BC. Burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since the Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemy's Fourth Map of Europe,[8] written in AD 150, refers to Bremen. But Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, and these refer to a site northeast of the mouth of the river Visurgis (Weser). In Ptolemy's time the Chauci lived in the area now called north-western Germany or Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons. During the Saxon Wars (772–804) the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, and lost the war.

Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum, which forbid the Saxons worshipping Odin (the god of the Saxons); instead they had to convert to Christianity on pain of death. In 787 Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. In 848 the archdiocese of Hamburg merged with the diocese of Bremen to become Hamburg-Bremen Archdiocese, with its seat in Bremen, and in the following centuries the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen were the driving force behind the Christianisation of Northern Germany. In 888, at the behest of Archbishop Rimbert, Kaiser Arnulf of Carinthia, the Carolingian King of East Francia, granted Bremen the rights to hold its own markets, mint its own coins and make its own customs laws.

The city's first stone walls were built in 1032. Around that time trade with Norway, England and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city.

Ancient Germania - New York, Harper and Brothers 1849
Germania, in the early 2nd century (Harper and Brothers, 1849)
Bremen aerial view 9
View from the Bremen Cathedral in the direction of the Stephani-Bridge

In 1186 the Bremian Prince-Archbishop Hartwig of Uthlede and his bailiff in Bremen confirmed – without generally waiving the prince-archbishop's overlordship over the city – the Gelnhausen Privilege, by which Frederick I Barbarossa granted the city considerable privileges. The city was recognised as a political entity with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship; this also applied to serfs who acquired property, if they lived in the city for a year and a day, after which they were to be regarded as free persons. Property was to be freely inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremen's later status of imperial immediacy (Free Imperial City).

But in reality Bremen did not have complete independence from the Prince-Archbishops: there was no freedom of religion, and burghers still had to pay taxes to the Prince-Archbishops. Bremen played a double role: it participated in the Diets of the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen as part of the Bremian Estates and paid its share of taxes, at least when it had previously consented to this levy. Since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought. In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, while not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city against its consent. In 1260 Bremen joined the Hanseatic League.

Advent of territorial power

Landgebiete der Freien Stadt Bremen
14th to 18th century: territories of the Free City of Bremen (red) and of the Archbishopric of Bremen (yellow); straits between lower Weser and Jadebusen

In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000. Around this time the Hansekogge (cog ship) became a unique product of Bremen.

In 1362, representatives of Bremen rendered homage to Albert II, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen in Langwedel. In return, Albert confirmed the city's privileges and brokered a peace between the city and Gerhard III, Count of Hoya, who since 1358 had held some burghers of Bremen in captivity. The city had to bail them out. In 1365 an extra tax, levied to finance the ransom, caused an uprising among the burghers and artisans that was put down by the city council after much bloodshed.

In 1366, Albert II tried to take advantage of the dispute between Bremen's city council and the guilds, whose members had expelled some city councillors from the city. When these councillors appealed to Albert II for help, many artisans and burghers regarded this as a treasonous act, fearing that this appeal to the prince would only provoke him to abolish the autonomy of the city.

The fortified city maintained its own guards, not allowing soldiers of the Prince-Archbishop to enter it. The city reserved an extra very narrow gate, the so-called Bishop's Needle (Latin: Acus episcopi, first mentioned in 1274), for all clergy, including the Prince-Archbishop. The narrowness of the gate made it physically impossible for him to enter surrounded by his knights.

Nevertheless, on the night of 29 May 1366, Albert's troops, helped by some burghers, invaded the city. Afterward, the city had to again render him homage: the Bremen Roland, symbol of the city's autonomy, was destroyed; and a new city council was appointed. In return, the new council granted Albert a credit amounting to the then-enormous sum of 20,000 Bremen marks.

But city councillors of the previous council, who had fled to the County of Oldenburg, gained the support of the counts and recaptured the city on June 27, 1366. The members of the intermediate council were regarded as traitors and beheaded, and the city de facto regained its autonomy. Thereupon, the city of Bremen, which had for a long time held an autonomous status, acted almost completely independent of the Prince-Archbishop. Albert failed to obtain control over the city of Bremen a second time, since he was always short of money and lacked the support of his family, the Welfs, who were preparing for and fighting the Lüneburg War of Succession (1370–88).

By the end of the 1360s Bremen had provided credit to Albert II to finance his lavish lifestyle, and gained in return the fortress of Vörde along with the dues levied in its bailiwick as guarantee for the credit. In 1369 Bremen again lent money to Albert II against the collateral of his mint, which was from then on run by the city council, which took over his right to mint coins. In 1377 Bremen purchased from Duke Frederick I of Brunswick-Lüneburg many of the Prince-Archbishop's castles, which Albert had pledged as security for a loan to Frederick's predecessor. Thus Bremen gained a powerful position in the Prince-Archbishopric (ecclesiastical principality), in effect sidelining its actual ruler.

The declining knightly family of Bederkesa had become deeply indebted,[9]:29 and, having already sold many of their possessions, had even pawned half their say in the Bailiwick of Bederkesa (Amt Bederkesa) to the aspiring Mandelsloh family (a noble house, or Adelsgeschlecht). They lost the rest of their claims to the city of Bremen, when in 1381 its troops prevented the three Mandelsloh brothers from lending them to Albert II as territorial power.[9]:30 The Mandelslohs and other robber barons from the Prince-Bishopric of Verden and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen ravaged burghers of the city of Bremen as well as inhabitants throughout the Prince-Archbishopric.

Bederkesa, Burg 3
Bederkesa Castle, since 1381 a stronghold of Bremen's rural possessions within the Prince-Archbishopric, the later secularised Duchy of Bremen

In 1381 the city's troops successfully ended the brigandage and captured the Castle of Bederkesa and its bailiwick. Thus Bremen gained a foothold to uphold peace and order in its forecourt on the lower course of the Weser. In 1386 the city of Bremen became the liege lord of the noble families holding the estates of Altluneburg and Elmlohe, who had previously been vassals of the Knights of Bederkesa. The city replaced in 1404 the old wooden statue of Roland, which had been destroyed in 1366 by the Bederkesa, with a larger limestone model; this statue has managed to survive six centuries and two World Wars into the 21st.

In 1411 the jointly ruling dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg, Eric IV and his sons Eric V and John IV, pawned their share in the Bederkesa bailiwick and castle to the Senate of Bremen, including all "they have in the jurisdictions in the Frisian Land of Wursten and in Lehe (Bremerhaven), which belongs to the aforementioned castle and Vogtei".[10] Their share in jurisdiction, Vogtei (bailiwick) and castle had been acquired from the plague-stricken Knights of Bederkesa.[10] In 1421, Bremen acquired also the remaining half of the rights of the Bederkesa knights, including their remaining share in Bederkesa Castle.[9]:30

During the 1440s, Bremen was often in conflict with the Dutch states. The city began offering contracts to pirates to attack its enemies, and it became a regional hub of piracy. These pirates targeted foreign shipping around the North Sea and captured numerous vessels. One notorious captain, known as Grote Gherd ("Big Gerry"), captured 13 ships from Flanders in a single expedition.[11][12][13]

In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown. In November 1654, after the Second Bremian War, Bremen had to cede Bederkesa and the settlement of Lehe to the Duchy of Bremen (Treaty of Stade, 1654).

