Breeding in the wild

Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. This terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity. Breeding locations are often chosen for very specific requirements of shelter and proximity to food; moreover, the breeding season is a particular time window that has evolved for each species to suit species anatomical, mating-ritual, or climatic and other ecological factors.[1] Many species migrate considerable distances to reach the requisite breeding locations.[2] Certain common characteristics apply to various taxa within the animal kingdom, which traits are often sorted among amphibians, reptiles, mammals, avafauna, arthropods and lower life forms.

Amphibians

For many amphibians, an annual breeding cycle applies, typically regulated by ambient temperature, precipitation, availability of surface water and food supply. This breeding season is accentuated in temperate regions,[3] where prolonged aestivation or hibernation renders many amphibian species inactive for prolonged periods. Breeding habitats are typically ponds and streams.

Mammals

Annual breeding cycles sometimes apply to mammals, with regulating environmental effects including seasonal temperature variation and food availability. Migration patterns of a mammal may sometimes govern breeding times. Mammal breeding in the wild sometimes involves the use of maternity dens for birthing and protection of the young. The polar bear is an example of a mammal who uses a maternity den, whose locations are influenced by migration movements of this species to the seasonal Arctic pack ices. In particular, the polar bears who breed in Wapusk National Park need to migrate to the Hudson Bay pack ice.[4]

Effects of inbreeding in wild populations

Keller and Waller[5] reviewed the effects of inbreeding in wild-populations. Evidence from mammalian and bird populations indicated that inbreeding depression often significantly adversely affects birth weight, reproduction and survival, as well as resistance to environmental stress, disease and predation. Plant studies have shown significant adverse inbreeding effects on seed set, germination, resistance to stress and survival. Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to the expression of recessive deleterious alleles.[6]

See also

Line notes

  1. ^ M.F. Braby, 2004
  2. ^ M.L. Heinselman, 1996
  3. ^ W.J. Sutherland, 1996
  4. ^ C.M. Hogan, 2008
  5. ^ Keller LF, Waller DM. Inbreeding effects in wild populations. (2002) Trends in Ecology & Evolution. May 17(5):230-41. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02489-8
  6. ^ Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nat. Rev. Genet. 10 (11): 783–96. doi:10.1038/nrg2664. PMID 19834483.

References

  • Michael F. Braby (2004) The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia, Published by CSIRO Publishing, 339 pages ISBN 0-643-09027-4
  • Miron L. Heinselman (1996) The Boundary Waters Wilderness ecosystem, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-2805-X
  • C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  • William J. Sutherland (1996) Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook, Cambridge University Press, 336 pages ISBN 0-521-47815-4
Animal breeding (disambiguation)

Animal breeding (disambiguation) may refer to:

Animal breeding, the breeding of animals by humans

Captive breeding

Breeding in the wild

Barnacle goose

The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) belongs to the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anser species. Despite its superficial similarity to the brant goose, genetic analysis has shown it is an eastern derivative of the cackling goose lineage.

Black-breasted buttonquail

The black-breasted buttonquail (Turnix melanogaster) is a rare buttonquail endemic to eastern Australia, where it is usually found in rainforest. Like other buttonquails, it is unrelated to the true quails. The black-breasted buttonquail is a plump quail-shaped bird of predominantly marbled black, rufous and pale brown, marked prominently with white spots and stripes, and white eyes. Like other buttonquails, the female is larger and more distinctively coloured than the male. Measuring up to 20 cm (8 in), it has a black face and chin, sprinkled with fine white markings. The smaller male measures up to 18 cm (7.5 in) and lacks the black markings. The black-breasted buttonquail is rated as near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of Endangered species.

Breeder

A breeder is a person who selectively breeds carefully selected mates, normally of the same breed to sexually reproduce offspring with specific, consistently replicable qualities and characteristics. This might be as a farmer, agriculturalist, or hobbyist, and can be practiced on a large or small scale, for food, fun, or profit.

Breeding

Breeding is sexual reproduction that produces offspring, usually animals or plants.

Breeding may refer to:

Breeding in the wild, the natural process of reproduction in the animal kingdom

Animal husbandry, through selected specimens such as dogs, horses, and rabbits

Sexual reproduction of plants

Plant breeding, through specimens selected by humans for desirable traits

Breeding bird survey

A breeding bird survey monitors the status and trends of bird populations. Data from the survey are an important source for the range maps found in field guides. The North American Breeding Bird Survey is a joint project of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Canadian Wildlife Service. The UK Breeding Bird Survey is administered by the British Trust for Ornithology, the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

The results of the BBS are valuable in evaluating the increasing and decreasing range of bird population which can be a key point to bird conservation. The BBS was designed to provide a continent-wide perspective of population change.

Budgerigar

The budgerigar (; Melopsittacus undulatus) is a long-tailed, seed-eating parrot usually nicknamed the budgie, or in American English, the parakeet. Budgies are the only species in the genus Melopsittacus. Naturally, the species is green and yellow with black, scalloped markings on the nape, back, and wings. Budgies are bred in captivity with colouring of blues, whites, yellows, greys, and even with small crests. Juveniles and chicks are monomorphic, while adults are told apart by their cere colouring, and their behaviour.

