Breaking news

Breaking news, interchangeably termed late-breaking news and also known as a special report or special coverage or news flash, is a current issue that broadcasters feel warrants the interruption of scheduled programming and/or current news in order to report its details. Its use is also assigned to the most significant story of the moment or a story that is being covered live. It could be a story that is simply of wide interest to viewers and has little impact otherwise.[1][2] Many times, breaking news is used after the news organization has already reported on the story. When a story has not been reported on previously, the graphic and phrase "Just In" is sometimes used instead.

Formats

Television

The format of a special report or breaking news event on television commonly consists of the current non-news programming (or, in some cases, regularly scheduled newscasts) suddenly switching to a reverse countdown, usually from 5 seconds, to allow any affiliated stations to switch to the network news feed (television stations typically do not provide these countdowns for local coverage, normally leading with a graphic and/or voiceover announcing the cut-in). If a national network newscast is in progress when the breaking news event occurs, the newscast will pause temporarily to allow other network affiliates to join the network news feed. There is then an opening graphic, featuring music (such as NBC's "The Pulse of Events", composed by John Williams) which adds an emphasis on the importance of the event. This is usually followed by the introduction of a news anchor, who welcomes the viewer to the broadcast and introduces the story at hand. Lower thirds and other graphics may also be altered to convey a sense of urgency.

Once the story is introduced, the network or local station may, if possible, choose to continue to show a live shot of the anchor or may cut away to video or images of the story that is being followed during the broadcast. Additionally, the coverage may be passed to a reporter at the location of the breaking event, possibly sharing more information about the story as it breaks.

Depending upon the story being followed, the report may last only a few minutes, or continue for multiple hours – or with the longest uninterrupted news events, four days – at a time (events in which the latter instances has occurred include the assassination of John F. Kennedy and the September 11 attacks, which took place between November 22–26, 1963 and September 11–15, 2001, respectively). If coverage continues for an extended amount of time, the network may integrate analysis about the story through analysts in-studio, via phone, satellite, broadband (B-GAN) or through other means of communication. Depending on the severity of the event, regular commercial advertising may be completely suspended for sustained coverage, and network affiliates will be required to insert their station identification in at the top of the hour overlaid during the report rather than through the usual means of a station imaging promo or program reminder.

If a story occurs during the early fringe timeslot and depending on the magnitude of the events at hand, local stations might be given the opportunity to break away from the network feed and begin their evening newscasts. This is set up by a cue from the network's talent that they will pause for a few seconds to reset coverage, at which point an opening graphic may be rolled again. Information is also disseminated from an internal alert service utilized by a station's master control. After the local newscast, stations will likely return to the network's feed as they normally would for the network newscast, but they may be joining in on an "extended edition". Whether or not a station will take over for local news is usually the choice of that station's news director.

When the coverage comes to a close, the network or station may either resume programming that was occurring prior to the event or begin new programming (if the breaking news occurs during a newscast the network will switch back to the newscast upon completion if time permits), depending upon the amount of time spent on the coverage. The anchor will usually remind viewers to check the network's website (or that of the station, if coverage is provided locally), or watch any cable news channels that may be co-owned with the network for more information. If the story breaks during daytime programming, the anchor will usually remind viewers that there will be or might be more details on their local news that day and a full wrap-up on the network's evening news program. Usually, regular daytime programming is re-joined in progress and segments may be missed.

If the event occurs during prime time, the anchor will usually remind viewers that there will be more details on their late local newscast and on the network's overnight news program (if applicable) the next morning. Programming at this time is either joined in progress or started back up at the point of the interruption, depending on whether the program is new to air, highly rated or has time left in its time slot to finish airing (for instance, ABC's breaking news report involving the April 2017 Shayrat missile strike took into account a new episode of the popular series Scandal, where the show was resumed right at the point of interruption twice for those reports; NBC's coverage featured the low-rated The Blacklist: Redemption joined in the middle of an episode in progress after their special report without any of that consideration). In either of the above instances, network (and in some cases, for local stations, syndicated) programs that have segments not aired or are pre-empted in their entirety by breaking news reports – particularly those that extend to or longer than 20 or 45 minutes, depending on the length of the previously scheduled program – may have to be rescheduled to air at a later time.