Bremen and the Reformation

Rathaus Bremen 116thd
Bremen town hall

When the Protestant Reformation swept through Northern Germany, St Peter's cathedral belonged to the cathedral immunity district (German: Domfreiheit; cf. also Liberty), an extraterritorial enclave of the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In 1532, the cathedral chapter which was still Catholic at that time closed St Peter's after a mob consisting of Bremen's burghers had forcefully interrupted a Catholic Mass and prompted a pastor to hold a Lutheran service.

In 1547, the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus, called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation. Rizaeus turned out to be a partisan of the Zwinglian understanding of the Lord's Supper, which was rejected by the then Lutheran majority of burghers, the city council, and chapter. So in 1561 – after heated disputes – Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors.

However, as a consequence of that controversy the majority of Bremen's burghers and city council adopted Calvinism by the 1590s, while the chapter, which was at the same time the body of secular government in the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric, clung to Lutheranism. This antagonism between a Calvinistic majority and a Lutheran minority, though it had a powerful position in its immunity district (mediatised as part of the city in 1803), remained dominant until in 1873 the Calvinist and Lutheran congregations of Bremen were reconciled and founded a united administrative umbrella Bremen Protestant Church, which still exists today, comprising the bulk of Bremen's burghers.

At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent.

Thirty Years' War

Soon after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War Bremen declared its neutrality, as did most of the territories in the Lower Saxon Circle. John Frederick, Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen. When in 1623 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, which was fighting in the Eighty Years' War for its independence against Habsburg's Spanish and imperial forces, requested its Calvinist co-religionist Bremen to join them, the city refused, but started to reinforce its fortifications.

In 1623 the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality, since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region. The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen.

In 1623 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, diplomatically supported by King James I of England, the brother-in-law of Christian IV of Denmark, started a new anti-Habsburg campaign. Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved. But soon after this the imperial troops under Albrecht von Wallenstein headed north in an attempt to destroy the fading Hanseatic League, in order to reduce the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg and the Lübeck and to establish a Baltic trade monopoly, to be run by some imperial favourites including Spaniards and Poles. The idea was to win Sweden's and Denmark's support, both of which had for a long time sought the destruction of the Hanseatic League.

In May 1625, Duke Christian IV of Holstein was elected – in the latter of his functions – by the Lower Saxon Circle's member territories commander-in-chief of the Lower Saxon troops. In the same year Christian IV joined the Anglo-Dutch military coalition. Christian IV ordered his troops to capture all the important traffic hubs in the Prince-Archbishopric and commenced the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge, on 27 August 1626, where he was defeated by the Leaguist troops under Johan 't Serclaes, Count of Tilly. Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade.

Bremen Roland
Roland

In 1627 Christian IV withdrew from the Prince-Archbishopric, in order to oppose Wallenstein's invasion of his Duchy of Holstein. Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part. Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications. In 1628, Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10,000 rixdollars in order to spare it a siege. The city remained unoccupied throughout the war.

The takeover by the Catholic League enabled Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, to implement the Edict of Restitution, decreed March 6, 1629, within the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen including the city of Bremen. In September 1629 Francis William of Wartenberg, appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates (not to be confused with the Estates). The Chapter refused, arguing first that the order had not been authorised and later that due to disputes with Bremen's city council, they could not freely travel to render an account, let alone do the necessary research on the estates. The anti-Catholic attitudes of Bremen's burghers and council was to make it completely impossible to prepare the restitution of estates from the Lutheran Chapter to the Roman Catholic Church. Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen.

Bremen's city council ordered that the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates within the boundaries of the unoccupied city were not to be restituted to the Catholic Church. The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates. The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.[14] The city was neither to be conquered nor to be successfully besieged due to its new fortifications and its access to the North Sea.

In October 1631 an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen. John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war. With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia, the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too. Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from 1186 (Gelnhausen Privilege). In 1646 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, granted the requested confirmation (Diploma of Linz) to the Free Imperial City.

Swedish reaction

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
135020,000—    
181035,800+0.13%
183043,700+1.00%
185055,100+1.17%
1880111,900+2.39%
1900161,200+1.84%
1925295,000+2.45%
1969607,185+1.65%
1995549,357−0.38%
1998550,000+0.04%
2001540,950−0.55%
2005545,983+0.23%
2006546,900+0.17%
2009[15]547,685+0.05%
2012548,319+0.04%
2014[16]548,547+0.02%
Reichsstadt Bremen Territorium - F.A. Schrämbl, 1797
Territory of the Imperial City of Bremen on a late 18th century map

Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden, which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen. Swedish Bremen-Verden tried to remediatise the Free Imperial City of Bremen (i.e., to make it switch its allegiance to Sweden). With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In 1381 the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe (a part of present-day Bremerhaven). Early in 1653, Bremen-Verden's Swedish troops captured Bremerlehe by force. In February 1654 the city of Bremen managed to get Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, to grant it a seat and the vote in the Holy Roman Empire's Diet, thus accepting the city's status as Free Imperial City of Bremen.

Ferdinand III demanded that Christina of Sweden, Duchess regnant of Bremen-Verden, compensate the city of Bremen for the damages caused and restitute Bremerlehe. When in March 1654 the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War (March to July 1654), arguing that it was acting in self-defence. The Free Imperial City of Bremen had meanwhile urged Ferdinand III to support it, who in July 1654 asked Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Christina's successor as Duke of Bremen-Verden, to cease the conflict, which resulted in the First Stade Recess (November 1654). This treaty left the main issue, the acceptance of the city of Bremen's imperial immediacy, unresolved. But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.

In December 1660 the city council of Bremen rendered homage as Free Imperial City of Bremen to Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1663 the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. In March 1664 the Swedish Diet came out in favour of waging war on the Free Imperial City of Bremen. Right after Leopold I, who was busy with wars against the Ottoman Empire, had enfeoffed the minor King Charles XI of Sweden with Bremen-Verden, while the neighbouring Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle was occupied by succession quarrels and France not opposed, Sweden started the Second Bremian War (1665–66) from its Bremen-Verden fief.

The Swedes under Carl Gustaf Wrangel laid siege to the city of Bremen. The siege brought Brandenburg-Prussia, Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle, Denmark, Leopold I and the Netherlands onto the scene, who were all in favour of the city, with Brandenburgian, Cellean, Danish, and Dutch troops at Bremen-Verden's borders ready to invade. So on 15 November 1666 Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen, obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle. From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city.

In 1700 Bremen introduced – like all Protestant territories of imperial immediacy – the Improved Calendar, as it was called by Protestants, in order not to mention the name of Pope Gregory XIII. So Sunday, 18 February of Old Style was followed by Monday, 1 March New Style.

19th century

Bremer Staatsgebiet seit 1800
Territory of the Free City of Bremen since 1800

The harbour of Vegesack became part of the city of Bremen in 1803. In 1811, Napoleon invaded Bremen and integrated it as the capital of the Département de Bouches-du-Weser (Department of the Mouths of the Weser) into the French State. In 1813, the French – as they retreated – withdrew from Bremen. Johann Smidt, Bremen's representative at the Congress of Vienna, was successful in achieving the non-mediatisation of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, by which they were not incorporated into neighbouring monarchies, but became sovereign republics. Bremen joined the North German Confederation in 1867 and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire and its successors.