The origin of the budgie's name is unclear. First recorded in 1805, budgerigars are popular pets around the world due to their small size, low cost, and ability to mimic human speech. They are the third most popular pet in the world, after the domesticated dog and cat. Budgies are nomadic flock parakeets that have been bred in captivity since the 19th century. In both captivity and the wild, budgerigars breed opportunistically and in pairs.

Found wild throughout the drier parts of Australia, prior to colonisation they had survived harsh inland conditions for five million years. The budgerigar is closely related to lories and the fig parrots.

Captive breeding

Captive breeding is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, botanic gardens, and other conservation facilities. It is sometimes employed to help species that are being threatened by human activities such as habitat loss, fragmentation, over hunting or fishing, pollution, predation, disease, and parasitism. In some cases a captive breeding program can save a species from extinction, but for success, breeders must consider many factors—including genetic, ecological, behavioral, and ethical issues. Most successful attempts involve the cooperation and coordination of many institutions.

Carolina Dog

The Carolina dog, also known as a yellow dog, yaller dog, American Dingo, or Dixie Dingo, is a breed of medium-sized, feral dog that lives mostly in the Southeastern United States, especially in isolated stretches of longleaf pines and cypress swamps. Rehoming of Carolina dogs has recently become popular, and they can make good domestic pets with proper socialization. Since 2008, artificial selection efforts to establish them as a standardized breed (usually capitalized as Carolina Dog) has made some progress, with recognition in two smaller national kennel clubs, and acceptance into the breed-establishment program of a major one.

Originally a landrace breed, the Carolina dog was rediscovered living as free-roaming population by I. Lehr Brisbin Jr., though originally documented in American dog-related publications in the 1920s. Carolina dogs show admixture with other dog breeds from Eurasia.

Feral donkeys in Australia

Feral donkeys were first brought to Australia as pack animals to replace horses, which had succumbed to native poisonous plants. Now numbering 5 million, they have been declared a pest, owing to their damage to vegetation and erosion of soil. Culling is mainly carried out by marksmen in helicopters, and experiments are being made in fertility control.

Javan rhinoceros

The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), also known as the Sunda rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is a very rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It belongs to the same genus as the Indian rhinoceros, and has similar mosaic, armour-like skin, but at 3.1–3.2 m (10–10 ft) in length and 1.4–1.7 m (4.6–5.6 ft) in height, it is smaller (closer in size to the black rhinoceros of the genus Diceros). Its horn is usually shorter than 25 cm (9.8 in), and is smaller than those of the other rhino species. Only adult males have horns; females lack them altogether.

Once the most widespread of Asian rhinoceroses, the Javan rhinoceros ranged from the islands of Java and Sumatra, throughout Southeast Asia, and into India and China. The species is critically endangered, with only one known population in the wild, and no individuals in captivity. It is possibly the rarest large mammal on Earth, with a population of as few as 58 to 61 in Ujung Kulon National Park at the western tip of Java in Indonesia. A second population in Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam was declared by some conservation groups to be extinct in 2011. The decline of the Javan rhinoceros is attributed to poaching, primarily for their horns, which are highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine, fetching as much as US$30,000 per kg on the black market. As European presence in their range increased, trophy hunting also became a serious threat. Loss of habitat, especially as the result of wars, such as the Vietnam War, in Southeast Asia, has also contributed to the species' decline and hindered recovery. The remaining range is within one nationally protected area, but the rhinos are still at risk from poachers, disease, and loss of genetic diversity leading to inbreeding depression.

The Javan rhino can live around 30–45 years in the wild. It historically inhabited lowland rain forest, wet grasslands, and large floodplains. It is mostly solitary, except for courtship and offspring-rearing, though groups may occasionally congregate near wallows and salt licks. Aside from humans, adults have no predators in their range. The Javan rhino usually avoids humans. Scientists and conservationists rarely study the animals directly due to their extreme rarity and the danger of interfering with such an endangered species. Researchers rely on camera traps and fecal samples to gauge health and behavior. Consequently, the Javan rhino is the least studied of all rhino species. Two adult rhinos with their calves were filmed in a motion-triggered video released on 28 February 2011 by WWF and Indonesia's National Park Authority, which proved it is still breeding in the wild. In April 2012, the National Parks Authority released video showing 35 individual Javan rhinos, including mother/offspring pairs and courting adults. There are only 58 to 68 individuals left in the wild, and none in captivity, after the death of a male rhinoceros named Samson. Samson died in April 2018 at 30 years of age, far younger than the species' usual lifespan of 50 to 60 years, so DNA test is being conducted to explore the cause of death, including the possibility of inbreeding degeneration.

Mating

In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction. Some definitions limit the term to pairing between animals, while other definitions extend the term to mating in plants and fungi. Fertilization is the fusion of both sex cell or gamete. Copulation is the union of the sex organs of two sexually reproducing animals for insemination and subsequent internal fertilization. Mating may also lead to external fertilization, as seen in amphibians, fishes and plants. For the majority of species, mating is between two individuals of opposite sexes. However, for some hermaphroditic species, copulation is not required because the parent organism is capable of self-fertilization (autogamy); for example, banana slugs.