Some events, like State of the Union addresses and presidential debates, are scheduled to start at the top of the hour during prime time. Under those circumstances, regularly scheduled network programming is preempted for the entire duration of the event. If there is sufficient time (generally 60 minutes or more) remaining in prime time, the network may broadcast its next regularly scheduled program in its entirety or join regularly scheduled programming in progress. However, if there is insufficient time remaining for any prime-time programs, the special report will continue until the network affiliates begin airing their late local newscasts.

In the United States, on days when presidential elections take place, regularly scheduled prime-time programming is suspended so that networks can air up-to-the-minute coverage of the elections. Likewise, regularly scheduled daytime programs are suspended during coverage of presidential inaugurations. However, during those types of events, regular commercial advertising is shown. Similar procedures are enacted for elections or political inaugurations that take place in other countries.

Radio

On radio, the process of a breaking news story is somewhat the same, though some different considerations are made for the medium. For instance, a breaking news theme is required by default to have an urgent tenor and be used only for the purpose of true breaking news or bulletins. This is obvious on the local all-news radio stations owned by Entercom (formerly owned by CBS Radio), which very rarely use a breaking news theme for all but the most urgent and dire of breaking news, and is purposefully structured to give a sense of attention for the listener, almost sounding like an alarm. For local events, continuous coverage may be imposed, or else the station may wait until they have a reporter at the scene and will promise more details of the event as they become available.

National news that is broadcast over a radio network requires constant monitoring by station employees to allow the network coverage to air, although many stations will take the 'urgent' signal sent by the network and break into programming immediately. Again, continuous coverage from a national radio network depends on the severity of the event, and often the network may just pass down the coverage by their local affiliate with spare commentary by the network's anchors.

Other considerations are made also; FM music stations rarely relay breaking news unless it is an event of grave national concern, though local weather warnings are relayed when in effect (either in the form of updates provided by an on-staff anchor or disc jockey, an emergency alert system or through an audio simulcast of a television station which maintains a contractual partnership with a radio outlet). Less urgent events allow a network to feed updates to stations at 20, 30 and 50 minutes after the hour to give a summary of events. Stations are also careful about what stories are relayed during play-by-play broadcasts of professional and college sports, as those are the programs most listened to on radio, so breaking news coverage is limited to only commercial breaks.

Usage

News bulletins have been a fixture of radio broadcasting since at least the 1920s. Examples of early news bulletins in the Golden Age of Radio include fictionalized versions in the 1938 radio drama The War of the Worlds and coverage of the attack on Pearl Harbor, which was also the first television news bulletin, reported on stations in New York and Pennsylvania. KTLA in Los Angeles is credited with being the first television station to provide extended coverage of a breaking news event: for 27½ hours from April 8 to 9, 1949, the station carried live coverage of an attempt to rescue three-year-old Kathy Fiscus, who had fallen down an abandoned well in San Marino, California, where she ultimately perished due to asphyxia from a lack of oxygen.[3][4]

In the decades before 24-hour news networks such as CNN began to exist, programming interruptions were restricted to extremely urgent news, such as the death of an important political figure. For example, one of the earliest such interruptions that modern viewers would recognize as "breaking news" coverage was for the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1963, (with CBS News anchorman Walter Cronkite's coverage being especially noted), and as such reflected the relatively crude technology and procedures of that era. Such breaks are now common at 24-hour news channels, which may have an anchor available for live interruption at any time. Some networks, such as Sky News, largely emphasize this, even advertising the station/network as being "first for breaking news".