The first German steamship was manufactured in 1817 in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In 1827, Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover, to establish the city of Bremerhaven (Port of Bremen) as an outpost of Bremen because the river Weser was silting up. The shipping company Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) was founded in 1857. Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd.

Beck's Brewery was founded in 1837 and remains in operation today as part of Anheuser-Busch InBev. In 1872, the Bremen Cotton Exchange was founded.

20th century

The Soviet Republic of Bremen existed from January to February 1919 in the aftermath of World War I, before it was overthrown by Gerstenberg Freikorps.

Rathaus Bremen 15111918
Proclamation of the Revolutionary Republic of Bremen (Bremer Räterepublik) in front of the town hall, 15 November 1918

Henrich Focke, Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen in 1923; the aircraft construction company as of 2010 forms part of Airbus, a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft. Borgward, an automobile manufacturer, was founded in 1929, and is today part of Daimler AG.

The villages of Grohn, Schönebeck, Aumund, Hammersbeck, Fähr, Lobbendorf, Blumenthal, Farge and Rekum became part of the city of Bremen in 1939. The Bremen-Vegesack concentration camp operated during World War II.

Allied bombing destroyed 60% of the built up area of Bremen during World War II.[17] The British 3rd Infantry Division under General Whistler captured Bremen in late April 1945.[18]

In 1946 Bremen's mayor Wilhelm Kaisen (SPD) travelled to the U.S. to re-establish Bremen's statehood, as Bremen had traditionally been a city-state, in order to prevent its incorporation into the state of Lower Saxony in the British zone of occupation. In 1947 the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone.

In 1947, Martin Mende founded Nordmende, a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until 1987. OHB-System, a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites, was founded in 1958.

The University of Bremen, founded in 1971, is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23,500 people from 126 countries.

Geography

RathausDomBuergerschaft-01
Bremen's city hall, cathedral and Bürgerschaft
Weserhb2
View from the Stephanibrücke towards the city centre and cathedral

Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser, about 60 kilometres (37 miles) upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven. Opposite Bremen's Altstadt is the point where the "Middle Weser" becomes the "Lower Weser" and, from the area of Bremen's port, the river has been made navigable to ocean-going vessels. The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle. The Lesum, and its tributaries, the Wümme and Hamme, the Schönebecker Aue and Blumenthaler Aue, are the downstream tributaries of the Weser.

The city's municipal area is about 38 kilometres (24 miles) long and 16 kilometres (10 miles) wide. In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany (see: List of cities in Germany).

Bremen lies about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of the city of Oldenburg, 110 kilometres (68 miles) southwest of Hamburg, 120 kilometres (75 miles) northwest of Hanover, 100 kilometres (62 miles) north of Minden and 105 kilometres (65 miles) northeast of Osnabrück. Part of Bremerhaven's port territory forms an exclave of the City of Bremen.

Hills of Bremen

The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of 10.5 m above sea level (NN) at Bremen Cathedral; its highest point, though, is 14.4 m above sea level (NN) and lies to the east at the Polizeihaus, Am Wall 196. The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is 32.5 m above NN and lies in Friedehorst Park in the northwestern borough of Burglesum.[19]:25 As a result, Bremen has the lowest high point of all the German states.[20] However, the man-made tip of the rubbish dump Blockland-Deponie in Bremen-Walle is higher at 49 m above NN.

Climate

Bremen has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) due to its proximity to the North Sea coast and temperate maritime air masses that move in with the predominantly westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter. In general though, extremes are rare in Bremen and temperatures below −15 °C (5.0 °F) and above 35 °C (95.0 °F) occur only once every couple of years. The record high temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) on 9 August 1992, while the official record low temperature was −23.6 °C (−10.5 °F) on 13 February 1940.[21] However, the astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers reported to have measured −27,3 °C on 23. January 1823.[22] Being at some distance from the main North Sea, Bremen still has a somewhat wider temperature range than Bremerhaven that is located on the mouth of Weser.

Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) rise in the mean annual temperature between 1961–90 and 1981–2010 reference periods. As in most parts of Germany, the year 2014 has been the warmest year on record averaging 11.1 °C (52.0 °F), making Bremen the second-warmest German state after Berlin in 2014.[23] While Bremen is located in the comparatively cloudy northwestern part of Germany, there has been a significant increase in average sunshine hours over the last decades, especially in the months of April, May and July, causing the annual mean to rise by 62 hours between the two reference periods mentioned above.[24] This trend has continued over the last 10 years, which average 1614 hours of sunshine, a good 130 hours more than in the international reference period of 1961–90.[25] Nevertheless, especially the winters remain extremely gloomy by international standards with December averaging hardly more than one hour of sunshine (out of 7 astronomically possible) per day, a feature that Bremen shares with most of Germany and its neighbouring countries, though.

Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.e. showers and thunderstorms. Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year 2010 counting 84 days with a snow cover.[26] Nevertheless, snow accumulation of more than 20 centimetres (8 in) remains exceptional, the record being 68 centimetres (26.8 in) of snow on 18 February 1979.

The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of 20.2 to 22.6 °C (68.4 to 72.7 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with average low temperatures of −1.1 to 0.3 °C (30.0 to 32.5 °F). Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.

Demographics

As of 2015, Bremen had a population of 557,464 of whom about 89,713 (16%) had foreign citizenship.[19]:39 Furthermore, 29.4% of the city population were of non-German origin/ethnicity as of 2015.[29]

Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December 2015:[19]:39

Rank Nationality Population (31.12.2017)
1  Turkey 20,325
2  Syria 11,787
3  Poland 7,602
4  Bulgaria 5,835
5  Afghanistan 2,872
6  Russia 2,858
7  Romania 2,459
8  Italy 2,221
9  Iran 1,996
10  Spain 1,780

Politics

The Stadtbürgerschaft (municipal assembly) is made up of 68 of the 83 legislators of the state legislature, the Bremische Bürgerschaft, who reside in the city of Bremen. The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years.

Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city. This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy.[30] In elections for the Stadtbürgerschaft, the Social Democratic Party has dominated for decades. The Greens have also been very successful in city elections. The state of Bremen, which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens.

One of the two mayors (Bürgermeister) is elected President of the Senate (Präsident des Senats) and serves as head of the city and the state. The current president is Carsten Sieling

Last state election

Party Votes % +/– Seats +/–
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 32.9 Decrease5.7 30 Decrease6
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 22.4 Increase2.0 20 Steady0
Alliance '90/The Greens 15.1 Decrease7.4 14 Decrease7
The Left 9.5 Increase3.9 8 Increase3
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 6.5 Increase4.1 6 Increase6
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 5.5 N/A 4 N/A
Citizens in Rage (BIW) 3.2 Decrease0.5 1 Steady0
The Party 1.9 N/A 0 N/A
Pirate Party Germany (PIRATEN) 1.5 Decrease0.4 0 Steady0
Human Environment Animal Protection (The Animal Protection Party) 1.2 N/A 0 N/A
National Democratic Party (NPD) 0.2 Decrease1.4 0 Steady0
Totals 100.0% 83

Provisional results; the AfD did not reach the 5% threshold in Bremerhaven (and will hence only receive seats for votes from Bremen), the BIW did not reach the threshold in Bremen (and will only receive one seat in Bremerhaven, none in Bremen).[31][32]