The term mating is also applied to related processes in bacteria, archaea and viruses. Mating in these cases involves the pairing of individuals, accompanied by the pairing of their homologous chromosomes and then exchange of genomic information leading to formation of recombinant progeny (see mating systems).

Nimba otter shrew

The Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) is a dwarf otter shrew and belongs to the mammal family Potamogalidae. Otter shrews are shrew-like afrotherian mammals found in sub-Saharan Africa. They are most closely related to the tenrecs of Madagascar. This species belongs to the genus Micropotamogale, literally meaning "tiny river weasel". It is native to the Mount Nimba area which rests along the border of Liberia, Guinea, and Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) in West Africa.

Rainbow lorikeet

The rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus Haematodus (definitely Haematodus) ) is a species of parrot found in Australia. It is common along the eastern seaboard, from northern Queensland to South Australia. Its habitat is rainforest, coastal bush and woodland areas. Several taxa traditionally listed as subspecies of the rainbow lorikeet are now treated as separate species (see Taxonomy).

Rainbow lorikeets have been introduced to Perth, Western Australia; Tasmania; Auckland, New Zealand; and Hong Kong.

Red-fronted gazelle

The red-fronted gazelle (Eudorcas rufifrons) is widely but unevenly distributed gazelle across the middle of Africa from Senegal to northeastern Ethiopia. It is mainly resident in the Sahel zone, a narrow cross-Africa band south of the Sahara, where it prefers arid grasslands, wooded savannas and shrubby steppes.

One authority considers Thomson's gazelle (E. thomsoni), of East Africa, a subspecies of red-fronted gazelle. The red-fronted gazelle was formerly considered a member of the genus Gazella within the subgenus Eudorcas before Eudorcas was elevated to generic status.

Rock dove

The rock dove, rock pigeon, or common pigeon ( also ; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons). In common usage, this bird is often simply referred to as the "pigeon".

The domestic pigeon descended from this species. Escaped domestic pigeons have raised the populations of feral pigeons around the world.Wild rock doves are pale grey with two black bars on each wing, whereas domestic and feral pigeons vary in colour and pattern. Few differences are seen between males and females. The species is generally monogamous, with two squabs (young) per brood. Both parents care for the young for a time.Habitats include various open and semi-open environments. Cliffs and rock ledges are used for roosting and breeding in the wild. Originally found wild in Europe, North Africa, and western Asia, pigeons have become established in cities around the world. The species is abundant, with an estimated population of 17 to 28 million feral and wild birds in Europe alone.

Scortum barcoo

Scortum barcoo is a species of fish in the family Terapontidae, known by the common names Barcoo grunter and jade perch. It is endemic to Australia, where it can be found in certain major rivers, including the Barcoo River. It is reared in hatcheries.

The Ara Project

The Ara Project existed from 1992 to 2019 to conserve the two native macaw species of Costa Rica: the great green macaw (Ara ambiguus) and the scarlet macaw (Ara macao). In 2019 it split into two new entities, the Macaw Recovery Network and the Ara Manzanillo.

Tuatara

Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand. Although resembling most lizards, they are part of a distinct lineage, the order Rhynchocephalia. Their name derives from the Māori language, and means "peaks on the back". The single species of tuatara is the only surviving member of its order, which flourished around 200 million years ago. Their most recent common ancestor with any other extant group is with the squamates (lizards and snakes). For this reason, tuatara are of interest in the study of the evolution of lizards and snakes, and for the reconstruction of the appearance and habits of the earliest diapsids, a group of amniote tetrapods that also includes dinosaurs, birds, and crocodilians.

Tuatara are greenish brown and grey, and measure up to 80 cm (31 in) from head to tail-tip and weigh up to 1.3 kg (2.9 lb) with a spiny crest along the back, especially pronounced in males. They have two rows of teeth in the upper jaw overlapping one row on the lower jaw, which is unique among living species. They are also unusual in having a pronounced photoreceptive eye, the third eye, which is thought to be involved in setting circadian and seasonal cycles. They are able to hear, although no external ear is present, and have unique features in their skeleton, some of them apparently evolutionarily retained from fish. Tuatara are sometimes referred to as "living fossils", which has generated significant scientific debate. While mapping its genome, researchers have discovered that the species has between five and six billion base pairs of DNA sequence, nearly twice that of humans.The tuatara Sphenodon punctatus has been protected by law since 1895. A second species, S. guntheri, was recognised in 1989, but since 2009 it has been reclassified as a subspecies. Tuatara, like many of New Zealand's native animals, are threatened by habitat loss and introduced predators, such as the Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans). Tuatara were extinct on the mainland, with the remaining populations confined to 32 offshore islands until the first North Island release into the heavily fenced and monitored Karori Sanctuary in 2005.During routine maintenance work at Karori Sanctuary in late 2008, a tuatara nest was uncovered, with a hatchling found the following autumn. This is thought to be the first case of tuatara successfully breeding in the wild on the New Zealand North Island in over 200 years.

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