Bread in Europe

Bread is a staple food throughout Europe. Throughout the 20th century, there was a huge increase in global production, mainly due to a rise in available, developed land throughout Europe, North America and Africa. [1]

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, various kinds of bread are made, all sourdough, the differences depending mainly on the type of flour used. Loaves sold in supermarkets are not packed, however, when the loaves are being sold cut in half, shops are required to wrap them in a plastic bag.[2] Non-sourdough sliced bread is called toustový chléb (toast bread) and is used only for making toasts.


Germany prides itself on having the largest variety of breads worldwide. More than 300 basic kinds of bread are produced with more than 1,000 types of small bread-rolls and pastries. It has been estimated that the basic kinds of bread are so widely varied by more than 16,000 local bakeries that more than 1,000 different breads have been presented at a 2005 Cologne bread show. Germans are worldwide the biggest consumers (per capita) of bread, followed by Chile.[3][4][5][6] In 2012 there were 13,666 bakeries in Germany, but the number has been steadily declining, mainly in favour of supermarkets. 3090 different kinds of bread are listed in the German Bread Registry. Popularity of kinds of bread: mixed bread (wheat and rye) 31.8 %, toast bread 21.6 %, bread with grains and seeds 14.8 %, brown bread 11.5 % [7]


In Spain, traditional bread or pan is a long loaf, similar to the French baguette but wider. One can buy it freshly made every morning in the traditional bakeries, where there is a large assortment of bread. A smaller version is known as bocadillo, an iconic piece of the Hispanic cuisine. In Spain, especially in the Mediterranean area, there have been guilds of bakers for over 750 years. The bakers guild in Barcelona was founded in 1200 AD.[8] There is a region called Tierra del Pan ("Land of the Bread"), located in the province of Zamora, where economy was in the past joined to this activity.


Turkish bread
Turkish bread

Bread is an integral part of the Turkish cuisine and eaten very commonly. According to Guinness World Records, Turkey has the largest per capita consumption of bread in the world as of 2000, with 199.6 kg (440 lb) per person; Turkey is followed in bread consumption by Serbia and Montenegro with 135 kg (297 lb 9.9 oz), and Bulgaria with 133.1 kg (293 lb 6.9 oz).[9]

Aside from the common bread that is shown in the photo, bazlama, gözleme, lavaş, pide, simit, and yufka are popular varieties. In particular, a variety of pita traditionally eaten during Ramadan is called Ramazan pidesi.

United Kingdom

There is a wide variety of traditional breads in Great Britain, often baked in a rectangular tin. Round loaves are also produced, such as the North East England speciality called a stottie cake. A cottage loaf is made of two balls of dough, one on top of the other, to form a figure-of-eight shape. A cob is a small round loaf. There are many variations on bread rolls, such as baps, barms, breadcakes and so on.

The Chorleywood process for mass-producing bread was developed in England in the 1960s before spreading worldwide. Mass-produced sliced white bread brands such as Wonderloaf and Mother's Pride have been criticised on grounds of poor nutritional value and taste of the loaves produced.[10]

Brown bread is seen as healthier by many, with popular brands including Allinson and Hovis. Artisanal baking has also seen a resurgence since the 1970s. Rye bread is mostly eaten in the form of Scandinavian-style crisp bread, such as that produced by Ryvita in Birmingham. Malt loaf is a dark, heavy and sweet bread. The popularity of Indian cuisine in Britain means that Indian breads such as naan are made and eaten there. Continental varieties, such as baguettes (also known as "French sticks") and focaccia are also made. The consumption of bagels is no longer restricted to the Jewish community.

Wales has a sweet bread called bara brith, which includes fruit in the recipe.

In Scotland a bread called plain bread is also eaten. These loaves are noticeably taller and thinner, with burned crusts at only the top and bottom of the loaf, and with a much firmer texture than English and American pan bread.

See also


  1. ^ See Chapter 1, Slafer GA, Satorre EH (1999) Wheat: Ecology and Physiology of Yield Determination Haworth Press Technology & Industrial ISBN 1-56022-874-1
  2. ^ Balení chleba a koblih rozdělilo politiky
  3. ^ "Bread, which is loved, by our neighbors". 6 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013.
  4. ^ "El Tamiz: Bread, cheesecake and a bit of variety". 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  5. ^ "Bread Makes the World Go Round". 15 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013.
  6. ^ "Chilean Bread". 6 July 2011.
  7. ^ Cannstatter Zeitung (Stuttgart), 11. June 2013, p. 9
  8. ^ La histopa del pan. Retrieved on 21 March 2013.
  9. ^ "Largest bread consumption per capita". Guinness World Records. 1 January 2000. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  10. ^ Chorleywood, the Bread that Changed Britain. (7 June 2011). Retrieved on 21 March 2013.

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