Administrative structure

Stadtbezirk
(borough)
Stadtteile (urban districts),
Ortsteile (subdistricts, selectively)
Area Population Density
of population
Maps
Mitte
(Central)
1
33.741 km² 17,392 515 / km² Bremen 11 Mitte
Mitte
Bremen 12 Häfen
Häfen
Süd
(South)
2
  • Neustadt (New Town)
    • Alte Neustadt (Old New Town, near the Weser, opposite of the City)
    • Buntentor (an old suburb, southeast of Alte Neustadt)
    • Huckelriede, between Buntentor and Habenhausen
    • Hohentor, west of Alte Neustadt
    • Neuenland, the airport city with some hightech companies

Neustadt, Südervorstadt and Gartenstadt Süd between Alte Neustadt and the airport city

  • Obervieland
    • Arsten (near Weser river, upstream)
    • Habenhausen (near Weser, north of Arsten)
    • Kattenesch (west of Arsten)
    • Kattenturm (northwestern section)
  • Huchting, mainly west of river Ochtum
  • Woltmershausen with Rablinghausen, between Weser river and Neustädter Hafen
  • Seehausen, a village near river Weser
  • Strom, a village
66.637 km² 123,303 1,850 / km² Bremen 21 Neustadt
Neustadt

Bremen 24 Huchting
Huchting

Bremen 26 Seehausen
Seehausen

Bremen 23 Obervieland
Obervieland

Bremen 25 Woltmershausen
Woltmershausen

Bremen 27 Strom
Strom

Ost
(East)
3
  • Östliche Vorstadt (Eastern Suburb)
    • Steintor (near the city)
    • Fesenfeld (northern part of Steintor)
    • Peterswerder (near Weserstadion)
    • Hulsberg (north of Peterswerder)
  • Schwachhausen
  • Vahr
  • Horn-Lehe
  • Borgfeld
  • Oberneuland
  • Osterholz
  • Hemelingen
    • Hastedt (near Östliche Vorstadt)
    • Sebaldsbrück (east of Hastedt)
    • Hemelingen (south of Sebaldsbrück, near Weser river)
    • Mahndorf (east of Hemelingen)
    • Arbergen (east of Mahndorf)
108.201 km² 218,843 2,023 / km² Bremen 31 Östliche Vorstadt
Östliche Vorstadt

Bremen 33 Vahr
Vahr

Bremen 35 Borgfeld
Borgfeld

Bremen 37 Osterholz
Osterholz
Bremen 32 Schwachhausen
Schwachhausen

Bremen 34 Horn-Lehe
Horn-Lehe

Bremen 36 Oberneuland
Oberneuland

Bremen 38 Hemelingen
Hemelingen
West
4
  • Blockland
  • Findorff
  • Walle
  • Gröpelingen
    • Gröpelingen
    • Oslebshausen
56.606 km² 89,216 1,576 / km² Bremen 41 Blockland
Blockland

Bremen 42 Findorff
Findorff
Bremen 43 Walle
Walle

Bremen 44 Gröpelingen
Gröpelingen
Nord
(North)
5
60.376 km² 98,606 1,633 / km² Bremen 51 Burglesum
Burglesum

Bremen 53 Blumenthal
Blumenthal
Bremen 52 Vegesack
Vegesack

Main sights

  • Many of the sights in Bremen are found in the Altstadt (Old Town), an oval area surrounded by the Weser River, on the southwest, and the Wallgraben, the former moats of the medieval city walls, on the northeast. The oldest part of the Altstadt is the southeast half, starting with the Marktplatz and ending at the Schnoor quarter.
  • The Marktplatz (Market square) is dominated by the opulent façade of the Town Hall of Bremen. The building was erected between 1405 and 1410 in Gothic style, but the façade was built two centuries later (1609–12) in Renaissance style. The Town Hall is the seat of the president of the Senate of Bremen. Today, it hosts a restaurant in original decor with gigantic wine barrels, the Ratskeller in Bremen, and the wine lists boasts more than 600 – exclusively German – wines. It is also home of the twelve oldest wines in the world, stored in their original barrels in the Apostel chamber. In July 2004, along with the Bremen Roland, the building was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • Two statues stand to the west side of the Town Hall: one is the statue Bremen Roland (1404) of the city's protector, Roland, with his view against the Cathedral and bearing Durendart, the "sword of justice" and a shield decorated with an imperial eagle. The other near the entrance to the Ratskeller is Gerhard Marcks' bronze sculpture (1953) Die Stadtmusikanten (Town Musicians), which portrays the donkey, dog, cat and rooster of the Grimm Brothers' fairy tale.
  • Other interesting buildings in the vicinity of the Marktplatz are the Schütting, a 16th-century Flemish-inspired guild hall, Rathscafé, Raths-Apotheke, Haus der Stadtsparkasse and the Stadtwaage, the former weigh house (built in 1588), with an ornate Renaissance façade, and the nearby Essighaus, once a fine Renaissance town house. The façades and houses surrounding the market square were the first buildings in Bremen to be restored after World War II, by the citizens of Bremen themselves.
  • St Peter's Cathedral (13th century), to the east of the Marktplatz, with sculptures of Moses and David, Peter and Paul and Charlemagne. The Bismark Monument is also outside the cathedral, which is the only monument in Germany to depict Otto von Bismark in an equestrian format.
  • On Katherinenklosterhof to the northwest of the cathedral, a few remaining traces can be found of St Catherine's Monastery dating back to the 13th century.
  • The Liebfrauenkirche (Our Lady's Church) is the oldest church of the town (11th century). Its crypt features several impressive murals from the 14th century.
  • Off the south side of the Markplatz, the 110 m (120 yd) Böttcherstraße was transformed in 1923–1931 by the coffee magnate Ludwig Roselius, who commissioned local artists to convert the narrow street (in medieval times, the street of the barrel makers) into an inspired mixture of Gothic and Art Nouveau. It was considered "entartete Kunst" (degenerate art) by the Nazis. Today, the street is one of Bremen's most popular attractions, with the Glockenspiel House at No. 4 with its carillon of Meissen porcelain bells.[33]
  • At the end of Böttcherstraße, by the Weser bank, stands the Martinikirche (St Martin's Church), a Gothic brick church built in 1229, and rebuilt in 1960 after its destruction in World War II.[34]
  • Tucked away between the Cathedral and the river is the Schnoor, a small, well-preserved area of crooked lanes, fishermen's and shipper's houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, now occupied by cafés, artisan shops and art galleries. The Convent of Saint Birgitta (Birgittenkloster) founded in 2002 is a small community of just seven nuns offering guest accommodation.[35]
  • Schlachte, the medieval harbour of Bremen (the modern port is some kilometres downstream) and today a riverside boulevard with pubs and bars aligned on one side and the banks of Weser on the other.[36]
  • The Viertel district to the east of the old town combines rows of 19th-century Bremen houses (Bremer Häuser) with museums and the theatres of Theater Bremen along the city's cultural mile (Kulturmeile (Bremen)).[37]
  • The Nasir Moschee is the first purpose built mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Bremen.[38]

More contemporary tourist attractions include:

Weserhb2

View from the Stephani-Bridge in the direction of the Cathedral

Bremen Schlachte von Teerhofbrücke

Schlachte

BaumwollboerseBremen-1

Baumwollbörse (Cotton exchange)

