Brazilian imperial family

The Brazilian Imperial Family is a branch of the Portuguese Royal House of Braganza that ruled the Empire of Brazil from 1822 to 1889, after the proclamation of independence by Prince Pedro of Braganza who was later acclaimed as Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil. The members of the family are dynastic descendants of Emperor Pedro I. Claimants to headship of the post-monarchic Brazilian Imperial legacy descend from Emperor Pedro II, including the senior agnates of two branches of the House of Orléans-Braganza; the so-called Petrópolis and Vassouras lines.[1] Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza (born 1945) heads the Petrópolis line, while the Vassouras branch is led by his second cousin, Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza.[2]

Rivalry within the family erupted in 1946 when Dom Pedro Gastão (1913–2007) repudiated the renunciation to the throne of his late father, Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará (1875–1940), for himself and his future descendants, when he made a non-dynastic marriage in 1908.[2] Pedro de Alcântara was the eldest son of the Princess Imperial Isabel (1846–1921) who, as Pedro II's elder daughter and heir presumptive when he was dethroned, became the last undisputed head of the family after her father's death in exile in 1891.[2] Pedro Carlos is Dom Pedro Gastão's eldest son. Dom Luiz descends from Isabel's younger son, Prince Luís (1878–1920) who, by a Bourbon princess, fathered Prince Pedro Henrique (1909–1981). Dom Luiz is Pedro Henrique's son by a Bavarian princess and upholds his dynastic claim to the same legacy.[3]

Following the tradition of the Portuguese monarchy, the closest relatives of the Brazilian Emperor are considered members of the Brazilian Imperial Family, disregarding those who renounced their dynastic rights. With the proclamation of the republic in 1889, and consequent extinction of the Brazilian Empire on that date, the title of Head of the Imperial House of Brazil was created for the apparent heir to the defunct throne.

Brazilian Imperial Family
Família Imperial Brasileira
CoA Empire of Brazil (1870-1889)
Parent houseHouse of Aviz by the way of the Portuguese House of Braganza
Country Brazil
Founded1822
FounderPedro I
Current headVassouras branch:
Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza
Petrópolis branch:
Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza
Final rulerPedro II
Titles
Estate(s)Brazil
Deposition1889
Cadet branchesHouse of Orléans-Braganza
House of Saxe-Coburg and Braganza

History

Familia imperial 1861
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, with his wife, Teresa Cristina, and daughters Isabel and Leopoldina in a farm in Juíz de Fora, 1861.
Família Imperial por Otto Hees
The last picture of the reigning Imperial Family in Brazil, 1889

Founded by Pedro of Braganza, until then Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, member of the House of Braganza, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and the King's representative in the Kingdom of Brazil as Prince Regent, the Imperial House of Brazil was sovereign from 7 September 1822, when Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and was subsequently acclaimed as Emperor of Brazil on 12 October that same year until 15 November 1889, when a military coup d'état took place and the proclamation of the Brazilian republic overthrew the monarchy.

Prince Pedro, then, was acclaimed as Emperor of Brazil throughout the land. The constitution of the Brazilian Empire of 1824 - the first Brazilian constitutional charter - was organized two years after independence, with the emperor being the head of state and head of government of the Empire of Brazil, as well as head of the moderator power and the executive power. He reigned until 7 April 1831 when he abdicated due to a long ideological conflict between with a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government and other obstacles. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II. As the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions. Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which eventually became an emerging international power. Even though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no expectation to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution. The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic.

Post monarchy

Isabel conde dEu Luis Maria Pia filhos
Isabel, de jure Empress of Brazil, and the Count of Eu with their son Prince Luís, his wife and children, 1913

With the proclamation of the Brazilian republic on 15 November 1889, the Imperial Family went into exile in Portugal, Spain, France and Austria-Hungary. In the party that accompanied the Imperial Family were included many loyal subjects and nobles, as politicians such the Viscount of Ouro Preto, the deposed last Prime Minister of the Empire, as well the Emperor's particular doctor. Prince August Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, grandson of Emperor Pedro II was the only member of the imperial family not boarded to exile because he was on board the cruiser Almirante Barroso, on a circumnavigation trip. Subsequently, upon receiving the news of the deposition of the monarchy, he was sent into exile. In addition to the ban, the Republican government confiscated and auctioned many of the assets of the imperial family. In 1890, thirteen auctions of Imperial House goods were made. Empress Teresa Cristina died in the first months of exile. Later Emperor Pedro II died in France, where he receive a head of state's funeral by the French government. The Imperial Family settled in the Château d'Eu, former residence of King Louis Philippe of France and property of Gaston of Orléans, Count d'Eu, husband of Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, heiress of Pedro II and de jure Empress-in-Exile of Brazil.