Another type of breaking news is that of severe weather events, which had such coverage evolve in a very similar manner. In North America until the 1990s, television and radio stations normally only provided long-form weather coverage during immediate, ongoing threats (such as a tornado that has been confirmed visually or by radar to be producing damage or a landfalling hurricane); cut-ins and, in the case of television stations, alert crawls during regular programming were used otherwise, even when higher-end alerts such as tornado warnings were issued.[5] Advancements in newsgathering and weather technology (including the deployment of helicopters to provide aerial coverage and radar systems that can detect specific storm attributes), coupled with a few highly life-threatening events during the 1990s (such as Hurricane Andrew and the 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak) and the resulting heightened urgency to advise those in the storm's path to take safety precautions in advance made extended (or "wall-to-wall") weather coverage once a high-end alert is issued more common in storm-prone areas, with cut-ins only being used in weather events of lesser severity.

In various countries and at various news outlets, terms such as "(late)breaking", "urgent", "flash", "bulletin", and "alert" may accompany breaking news reports. The term breaking news has come to replace the older use of news bulletin, with the latter term relegated to only the most extraordinary of events. There has been widespread use of breaking news at the local level, particularly when one station in a market wants to emphasize the exclusivity of coverage. Not all viewers agree that stories assigned as breaking news rise to the significance or level of interest that warrant such a designation.

American network news divisions still use the term special report for either a breaking news,[6] a developing news story or both, but tend to use the term breaking news on their morning and evening news programs. Most local stations across the United States that interrupt regular programming for a news story use the breaking news and special report terms (though, local broadcast news outlets use the former most often), with a voice-over stating either "This is a breaking news special report" or "This is a special breaking news report" or "This is a(n) (network name) News Special Report" or "This is a(n) (station brand name) breaking news (special) report" or "(From [station brand name],) this is breaking news." The breaking news ending has a past-tense variation, followed by a disclaimer for viewers who would like more information to see the network's news division website.

However, "special report" has also been de-emphasized by cable news channels in the United States, as both Fox News Channel and CNN now use that phrase for regular programming; Fox News carries Special Report with Bret Baier, a daily political affairs program (it had launched in 1998 as a special hour summing up the day's events during the lead up to and coverage of the Clinton impeachment proceedings[7], eventually becoming a permanent title and misnomer), while CNN's Special Report is a catch-all banner for CNN's library documentary and true crime programming.

Criticism

In early coverage of a breaking story, details are commonly sketchy, usually due to the limited information that is available at the time. For example, during the Sago Mine disaster, there were initial reports that all twelve miners were found alive, but news organizations later learned that only one actually survived.

Often it is considered important to be quick with news bulletins also for less important news. Such news might not be updated later, even if it was found that information was wrong or severely incomplete. If someone (e.g. when editing Wikipedia) later wants to research the event, only incomplete information might be found.

MSNBC 12-28-17 breaking news
An example of "breaking news" with no new developments, seen in a screenshot of MSNBC's The 11th Hour, on December 28, 2017 describing events from August 2017 during the 2017–18 North Korea crisis.

Another criticism has been the diluting of the importance of "breaking news" by the need of 24-hour news channels to fill time, applying the title to soft news stories of questionable importance and urgency (for example, car chases). Others question as to whether the use of the term is excessive, citing occasions when the term is used even though scheduled programming is not interrupted.[8] Some programs, such as HLN's defunct Nancy Grace, used the term for recurring coverage of events which occurred months before, even when criminal trial coverage which may deserve the breaking news tag was not occurring and no new information has developed.