HB 2016-0607 photo24 Park-Hotel

The Parkhotel in the Bürgerpark (central park)

Musicaltheater Bremen front left

Musical-Theater

Windmill rose garden, bremen 05

Central Park Wallanlagen

Bremen-rathaus

The city hall (Rathaus)

Bremen.pigs.750pix

Swineherd and pigs sculpture in Bremen

HB 2016-0607 photo19 Martini-Kirche

The Weser River in Bremen

HB 2016-0607 photo20 Haus Atlantis

A building on Böttcherstraße

P7032981

Central Bremen and the Weser from St. Petri Dom

Kleine Weser

The skyscraper Weser Tower designed by Helmut Jahn

Boettcherstrasse04

Böttcherstraße

Schnoor

Schnoor

Bremen-Becks Brewery

Beck & Co

Structures

Bremen fallturm2
The Fallturm (Drop Tower) of the University of Bremen

The Freie Waldorfschule in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück was Germany's first school built to the Passivhaus low-energy building standard.[41]

Economy

According to data from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, Bremen had a GDP per capita of $53,379 in 2013, higher than the average for Germany as a whole. For comparison, in 2013, the World Bank reported Germany had a GDP per capita of $46,268, and the EU overall had a GDP per capita of $35,408 in the same year.[42]

Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg. It forms part of the production network of Airbus SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place. Structural assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal point. Within the framework of Airbus A380 production, assembly of the landing flaps (high lift systems) is carried out here. The pre-final assembly of the fuselage section (excluding the cockpit) of the A400M military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain.[43]

More than 3,100 persons are employed at Airbus Bremen, the second largest Airbus site in Germany. As part of the Centre of Excellence – Wing/Pylon, Bremen is responsible for the design and manufacture of high-lift systems for the wings of Airbus aircraft. The entire process chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly line. In addition, Bremen manufactures sheet metal parts like clips and thrust crests for all Airbus aircraft as part of the Centre of Excellence – Fuselage and Cabin.[44]

In Bremen there is a plant of EADS Astrium and the headquarters of OHB-System, respectively the first and the third space companies of European Union.

There is also a Mercedes-Benz factory in Bremen, building the C, CLK, SL, SLK, and GLK series of cars.[45]

Beck & Co's headlining brew Beck's and St Pauli Girl beers are brewed in Bremen. In past centuries when Bremen's port was the "key to Europe", the city also had a large number of wine importers, but the number is down to a precious few. Apart from that there is another link between Bremen and wine: about 800 years ago, quality wines were produced here. The largest wine cellar in the world is located in Bremen (below the city's main square), which was once said to hold over 1 million bottles, but during WWII was raided by occupying forces.

A large number of food producing or trading companies are located in Bremen with their German or European headquarters: Anheuser-Busch InBev (Beck's Brewery), Kellogg's, Kraft Foods (Kraft, Jacobs Coffee, Milka Chocolate, Milram, Miràcoli), Frosta (frosted food), Nordsee (chain of sea fast food), Melitta Kaffee, Eduscho Kaffee, Azul Kaffee, Vitakraft (pet food for birds and fish), Atlanta AG (Chiquita banana), chocolatier Hachez (fine chocolate and confiserie), feodora chocolatier.

Bremer Woll-Kämmerei (BWK), a worldwide operating company for manufacturing wool and trading in wool and similar products, is headquartered in Bremen.

Transport

Karte der Regio-S-Bahn Bremen-Niedersachsen
Map of the Bremen S-Bahn

Bremen has an international airport situated 3 km (2 mi) south of the city centre.

Trams in Bremen and local bus services are offered by the Bremer Straßenbahn AG (translates from German as Bremen Tramways Corporation), often abbreviated BSAG, the public transport provider for Bremen.[46]

The Bremen S-Bahn covers the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, from Bremerhaven in the north to Twistringen in the south and from Oldenburg in the west, centred on Bremen Central Station. It has been in operation since 2010.[47] This network unified existing regional transport in Bremen as well as surrounding cities, including Bremerhaven, Delmenhorst, Twistringen, Nordenham, Oldenburg, and Verden an der Aller. The network lies completely within the area of the Bremen-Lower Saxony Transport Association, whose tariff structure applies.

Events

  • On August 8 1992, in Weserstadion, Michael Jackson performed a show as part of his Dangerous World Tour.It was one of his three shows in Bremen and on his next and last tour he kicked off the next tour History World Tour in Bremen.
  • Every year since 1036, in the last two weeks of October, Bremen has hosted the Freimarkt ("Free market"), one of the world's oldest and in Germany one of today's biggest continuously celebrated fairground festivals.
  • Bremen is host to one of the four big annual Techno parades, the Vision Parade.
  • Bremen is also host of the "Bremer 6 Tage Rennen" a bicycle race at the Bremen Arena.
  • Every year the city plays host to young musicians from across the world, playing in the International Youth Symphony Orchestra of Bremen (IYSOB).
  • On March 12, 1999, the rock band Kiss played a live show in Bremen. Before the show, they were told by the fire marshall not to use any fireworks. They did not use any fireworks until the very end, when they set off all of the fireworks at once. Because of this, they are now banned from playing in Bremen.
  • Bremen was host to the 2006 RoboCup competition.
  • Bremen was host to the 32nd Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchentag, 20–24 May 2009.
  • Bremen hosted the 50th International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) from 10–22 July 2009.[48]

Sports

2012-08-08-fotoflug-bremen zweiter flug 0434
Weser-Stadion is the home ground of Werder Bremen

Bremen is home to the football team Werder Bremen, who won the German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German Football Cup for the fifth time in 2004, making them only the fourth team in German football history to win the double; the club won the German Football Cup for the sixth time in 2009. Only Bayern Munich has won more titles. In the final match of the 2009–10 season, Werder Bremen lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV Werder Bremen is the Weserstadion, a pure football stadium, almost completely surrounded by solar cells. It is one of the biggest buildings in Europe delivering alternative energy.

Education and sciences

With 18000 students,[49] the University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen, and is also home to the international Goethe-Institut and the Fallturm Bremen. Additionally, Bremen has a University of the Arts and the Bremen University of Applied Sciences. In 2001, the private Jacobs University Bremen was founded. All major German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a focus on marine sciences: The Max Planck Society with the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community with the Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (zmt).[50] The Bremerhaven-based Alfred-Wegener-Institute of the Helmholtz Association closely cooperates with the aforementioned institutes, especially within the MARUM[51] a center for marine environmental sciences, affiliated to the University of Bremen. Furthermore, The Fraunhofer Society is present in Bremen with centers for applied material research (IFAM[52]) and medical image computing (MEVIS[53]).

Miscellanea

  • In December 1949, Bremen hosted the lecture cycle Einblick in das, was ist by the philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which Heidegger introduced his concept of a "fourfold" of earth and sky, gods and mortals. This was also Heidegger's first public-speaking engagement following his removal from his Freiburg professorship by the Denazification authorities.
  • Bremen is connected with a fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, the Town Musicians of Bremen, although they never actually reach Bremen in the tale.
  • The 1922 film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens was set mostly in Bremen.