Despite the prohibition then in force, Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza tried to disembark in Rio de Janeiro in 1906, but was prevented by local authorities. Finally, President Epitácio Pessoa, by presidential decree of 3 September 1920, revoked the Banishment Law. The Imperial Family was then able to return to Brazilian soil. The occasion was used to repatriate the remains of the last emperor and his consort, who would be transferred from Portugal a year later. Of the nine members of the Imperial Family originally exiled, only two returned to Brazil alive: Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará and his father, Prince Gaston, Count of Eu, who died the following year aboard the ship Massilia, on their way to Brazil to celebrate the centenary of independence. Prince Pedro de Alcântara acquired one of its former palaces, the Palácio do Grão-Pará in Petropolis, where it resided until his death and where his descendants still live. On the other hand, not all the family returned immediately to Brazil, and the Vassouras branch, present clamoring to the Brazilian throne, could only return after the end of World War II.

Repatriation

Currently, the remains of five members of the Imperial Family are buried in the Imperial Mausoleum in Petrópolis: Emperor Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina, whose mortal remains were transferred from the Royal Pantheon of the House of Braganza in Lisbon, in 1921, on the occasion of the centenary of the Independence of Brazil, Princess Isabel, removed from the cemetery of Eu in 1953 with her husband, Prince Gaston, and the Prince of Grão-Pará, transferred from the cemetery of Petrópolis in 1990, together with his wife. Prince Luiz and Prince Antônio are buried in the Royal Chapel of Dreux, France, where the wife of the first, Princess Maria Pia, was buried in 1973. Princes Pedro Augusto, August Leopold and Ludwig Gaston are buried in the crypt of the Church of St. Augustine, in Coburg, Germany, where the latter's mother, Princess Leopoldina, had been buried in 1871.

In 1954, the remains of the first Empress, Maria Leopoldina, were transferred to the Imperial Crypt and Chapel in São Paulo, which were in the Santo Antônio Convent, Rio de Janeiro. Some of the children of both emperors are buried in the Santo Antônio Convent: Prince Miguel, Prince João Carlos, Princess Paula Mariana, Prince Afonso Pedro and Prince Pedro Afonso, as well as Princess Luísa Vitória. In 1972, on the occasion of the sesquicentenary of Independence, the remains of Emperor Pedro I were transferred from the Royal Pantheon of the House of Braganza to the Imperial Chapel. The body of his second wife, Empress Amélie, was transferred from the Braganza Pantheon to the Imperial Chapel in 1982. In that same year the body of her daughter, Princess Maria Amélia, was transferred from the Braganza Pantheon to the Convent of Santo Antônio.

Olhares sobre o Museu do Ipiranga 2017 041

The Imperial Crypt and Chapel in the Monument to the Independence of Brazil, the final resting place of Emperor Pedro I and his two wives

Petropolis-Cathedral1

The tombs of Emperor Pedro II and other members of the Imperial Family at the Imperial Mausoleum

Convento de Santo Antônio do Largo da Carioca 09

Mausoleum at the Convent of Santo Antônio containing the tombs of some princes and princesses of the Empire of Brazil

Dynastic question

Pedro alcantara filho isabel
Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne in favor of his young brother.
Luis prince imperial 1909 Brazil
Prince Luís of Orléans-Braganza become Prince Imperial of Brazil after the renunciation of his older brother.

The so-called Brazilian dynastic question concerns inheritance rights to the titles of Head of the Brazilian Imperial House, Prince Imperial of Brazil, Prince of Grão-Pará and Prince of Brazil, who consequently would indicate the preferred heirs of to the Brazilian imperial throne. The primacy in the line of succession is disputed by some members and partisans of the dynastic branches of Petrópolis and Vassouras.