In June 2013, Fox affiliate WDRB in Louisville, Kentucky gained notice in the television industry for a promo that criticized the broad and constant use of the "breaking news" term, explaining that it has been overused as a "marketing ploy" by other news-producing stations, who tend to apply the term to stories that are low in urgency and/or relevance. To coincide with the promo, on its website, WDRB posted "Contracts" with its viewers and advertisers, with the former list promising to use "breaking news" judiciously (applying it to stories that are "both 'breaking' and 'news'").[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Christopher Merrill (January 20, 2014). "Always Free Online". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  2. ^ "Definition of Breaking News – Journalism Terms". Journalism.about.com. December 20, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  3. ^ Stan Chambers (April 8, 1989). "The Kathy Fiscus Story: Turning Point in TV News". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  4. ^ "Los Angeles Television News Pioneer Stan Chambers Dies at 91". ABC News. February 14, 2015.
  5. ^ Timothy A. Coleman; Kevin R. Knupp; James Spann; J. B. Elliot; Brian E. Peters (May 2011). "The History (and Future) of Tornado Warning Dissemination in the United States" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society. 92: 567–582. doi:10.1175/2010BAMS3062.1.
  6. ^ "Check Out Latest Breaking News Headlines". Mid Day. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Brit Hume Signs Off From 'Special Report' (Transcription)". RealClearPolitics. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  8. ^ "When Is Breaking News… Not?". InsideTheCBC.com. Archived from the original on 2008-02-08.
  9. ^ "Louisville Station Stops Using 'Breaking News'". TVSpy. June 4, 2013.
1982 Arizona gubernatorial election

The 1982 Arizona gubernatorial election took place on November 2, 1982 for the post of Governor of Arizona. Democratic incumbent Bruce Babbitt defeated Republican nominee Leo Corbet and Libertarian candidate and former U.S. Representative Sam Steiger.

ABC News Now

ABC News Now was an American 24-hour news network offered via digital television, broadband and streaming video at ABCNews.com and on mobile phones. It delivered breaking news, headline news each half-hour, and wide range of entertainment and lifestyle programs. The channel was available in the United States and in Europe. This station's "Talk Back" feature allowed viewers to voice their own input through the submission of videos and personal thoughts on controversial issues and current topics.

Australian Associated Press

Australian Associated Press (AAP) is an Australian news agency. The organisation was established in 1935 by Keith Murdoch.AAP employs more than 175 journalists who work in bureaus in all Australian states and territories. Its NZ Newswire division includes reporters in Auckland and Wellington. It also maintains correspondents in Port Moresby, London, Jakarta and Los Angeles as well as using a network of contributors from the US, Europe, Asia and Africa. AAP's domestic news coverage is complemented by alliances with the major international news agencies.

AAP is owned by three Australian news organisations – News Corp Australia, Fairfax, and Seven West Media. Fairfax owns 47%, News owns 45%, and Seven West 8%. Together these companies produce the vast majority of Australian newspapers.

AAP's main focus is on breaking news, but it also distributes 'soft' news, colour stories, feature stories, opinion, filler material and photographs.

The editor-in-chief is Tony Gillies.

In the 1990s, AAP's telecommunications division was spun off as a telco, AAPT, and sold to Telecom New Zealand in 2000. It was sold again to TPG Telecom in 2013.

Boston Legal

Boston Legal is an American legal comedy-drama television series created by David E. Kelley and produced in association with 20th Century Fox Television for ABC. The series aired from October 3, 2004 to December 8, 2008. The series starred James Spader, William Shatner, and Candice Bergen.

Breaking News (2004 film)

Breaking News (Chinese: 大事件) is a 2004 Hong Kong action film produced and directed by Johnnie To, and starring Richie Jen, Kelly Chen, Nick Cheung, Eddie Cheung, Simon Yam and Maggie Shiu. The film premiered out of competition at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival.

Breaking News (TV series)

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CP24

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GMA News Update

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Love

Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure. An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse, which differs from the love of food. Most commonly, love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment.Love is also considered to be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection, as "the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another". It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. Love has been postulated to be a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species.Ancient Greek philosophers identified five forms of love: essentially, familial love (in Greek, Storge), friendly love or platonic love (Philia), romantic love (Eros), guest love (Xenia) and divine love (Agape). Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of love: unrequited love, infatuated love, self-love, and courtly love. Asian cultures have also distinguished Ren, Kama, Bhakti, Mettā, Ishq, Chesed, and other variants or symbioses of these states. Love has additional religious or spiritual meaning. This diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emotional states.