International relations

Twin and sister cities

Bremen is twinned with:[54]

^1 Then German Democratic Republic

Other relations

"Informal" relationships:

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Tristam Carrington-Windo, Katrin M. Kohl (1998). A Dictionary of Contemporary Germany. Routledge (UK). p. page 64. ISBN 1-57958-114-5.}
  • Claus Christian (2007): A photographic excursion through Bremen, Bremen-North, Bremerhaven, Fischerhude and Worpswede, ISBN 978-3-00-015451-5
  • Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (1995). Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser vol. 1 Vor- und Frühgeschichte. Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5.
  • Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (1995). Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser vol. 2 Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte). Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2.
  • Dannenberg, Hans-Eckhard; Schulze, Heinz-Joachim (2008). Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser vol. 3 Neuzeit. Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden. ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9.
  • Herbert Schwarzwälder (1995), Geschichte der Freien Hansestadt Bremen. Vol. I – V. Bremen: Edition Temmen, ISBN 3-86108-283-7

Notes

  1. ^ The carsign HB with 1 letter and 4 digits is reserved for vehicle registration in Bremerhaven.
  2. ^ "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Bevölkerung, Gebiet - Aktuelle Statistische Berichte - Bevölkerungsentwicklung im Land Bremen". Statistisches Landesamt Bremen (in German). September 2018.
  4. ^ "Germany: States and Major Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  5. ^ "Museums and Galleries – bremen.de". www.bremen.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  6. ^ "Bremen city report". Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  7. ^ "Bremen – Made in Bremen". www.bremen.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  8. ^ "DRAFT DRAFT DRAFT • LacusCurtius • Ptolemy's Geography — Book II, Chapter 10 • DRAFT DRAFT DRAFT". uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  9. ^ a b c Otto Edert, Neuenwalde: Reformen im ländlichen Raum, Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8391-9479-9.
  10. ^ a b In the Middle Low German original: "wes zee hebben an gherichte in Vreslande . . . unde an Lee, dat to deme vorscrevenen slote unde voghedie höret", here after Bernd Ulrich Hucker, "Die landgemeindliche Entwicklung in Landwürden, Kirchspiel Lehe und Kirchspiel Midlum im Mittelalter" (first presented in 1972 as a lecture at a conference of the historical work study association of the northern Lower Saxon Landschaftsverbände held at Oldenburg in Oldenburg), in: Oldenburger Jahrbuch, vol. 72 (1972), pp. 1—22, here p. 13.
  11. ^ "Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440s » De Re Militari". deremilitari.org. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
  12. ^ Pye, Michael (2015-04-15). The Edge of the World: A Cultural History of the North Sea and the Transformation of Europe. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781605987538.
  13. ^ Nicolle, David (2014-04-20). Forces of the Hanseatic League: 13th–15th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781782007807.
  14. ^ Dutch independence was finally confirmed by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
  15. ^ "Bremen (Germany)". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  16. ^ "Bremen (Germany): Counties & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Sir John Smythe Bolo Whistler: The Life of General Sir Lashmer Whistler Frederick Muller Ltd 1967
  19. ^ a b c "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  20. ^ 100 schräge Fakten über diese Stadt. In: Zitty 16/2012, p. 15.
  21. ^ "Wetterrekorde" (in German). Wetterdienst.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  22. ^ -21,8 °Ré reports Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers in a letter to Carl Friedrich Gauss from 6 February 1823, printed in: Carl Friedrich Gauß, Briefwechsel mit H.W.M. Olbers, Georg Olms Verlag, 1860 S. 233 (Bremen, p. 233, at Google Books).
  23. ^ "Wetter und Klima im Überblick" (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.
  24. ^ "Wetter und Klima im Überblick" (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.
  25. ^ "Datenbankabfrage ausgewählter DWD Stationen Deutschlands" (in German). SKlima. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  26. ^ "Wetter im Rückblick" (in German). wetteronline. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund I", (German). Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  30. ^ Buse, Dieter K. (2005-01-01). The Regions of Germany: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32400-0.
  31. ^ "Bürgerschafts- und Beirätewahlen 2015, Vorläufiges Endergebnis" [2015 elections for Bürgerschaft and Beiräte (state, city, and local legislature), preliminary results] (in German). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen (Statistical Office of the State of Bremen). Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  32. ^ "Bürgerschaftswahl am 10. Mai 2015 in Bremen".
  33. ^ "Böttcherstraße: Welcome". Böttcherstraße GmbH. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  34. ^ "St. Martin's Church". Bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  35. ^ "Birgittenkloster" (in German). Katholischer Gemeindeverband in Bremen. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  36. ^ "Schlachte Embankment". bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  37. ^ "Das Viertel" (in German). dasviertel.de. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  38. ^ "Nasir Moschee in Stuhr-Brinkum". Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  39. ^ Focke Museum
  40. ^ "Weserburg: Weserburg". weserburg.de.
  41. ^ Wolfgang Feist (2007-05-27). "Passivhaus-Schulgebäude" [Passive house school building] (in German). Passive House Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
  42. ^ "GDP per capita (current US$) – Data". worldbank.org.
  43. ^ "EADS in Germany". Eads.com.
  44. ^ "Airbus in Germany". Airbus.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16.
  45. ^ "Mercedes-Benz Bremen Plant". www.daimler.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010.
  46. ^ "BSAG Public transportation in Bremen" (in German). bsag.de.
  47. ^ "Regio-S-Bahn in Bremen gestartet" [Regio-S-Bahn in Bremen started] (in German). Radio Bremen. 12 December 2010. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010.
  48. ^ "Message of Greeting". Imo2009.de. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
  49. ^ "Zahlen und Fakten zur Universität" (in German). University of Bremen. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
  50. ^ Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (zmt)
  51. ^ MARUM
  52. ^ IFAM
  53. ^ MEVIS
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Referat 32 – Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" (official website/publication) (in German). Andrea Frohmader, Internationale Beziehungen / stellvertr. Abteilungsleiterin Senatskanzlei, Rathaus, Bremen. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  55. ^ "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  56. ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  57. ^ "Sister Cities Home Page". Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. eThekwini Online: The Official Site of the City of Durban
  58. ^ "Sister in progress". Times of India – Pune Times. 30 August 2001.
  59. ^ "Profile: Mrs. Vandana H. Chavan (Ex Mayor of Pune)". Pune Diary. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  60. ^ "Pune, twin cities to get pollution lab". Times of India – Pune Times. 4 September 2001.
  61. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 2 Dec 1996". parliament.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2011.

External links

Archbishopric of Bremen

The Archbishopric of Bremen (German: Erzstift Bremen or Erzbistum Bremen), or Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (German: Fürsterzbistum Bremen) — not to be confused with the former Archdiocese of Bremen, and the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994 — was an ecclesiastical principality (787–1566/1648) of the Holy Roman Empire, which after its definitive secularization in 1648, became the hereditary Duchy of Bremen (German: Herzogtum Bremen). The prince-archbishopric, which was under the secular rule of the archbishop, consisted of about a third of the diocesan territory. The city of Bremen was de facto (since 1186) and de jure (since 1646) not part of the prince-archbishopric. Most of the prince-archbishopric lay rather in the area to the north of the city of Bremen, between the Weser and Elbe rivers. Even more confusingly, parts of the prince-archbishopric belonged in religious respect to the neighbouring diocese of Verden, making up 10% of its diocesan territory.