In 1908, Dom Pedro de Alcântara, then Prince Imperial of Brazil in exile, wanted to marry Countess Elisabeth Dobržensky de Dobrženicz (1875–1951), whose family had belonged to the nobility of the kingdom of Bohemia since 1339, and whose legitimate members, male and female, bore the title of baron since 1744 and of count or countess since issuance of Austrian letters patent on 21 February 1906.[4] The countess did not, however, belong to a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty, as both Orléans and Braganza traditions expected of brides.[3] Although the constitution of the Brazilian Empire did not require dynasts to marry equally, it made the marriage of the heir to the throne dependent upon the sovereign's consent.[5] As Prince Dom Pedro wanted to marry with his mother's blessing, he renounced his rights to the throne of Brazil at Cannes on 30 October 1908.[6] The resignation document, signed in three copies, was sent to the Brazilian Monarchical Directory, an official body created to manage monarchical interests in the country. [7][8][9][10][11][12][13] To solemnize this, Dom Pedro, aged thirty-three, signed the document translated here:

I, Prince Pedro de Alcântara Luiz Filipe Maria Gastão Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga of Orleans-Braganza, having maturely reflected, have resolved to renounce the right that, by the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, promulgated on 25 March 1824, accords to me the Crown of that nation. I declare, therefore, that by my free and spontaneous will I hereby renounce, in my own name, as well as for any and all of my descendants, to all and any rights that the aforesaid Constitution confers upon us to the Brazilian Crown and Throne, which shall pass to the lines which follow mine, conforming to the order of succession as established by article 117. Before God I promise, for myself and my descendants, to hold to the present declaration.

Cannes 30 October 1908 signed: Pedro de Alcântara of Orleans-Braganza[14]

This renunciation was followed by a letter from Isabel to royalists in Brazil:

9 November 1908, Château d'Eu

Most Excellent Gentlemen Members of the Monarchist Directory,

With all my heart I thank you for the congratulations upon the marriages of my dear children Pedro and Luiz. Luiz's took place in Cannes on the 4th with the brilliance that is desired for so solemn an act in the life of my successor to the Throne of Brazil. I was very pleased. Pedro´s shall take place next on the 14th. Before the marriage of Luiz he signed his resignation to the crown of Brazil, and here I send it to you, while keeping here an identical copy. I believe that this news must be published as soon as possible (you gentlemen shall do it in the way that you judge to be most satisfactory) in order to prevent the formation of parties that would be a great evil for our country. Pedro will continue to love his homeland, and will give all possible support to his brother. Thank God they are very united. Luiz will engage actively in everything with respect to the monarchy and any good for our land. However, without giving up my rights I want that he be up to date on everything so that he may prepare himself for the position which with all my heart I desire that one day he will hold. You may write to him as many times as you may want to so that he shall be informed of everything. My strength is not the same as it once was, but my heart is still the same to love my homeland and all those who are so dedicated to us. I give you all my friendship and confidence,

a) Isabel, comtesse d'Eu

If the 1908 renunciation of Pedro de Alcântara was valid, his brother Luiz (and eventually, Pedro Henrique) became next in the line of succession after their mother.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Isabel's headship of the Brazilian Imperial House lasted until her death in 1921, when she is widely considered to have been succeeded by her grandson, Prince Pedro Henrique of Orléans-Braganza.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Pedro Henrique was the elder son of Prince Luiz, second child of Isabel and a veteran of World War I who had died in 1920 from an illness he contracted in the trenches.[15]

Prince Pedro de Alcântara did not dispute the validity of the renunciation.[16][17] Though he did not claim the headship of the Imperial House himself, in 1937 he did say in an interview that his renunciation "did not meet the requirements of Brazilian Law, there was no prior consultation with the nation, there was none of the necessary protocol that is required for acts of this nature and, furthermore, it was not a hereditary renunciation."[18]

The dynastic dispute over the Brazilian crown began after 1940 when Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza, eldest son of Pedro de Alcântara repudiated his father's renunciation and claimed the headship of the Brazilian Imperial House.[19][20]

Pedro Gastão actively campaigned in support of Brazil's 1993 referendum on restoration of the Brazilian monarchy, which would have postponed for subsequent decision by Parliament of which descendant of the former imperial family should occupy the throne if monarchy had been re-instated, but the option of restoration was defeated despite garnering approximately 17 million votes.[3] After the death of Pedro Gastão in 2007, his eldest son Prince Pedro Carlos and younger children declared themselves republicans.[21] Several of Pedro Gastão's grandchildren also have dual citizenship.[22]

Branches

COA Dinasty Orleães-Bragança
Coat of the House of Orléans-Braganza
COA Dinasty Saxe-Coburgo-Bragança (blazon)
Coat of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Braganza

House of Orléans-Braganza

With the marriage of Isabel of Braganza, Princess Imperial of Brazil, with Prince Gaston of Orléans, Count d'Eu in 1864, the Imperial House associated itself with the House of Orléans, that composes the French royal family. Thus began a new dynastic branch of Brazil: Orléans-Braganza, which never had the opportunity to reign in Brazil.