Novinite

Novinite is a Bulgarian English-language news provider based in Sofia. "Novinite" (Bulgarian: Новините) means "The News" in Bulgarian. It is also sometimes referred to as SNA by its forum users.

Through its website novinite.com/sofianewsagency.com and its Breaking News newsletter, Novinite.com provides coverage of events and developments in Bulgaria and around the world.

Novinite publishes Sofia Morning News, an online daily newspaper with paid subscription, and The Sofia Weekly, a free online weekly newspaper which comes out every Saturday.

Its website includes a forum, a free archive with more than 101,000 articles, a search engine, and news alerts.

Novinite is part of One Click Media Group.

Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017). The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.

Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography

The Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography is one of the American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism. From 2000 it has used the "breaking news" name but it is considered a continuation of the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography, which was awarded from 1968 to 1999. Prior to 1968, a single Prize was awarded for photojournalism, the Pulitzer Prize for Photography, which was replaced in that year by Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography and Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography.

Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting

The Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting is a Pulitzer Prize awarded for a distinguished example of breaking news, local reporting on news of the moment. It has been awarded since 1953 under several names:

From 1953 to 1963: Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, Edition Time

From 1964 to 1984: Pulitzer Prize for Local General or Spot News Reporting

From 1985 to 1990: Pulitzer Prize for General News Reporting

From 1991 to 1997: Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Reporting

From 1998 to present: Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News ReportingPrior to 1953, a Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting combined both breaking and investigative reporting under one category. The Pulitzer Committee issues an official citation explaining the reasons for the award.

Hitherto confined to local coverage, the Breaking News Reporting category was expanded to encompass state and national reporting in 2017.

Roll Call

Roll Call is a newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C., United States, when the United States Congress is in session. Roll Call reports news of legislative and political maneuverings on Capitol Hill, as well as political coverage of congressional elections across the country. In addition to breaking news, the paper features analysts such as Kate Ackley, Niels Lesniewski, Stuart Rothenberg, and Nathan L. Gonzales.

Roll Call has an online version as well, publishing in-depth features, breaking news stories, infographics, award-winning photojournalism, original video series, and over a dozen email newsletters.

In 2017, Roll Call's regular columnists are Walter Shapiro, Jonathan Allen, Mary Curtis, and Patricia Murphy.

Roll Call was founded in 1955 by Sid Yudain, who was working as a press secretary to Congressman Al Morano (R-Conn.) at the time. Yudain published the inaugural issue on June 16, 1955, with an initial printing of 10,000 copies. In 1986, Yudain sold Roll Call to Arthur Levitt, who was serving as the chairman of the American Stock Exchange at the time of the sale. Yudain continued to work as a columnist at Roll Call after the sale. The Economist Group acquired Roll Call in 1993.Today, Roll Call is the flagship publication of CQ Roll Call, which also operates: CQ (formerly Congressional Quarterly), publisher of a subscriber-based service for daily and weekly news about Congress and politics, as well as a weekly magazine. Roll Call merged with CQ in 2009 after the latter company was purchased by The Economist Group, Roll Call's parent company. in July 2018, a deal was announced for CQ Roll Call to be acquired by FiscalNote.Every issue of Roll Call is delivered to Congress and to the White House free of charge.

Shepard Smith

Shepard "Shep" Smith (born David Shepard Smith Jr.; January 14, 1964) is an American television news anchor on the Fox News Channel. He serves as the channel's chief news anchor and as managing editor of the breaking news division. Smith is the former host of Fox News' evening newscast, The Fox Report with Shepard Smith, and Studio B. In October 2013, Shepard Smith Reporting replaced Studio B. Smith's ratings are consistent with those of his Fox News Channel colleagues, continually finishing ahead of his competitors at 3:00 p.m.

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