Verden (German pronunciation: [ˈfeːɐ̯dən]) itself had a double identity too—as the diocese of Verden (German: Bistum Verden) and the Prince-Bishopric of Verden (German: Hochstift Verden). Each prince-bishopric had the status of an Imperial Estate (German: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände), each of which were represented in the Diet (German: Reichstag) of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1500 on the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen belonged to the Saxon Circle (later the Lower Saxon Circle; German: Sächsischer or, later. Niedersächsischer Kreis), an administrative substructure of the Empire. The Prince-Bishopric of Verden, on the other hand, belonged to the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle (German: Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Kreis, colloquially Westphalian Circle) and sent its own representative to the Diet. Even when the two prince-bishoprics were ruled in personal union, in order to maintain the two seats in the Diet they were never formally united in a real union. The same is true for the collectively governed Duchies of Bremen and Verden (German: Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden colloquially, but Herzogtum Bremen und Fürstentum Verden formally) which emerged in 1648 from the secularised two prince-bishoprics.

Bremen-Verden

Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (German pronunciation: [ˈfɛːɐ̯dən]; German: Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden.

In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover.

With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.

Bremen (state)

Bremen (pronounced [ˈbʁeːmən]), officially the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (German: Freie Hansestadt Bremen), is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states. It is informally called Land Bremen ("State of Bremen"), although this is sometimes used in official contexts. The state consists of the city of Bremen as well as the small exclave of Bremerhaven in Northern Germany, surrounded by the larger state of Lower Saxony.

Bremen Airport

Bremen Airport (German: Flughafen Bremen, IATA: BRE, ICAO: EDDW) is the international airport of the city and state of Bremen in Northern Germany. It is located 3.5 km (2.2 mi) south of the city and handled 2.66 million passengers in 2015. It mainly features flights to European metropolitan and leisure destinations.

Bremerhaven

Bremerhaven (German pronunciation: [ˌbʁeːmɐˈhaːfn̩] (listen), literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham. Though a relatively new city, it has a long history as a trade port and today is one of the most important German ports, playing a role in Germany's trade.

Bundesliga

The Bundesliga (German: [ˈbʊndəsˌliːɡa] (listen); lit. English: "Federal League", sometimes referred to as the Fußball-Bundesliga [ˌfuːsbal-] or 1. Bundesliga [ˌʔeːɐ̯stə-]) is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition. The Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played on Saturdays and Sundays, with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal. The winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup.

54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 27 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them. The Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2017–18 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons. The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance; out of all sports, its average of 45,134 fans per game during the 2011–12 season was the second highest of any sports league in the world after the American National Football League. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries.The Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes. The Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund (English: German Football Association), but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga (English: German Football League).

Claudio Pizarro

Claudio Miguel Pizarro Bosio (American Spanish: [ˈklauðjo piˈsaro]; born 3 October 1978) is a Peruvian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Werder Bremen and the Peru national team. He is well renowned for his goal scoring ability, especially when heading the ball.

He has spent most of his career playing in the Bundesliga, having two spells at Bayern Munich and four at Werder Bremen, during which he won 17 trophies, 16 of which occurred at Bayern. On 23 October 2010, Pizarro set a new record for most goals scored by a foreign player in the Bundesliga, surpassing Giovane Élber's record of 132 in a game against Borussia Mönchengladbach. As of 6 February 2019, Pizarro is the fifth highest goalscorer in Bundesliga history with 194 goals. With his goal on 16 February 2019 against Hertha BSC, Pizarro became the oldest goalscorer in Bundesliga history, breaking the previous record held by Miroslav Votava.A full international since 1999, Pizarro represented the Peru national football team at four Copa América tournaments. He retired from international football in 2016.

List of Deutsche Bahn station abbreviations

Deutsche Bahn and its predecessors Deutsche Bundesbahn, Deutsche Reichsbahn and DRG use a system of letters to denote a station on their network. This station code is called the DS-100 code, named after the original papers laying out the system, the DS 100, Abkürzungen der Betriebsstellen.

Malachite

Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also occur.

Miroslav Klose

Miroslav Josef Klose (German: [ˈmiːʁoslaf ˈkloːzə] (listen), Polish: Mirosław Józef Klose; born 9 June 1978) is a German retired footballer who played as a striker. Klose is the coach of the U17 youth team at Bayern Munich.

Klose is best known for his performances with the Germany national team. He was part of the German squad that won the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having previously finished second (2002) and third (2006, 2010) in the competition, and as runner-up in UEFA Euro 2008 and joint-third place in UEFA Euro 2012. Klose is the top goalscorer in the history of the FIFA World Cup with 16 goals, having scored five goals in his debut World Cup in 2002 and having won the Golden Boot at the 2006 World Cup in Germany by again scoring five times. He also scored four times in the 2010 World Cup and twice at the 2014 World Cup, the latter tournament where he overtook Ronaldo's then-record of 15 goals to top the all-time list. Klose is also the top scorer of all time for Germany, which never lost a game in which Klose scored, and one of the very few players ever to have won gold, silver and bronze medals in the World Cup (bronze in 2006 and 2010, silver in 2002 and gold in 2014). He retired from Germany's national team on 11 August 2014 shortly after Germany's victory at the 2014 World Cup.At club level, Klose has been a less prolific but usually reliable goalscorer. Starting his career at FC 08 Homburg, he played in the Bundesliga for Kaiserslautern, Werder Bremen and Bayern Munich, and in Serie A for Lazio. He won two league titles with Bayern, along with cup competitions at Bayern, Werder Bremen and Lazio.

SV Werder Bremen

Sportverein Werder Bremen von 1899 e. V. (German pronunciation: [ˈvɛʁdɐ ˈbʁeːmən]), commonly known as Werder Bremen, is a German sports club located in Bremen in the northwest German federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. The club was founded in 1899 and has grown to 40,400 members. It is best known for its association football team.

Bremen's football club has been a mainstay in the Bundesliga, the top league of the German football league system. Bremen has won the Bundesliga championship four times and the DFB-Pokal six times. Their latest Bundesliga championship came in 2004, when they won a double, and their last win of the German cup came in 2009. Bremen has also had European success, winning the 1992 European Cup Winners' Cup. Bremen also reached the final match of the last edition of the UEFA Cup in 2009 (it was rebranded the UEFA Europa League the following season). During the mid-2000s, Bremen was one of the most successful teams in the Bundesliga, but the club has not played in a European competition since the 2010–11 campaign.

Since 1924, Werder Bremen's stadium is the Weserstadion. The club has a rivalry with Hamburger SV, another club in northern Germany, known as the Nordderby (English: North derby).

SV Werder Bremen II

SV Werder Bremen II is the reserve team of SV Werder Bremen. It currently plays in Regionalliga, the fourth level of the German football league system, and has qualified for the first round of the DFB-Pokal on nineteen occasions. It also has won the German amateur football championship three times, a joint record. Until 2005 the team played as SV Werder Bremen Amateure.

It plays its home matches at Weserstadion Platz 11, adjacent to the first team's ground.

Serge Gnabry

Serge David Gnabry (born 14 July 1995) is a German professional footballer who plays as a winger for Bayern Munich and the Germany national team.

Gnabry started his career in England with Arsenal in the Premier League, making his professional debut in September 2012. He also had a brief spell on loan with West Bromwich Albion before moving back to Germany to join Werder Bremen for a reported fee of £5 million in August 2016.

After appearing for Germany at various youth levels, Gnabry made his senior international debut in November 2016 in a 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification match against San Marino. He scored a hat-trick in the 8–0 win.