Of the four children of the couple, two have generated offspring and this branch of the family has more than thirty members. Many are those who renounced for themselves and their descendants any rights in succession to the imperial throne, losing titles and precedence in the imperial family.

In 1909, Prince Gaston engaged in negotiations with Philippe, Duke of Orléans, resulting in a document signed by nearly all the male-line princes descended from France's citizen-king, Louis Philippe, called the Pacte de Famille (or "Declaration of Brussels"): the title of Prince of Orléans-Braganza was created, and the style of Royal Highness recognized, exclusive to male-line descendants of that branch of the family.[3]

House of Saxe-Coburg-Braganza

The Saxe-Coburg-Braganza branch is descended from Princess Leopoldina of Brazil, second daughter of Dom Pedro II, and her husband, Prince Ludwig August of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry. Due to several years of difficulties that the Princess Imperial Isabel experienced in producing an heir to the throne, clauses were included in the marriage contract between Leopoldina and her husband to ensure that the couple should, among other things, reside part of the year in Brazil and have their children on Brazilian territory, as heirs presumptive of Isabel: Pedro Augusto, Augusto Leopoldo, and José Fernando.[23] With the birth of Dom Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará and eldest son of Princess Isabel, the Saxe-Coburg-Braganza branch yielded first place in the line of succession to the Orleans-Braganza branch.

The only members of the Saxe-Coburg-Braganza branch who still retain Brazilian nationality, which was a constitutional requirement to succeed to the now defunct Brazilian throne, are the descendants of Princess Teresa Cristina of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, daughter of Augusto Leopoldo.[24] Her Brazilian nationality was recognized by the government of Brazil only in 1922; her four children were registered in the consulate of Brazil in Vienna as Brazilian citizens.[24] Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança, Baron Taxis-Bordogna-Valnigra and son of Princess Teresa Cristina, is the current head of this branch.

Emperors of Brazil

Portrait of Dom Pedro, Duke of Bragança - Google Art Project edited.jpeg
Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil.

The Empire of Brazil remained a constitutional monarchy until 1889 - when the republic was proclaimed after a military coup d'état, and had two reigning emperors, both from the House of Braganza:

Their full style and title were: "His Imperial Majesty, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil".

Name Became monarch Notes
Pedro I of Brazil 1822 Emperor of Brazil; declarer of Brazilian Independence
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Pedro II of Brazil 1831 Emperor of Brazil; last Emperor of Brazil

Pretenders to the Brazilian throne since 1889

The Vassouras line

The Petrópolis line

Past members and some descendants of the imperial family

Genealogy

Genealogical tree of the Brazilian branch House of Braganza and the subsequent House of Orléans-Braganza, cadet branch and current Imperial Family.

Emperor-King Pedro I/IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Emperor of Brazil
(1798-1834)
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.svgCoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
Queen Maria II
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
(1819-1853)
Heraldic Royal Crown of Portugal - Eight Arches.svg
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1481-1910).png
Princess Januária
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Countess of Aquila
(1822-1901)
COA Imperial Prince of Brazil (alternative).svg
Emperor Pedro II
Emperor of Brazil
(1825-1891)
CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
Princess Paula
Princess of Brazil
(1823-1833)
CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
Princess Francisca
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Joinville
(1824-1898)
CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
Princess Maria Amélia
Princess of Brazil
(1831-1853)
CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
From her descends the
Portuguese Royal Family
Princess Isabel
Princess Imperial of Brazil
(1846-1921)
COA Imperial Prince of Brazil (alternative).svg
Princess Leopoldina
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(1847-1871)
CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
Prince Pedro de Alcântara
Prince of Grão-Pará
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
(1875-1940)
COA Dinasty Orleães-Bragança.svg
Prince Luís
Prince Imperial of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
(1878-1920)
COA Imperial Prince of Brazil.svg
Prince Antônio Gastão
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Orléans-Braganza
(1881-1918)
COA Dinasty Orleães-Bragança.svg
From her descends
the Saxe-Coburg and
Braganza branch of the
Brazilian Imperial Family

COA Dinasty Saxe-Coburgo-Bragança (blazon).svg
From his descends
the Petrópolis branch of the
House of Orléans-Braganza
From his descends
the Vassouras branch of the
House of Orléans-Braganza

Armorial

Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure
CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870)
Emperor of Brazil
1822–1889
COA Imperial Prince of Brazil (alternative)
Prince Imperial of Brazil
1822-present
COA Dinasty Orleães-Bragança
Prince of Grão-Pará
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Grão-Pará: 1875–1920
Prince of Brazil: 1822-present

Palaces

Some of the most important Brazilian palaces that were built to the Brazilian Imperial Family to private or governamental use. These palaces were taken by the government of the republic when it was proclaimed.

O Palácio

The Imperial Palace of Petrópolis in Petrópolis was the summer residence of the Imperial Family

PacoImperial1

The Imperial Palace of Rio de Janeiro was the former residence and workplace of the Emperors

Batalhão Vilagran Cabrita

The Imperial Palace of Santa Cruz was a country retreat in inner Rio de Janeiro

Beautiful Architecture of the Guanabara Palace

The Isabel Palace was the private residence of Princess Isabel and her family

Chateau d'Eu 04

The Château d'Eu in Normandy, France was the residence of the Brazilian Imperial Family in exile between 1896 and 1940

Palácio Grão Pará

The Imperial Palace of Grão-Pará in Petrópolis was the only palace that was recovered by the Imperial Family in 1925, and where some members still reside

Most members of the Imperial House live in rented apartments in wealthy neighborhoods, private mansions or in Europe. Some, like Eleanora, Princess de Ligne, having married members of other princely houses, live in their palaces.

See also

References

  1. ^ SMITH, Peter H. Democracy in Latin America, p. 148.
  2. ^ a b c Les manuscrits du C.E.D.R.E. – Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique, vol. III. Le Royaume de Portugal, L’Empire du Brésil. Cercle d'Études des Dynasties Royales Européennes (president, Jean-Fred Tourtchine), Paris, 1987, p. 51. (French). ISSN 0764-4426.
  3. ^ a b c d de Badts de Cugnac, Chantal.. Le Petit Gotha. Nouvelle Imprimerie Laballery. Paris. 2002. pp. 300-306, 309-311, 316-317, 320-321. (French) ISBN 2-9507974-3-1
  4. ^ Enache, Nicolas. La Descendance de Marie-Therese de Habsburg. ICC, Paris, 1996. pp. 71, 80. (French). ISBN 2-908003-04-X
  5. ^ SAINT, Guy Stair. House of Bourbon: Branch of Orléans-Braganza. In: Chivalric Orders Archived 2008-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  6. ^ Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume I Europe & Latin America, 1977, pp. 43, 48, 50-51. ISBN 0-85011-023-8
  7. ^ BARMAN, Roderick J (2005) (in Portuguese). Princesa Isabel do Brasil: gênero e poder no século XIX, UNESP
  8. ^ a b c VIANNA, Hélio (1968) (in Portuguese). Vultos do Império. São Paulo: Companhia Editoria Nacional, p. 224
  9. ^ a b c FREYRE, Gilberto. Ordem e Progresso (1959) (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: José Olympio, p. 517 and 591
  10. ^ a b c LYRA, Heitor (1940) (in Portuguese). História de Dom Pedro II, 1825–1891. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, vol.III, p. 300
  11. ^ a b c BARSA (1992) (in Portuguese). Braganza, vol. 4, p. 210
  12. ^ a b c JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes (1986) (in Portuguese). Os Subversivos da República. São Paulo: Brasiliense, pp. 255–257
  13. ^ a b c MALATIAN, Teresa Maria (1978) (in Portuguese). A Ação Imperial Patrianovista Brasileira. São Paulo, p. 153-159
  14. ^ MONTJOUVENT, Philippe de (1998) (in French). Le comte de Paris et sa Descendance. Charenton: Éditions du Chaney, p. 97. ISBN 2-913211-00-3.
  15. ^ MALATIAN, Teresa (2007) (in Portuguese). In: BrHistória issue 4, p. 35
  16. ^ SANTOS (1988: 76)
  17. ^ SILVA (1994: 228–229)
  18. ^ VILLON, Victor (2008). Elisabeth Dobrzensky von Dobrzenicz "Empress of Brazil". In: Royalty Digest Quarterly, 3, p. 33.
  19. ^ CERQUEIRA, Bruno da Silva A. (2007) (in Portuguese). In: BrHistória issue 4, p. 58
  20. ^ SANTOS (1988: 197)
  21. ^ GUTIÉRREZ, Bernardo (2008) (in Spanish). La familia real brasileña defiende los nuevos ideales. In: Público.es, 2008-01-09.
  22. ^ Revista Caras. (March 28, 2013) Paola de Orleans e Bragança.
  23. ^ SAXE-COBURGO E BRAGANÇA, Dom Carlos de (1959) (in Portuguese). Princesa Leopoldina. In: Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro Archived 2010-12-21 at the Wayback Machine, vol. 243, pp. 75, 80–81.
  24. ^ a b LESSA, Clado Ribeiro de (1951) (in Portuguese). O Segundo Ramo da Casa Imperial e a Nossa Marinha de Guerra. In: Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro Archived 2014-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, vol. 211, p. 132 (ISSN 0101-4366)
  25. ^ Bodstein, Astrid (2006). "The Imperial Family of Brazil". Royalty Digest Quarterly (3).
  26. ^ Bernardo Gutiérrez, "La familia real brasileña defiende los nuevos ideales", Príncipes Republicanos (09/01/2008)