States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (German: Land, plural Länder; commonly informally Bundesland and Bundesländer). Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty.

With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer (literally: "area states").

The creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states (which were previously under American, British, and French administration) created in the aftermath of World War II. Initially, in 1949, the states of the Federal Republic were Baden (until 1952), Bavaria (in German: Bayern), Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse (Hessen), Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen), Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), Schleswig-Holstein, Württemberg-Baden (until 1952), and Württemberg-Hohenzollern (until 1952). West Berlin, while officially not part of the Federal Republic, was largely integrated and considered as a de facto state.

In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, and Württemberg-Hohenzollern merged into Baden-Württemberg. In 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. German reunification in 1990, in which the area of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) became part of the Federal Republic, was performed by the way of ascent of the re-established eastern states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Saxony (Sachsen), Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt), and Thuringia (Thüringen) to the Federal Republic, as well as the de-facto reunification of West and East Berlin into Berlin and its establishment as a full and equal state. A regional referendum in 1996 to merge Berlin with surrounding Brandenburg as "Berlin-Brandenburg" failed to reach the necessary majority vote in Brandenburg, while a majority of Berliners voted in favour of the merger.

Federalism is one of the entrenched constitutional principles of Germany. According to the German constitution (Basic Law, or Grundgesetz), some topics, such as foreign affairs and defence, are the exclusive responsibility of the federation (i.e., the federal level), while others fall under the shared authority of the states and the federation; the states retain residual legislative authority for all other areas, including "culture", which in Germany includes not only topics such as financial promotion of arts and sciences, but also most forms of education and job training. Though international relations including international treaties are primarily the responsibility of the federal level, the constituent states have certain limited powers in this area: in matters that affect them directly, the states defend their interests at the federal level through the Bundesrat ("Federal Council", the upper house of the German Federal Parliament) and in areas where they have legislative authority they have limited powers to conclude international treaties "with the consent of the federal government".

Town Musicians of Bremen

The "Town Musicians of Bremen" (German: Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten) is a popular fairy tale retrieved and recorded by the Brothers Grimm. It was first published in Grimms' Fairy Tales in 1819. It tells the story of four aging domestic animals, who after a lifetime of hard work are neglected and mistreated by their former masters. Eventually, they decide to run away and become town musicians in the city of Bremen. Contrary to the story's title the characters never arrive in Bremen, as they succeed in tricking and scaring off a band of robbers, capturing their spoils, and moving into their house. According to the Aarne–Thompson classification system, the story qualifies as a Type 130 folktale ("Outcast animals find a new home").

University of Bremen

The University of Bremen (German Universität Bremen) is a public university in Bremen, Germany, with approximately 23,500 people from 115 countries. It is one of 11 institutions which were successful in the category "Institutional Strategies" of the Excellence Initiative launched by the Federal Government and the Federal States in 2012. The university was also successful in the categories "Graduate Schools" and "Clusters of Excellence" of the initiative.

Its commitment was rewarded with the title “Stadt der Wissenschaft 2005” (City of Science of 2005), which science, politics, business and culture won jointly for Bremen and Bremerhaven, by the Foundation for German Science (Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft).

Some of the paths that were taken in the early days of the University, also referred to as the "Bremen model", have since become characteristics of modern universities, such as interdisciplinary, explorative learning, social relevance to practice-oriented project studies which enjoy a high reputation in the academic world as well as in business and industry.

Urstromtal

An urstromtal (plural: Urstromtäler) is a type of broad glacial valley, for example, in northern Central Europe, that appeared during the ice ages, or individual glacial periods of an ice age, at the edge of the Scandinavian ice sheet and was formed by meltwaters that flowed more or less parallel to the ice margin. Urstromtäler are an element of the glacial series. The term is German and means "ancient stream valley". Although often translated as "glacial valley", it should not be confused with a valley carved out by a glacier. More accurately some sources call them "meltwater valleys" or "ice-marginal valleys".

Weser-Stadion

Weserstadion (German pronunciation: [ˈveːzɐˌʃtaːdi̯ɔn]) is a multi-purpose stadium in Bremen, Germany. The Weserstadion is scenically situated on the north bank of the Weser River and is surrounded by lush green parks (the name 'Werder' is a regional German word for "river peninsula"). The city center is only about a kilometer away. It is the home stadium of German Bundesliga club Werder Bremen.

Artists that have performed at the stadium include Bon Jovi, Michael Jackson, Tina Turner, Depeche Mode, Metallica, The Rolling Stones, Guns N' Roses and Van Halen, among others.

The stadium originally included an athletics track, but that was partially removed in 2002 when the pitch was sunk by 2.1 metres (6 ft 11 in) and the stands at the straights were lengthened to the new pitch. With this the capacity rose with about 8,000 places. In 2004 four office towers were built behind the north stand. These towers offer a restaurant and offices for the club and local companies.

Starting in 2008 the stadium was completely rebuilt. The façade was coated with photovoltaic panels and a new roof was built on top of the old roof supporting structure (the old roof itself was torn down). Both ends (east and west) were torn down and rebuilt parallel to the endline of the pitch, removing what was left of the old athletics track.

Climate data for Bremen
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
18.5
(65.3)
23.5
(74.3)
30.2
(86.4)
34.4
(93.9)
34.9
(94.8)
36.8
(98.2)
37.6
(99.7)
33.4
(92.1)
28.6
(83.5)
20.1
(68.2)
16.1
(61.0)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
4.8
(40.6)
8.7
(47.7)
12.8
(55.0)
18.0
(64.4)
20.2
(68.4)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
18.4
(65.1)
13.5
(56.3)
8.0
(46.4)
5.1
(41.2)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.9
(35.4)
5.0
(41.0)
8.1
(46.6)
12.7
(54.9)
15.3
(59.5)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
13.9
(57.0)
9.7
(49.5)
5.2
(41.4)
2.7
(36.9)
9.2
(48.6)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.3
(34.3)
3.4
(38.1)
7.4
(45.3)
10.3
(50.5)
12.4
(54.3)
12.1
(53.8)
9.3
(48.7)
5.8
(42.4)
2.3
(36.1)
0.3
(32.5)
5.2
(41.4)
Record low °C (°F) −21.8
(−7.2)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−7.6
(18.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
0.5
(32.9)
3.0
(37.4)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.1
(6.6)
−17.5
(0.5)
−23.6
(−10.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 55.1
(2.17)
35.6
(1.40)
51.2
(2.02)
40.8
(1.61)
54.2
(2.13)
73.4
(2.89)
65.0
(2.56)
61.2
(2.41)
60.1
(2.37)
55.4
(2.18)
57.7
(2.27)
61.6
(2.43)
671.3
(26.43)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.3 8.6 11.0 9.0 9.5 11.1 10.8 10.1 10.6 10.5 11.5 12.0 126
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 80 75 71 73 75 75 81 84 87 88 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 71 107 170 214 193 205 193 143 108 54 40 1,545
Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de;[27][28]
Places adjacent to Bremen
Capitals of area states
City-states1
Capitals of former states
Bremen (state) Urban districts in the state of Bremen in Germany Germany
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter
Wendish
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Kontore
Other cities
Ecclesiastical
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Cities
Bremen
Buildings and
structures
Precincts
History
Churches etc
Cultural
institutions
Science and
education
Transportation

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