External links

Brazilian House of Braganza
Cadet branch of the Portuguese House of Braganza
Regnal titles
New title Ruling House of the
Empire of Brazil

1822–1889
Monarchy Abolished
See República Velha
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Itself
as the reigning house
— TITULAR —
Claimant House of the
Brazilian monarchy

1889–present
Reason for succession failure:
Brazilian monarchy abolished
Claimant as
House of Orléans-Braganza
since 1921
Black Guard (Brazil)

The Black Guard of the Redemptress (Portuguese: Guarda Negra da Redentora) was a militia composed of Brazilian former slaves freed in May 13, 1888 by the signature of the Golden Law by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. The group was lead by José do Patrocínio, a former republican, and its outspoken purpose was to protect the well-being of the Brazilian Imperial Family and to ensure the Princess Imperial's ascension to the throne, in opposition to the rising threat of a republican coup. The group began its activities in July 9, 1888 following the abolition of slavery and lasted until shortly after the Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil in November 15, 1889. Most of its former members were dispersed and joined the Brazilian Navy as low-rank recruits, since the Navy was perceived as a monarchist bastion in the early republic.

Château d'Eu

The Château d'Eu is a former royal residence in the town of Eu, in the Seine-Maritime department of France, in Normandy.

The château d'Eu stands at the centre of the town and was built in the 16th century to replace an earlier one purposely demolished in 1475 to prevent its capture by the English. The chapel contains the tombs of Henry I, Duke of Guise, and his wife, Catherine de Clèves, who embarked on the construction of the château in 1578. The building was completed almost a century later by the Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, la Grande Mademoiselle.

Between 1830 and 1848, the château, which had been the property of the Orléans family since its acquisition by La Grande Mademoiselle in October 1657, served as King Louis-Philippe's summer residence.

Louis-Philippe twice entertained Queen Victoria at the château, from 3 to 7 September 1843 and from 8 to 10 September 1845.The Château became residence of the Brazilian Imperial Family during the exile.

Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, who brought slavery to an end in Brazil in 1888, died at the Château in 1921. Her husband was Prince Gaston, Count of Eu, a grandson of King Louis Philippe I. Their eldest son, Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará, sold the Château to the Brazilian entrepreneur Assis Chateaubriand.

In 1964, the city of Eu acquired the château, in which, in 1973, it installed its City Hall and created the Musée Louis-Philippe.

In 1987, the castle, its dependencies and park were classified a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.

House of Orléans-Braganza

The House of Orléans-Braganza (Portuguese: Casa de Orleães-Bragança or Orléans-Bragança) is an imperial and royal house, of French and Brazilian origin. It is a cadet branch of the House of Orléans, of France, and the House of Braganza, of Portugal and Brazil. The house was founded with the marriage between Isabel of Braganza, Princess Imperial of Brazil, and Prince Gaston of Orléans, Count of Eu. The house was never a reigning house, as Brazil's pure Braganza monarch, Pedro II, was deposed in 1889. The House's members are the current claimants to the Brazilian throne since 1921 as part of the Imperial House of Brazil. The house is also the second in the Orleanist line of succession to the French royal throne.

Order of Christ (Brazil)

The Imperial Order of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Portuguese: Imperial Ordem de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo), simply named Order of Christ, is an order of chivalry instituted by emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 7 December 1822, on the basis of the Portuguese Order of Christ founded by King Dom Dinis and Pope John XXII in 1316–1319.

The order was used to award persons for exceptional services that resulted in notable and proven utility to religion (Roman Catholicism), to humanity and the state. Knights of the Order of Christ were part of the untitled nobility of the Empire of Brazil.

On 22 March 1890, the order was cancelled as national order by the interim government of United States of Brazil. However, since the deposition in 1889 of the last Brazilian monarch, Emperor Pedro II, the order is claimed as a house order, being awarded by the heads of the House of Orleans-Braganza, pretenders to the defunct throne of Brazil. The current Brazilian Imperial Family is split into two branches, Petrópolis and Vassouras, and the Grand Mastership of the Order is disputed between those two branches.

Order of Pedro I

The Imperial Order of Dom Pedro I (Portuguese: Imperial Ordem de Pedro Primeiro or Imperial Ordem de Pedro Primeiro, Fundador do Império do Brasil) is a Brazilian order of chivalry instituted by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 16 April 1826. It is considered by many numismatists as the rarest of the Brazilian imperial orders.

On 22 March 1890, the order was cancelled as national order by the interim government of United States of Brazil. Since the deposition in 1889 of the last Brazilian monarch, Emperor Pedro II, the order continues as a house order being awarded by the Heads of the House of Orleans-Braganza, pretenders to the defunct throne of Brazil. The current Brazilian Imperial Family is split into two branches Petrópolis and Vassouras, and the Grand Mastership of the Order is disputed between those two branches.

Order of the Rose

The Imperial Order of the Rose (Portuguese: Imperial Ordem da Rosa) was a Brazilian order of chivalry, instituted by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 17 October 1829 to commemorate his marriage to Amélie of Leuchtenberg.

On 22 March 1890, the order was cancelled as national order by the interim government of United States of Brazil. Since the deposition in 1889 of the last Brazilian monarch, Emperor Pedro II, the order continues as a house order being awarded by the Heads of the House of Orleans-Braganza, pretenders to the defunct throne of Brazil. The current Brazilian Imperial Family is split into two branches Petrópolis and Vassouras, and as a consequence the Grand Mastership of the Order is disputed between those two branches.

Palácio do Grão-Pará

The Palace of the Grand Pará (Portuguese: Palácio do Grão-Pará) is a royal palace located in the city of Petrópolis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was a secondary palace of the Brazilian Imperial Family, serving to allocate the servants and guests of the Palace of Petropólis. It is currently the only palace still belonging to the Brazilian Imperial Family, being the only royal palace in the Americas occupied by a royal family.

Paço de São Cristóvão

Paço de São Cristóvão (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpasu dʒi sɐ̃w kɾiʃˈtɔvɐ̃w], English: Palace of Saint Christopher; also known as Palácio Imperial or Palácio Imperial de São Cristóvão) was an imperial palace located in the Quinta da Boa Vista park in the Imperial Neighbourhood of São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It served as residence to the Portuguese Royal Family and later to the Brazilian Imperial Family until 1889, when the country became a republic through a coup d'état deposing Emperor Pedro II. Then, the palace briefly served as a public building by the provisional government for the constituent assembly of the first republican constitution. It housed the major part (92.5%) of the collection of the National Museum of Brazil, which, together with the building, were largely destroyed by a fire on 2 September 2018.

Prince Eudes of Orléans-Braganza

Prince Eudes Maria Rainier Pedro José of Orléans-Braganza (born 8 June 1939 in Mandelieu, France) is a member of the Imperial House of Brazil. He was the second child of Prince Pedro Henrique of Orléans-Braganza, then head of the Brazilian Imperial Family, and Princess Maria Elisabeth of Bavaria.

Prince Imperial of Brazil

Prince Imperial of Brazil is the title created after the proclamation of independence of the Empire of Brazil, in 1822, to designate an heir apparent or an heir presumptive to the Brazilian imperial throne. Even after the proclamation of the Republic in 1889, the title was kept in use by the Brazilian Imperial Family.

Prince João Maria of Orléans-Braganza

Prince João Maria of Orléans-Braganza (15 October 1916 – 26 June 2005) was a French-born Brazilian soldier, pilot and airline executive. He was also a Prince of Orléans-Braganza and member of the Brazilian Imperial Family.

Prince Luiz Gastão of Orléans-Braganza

Prince Luiz Gastão of Orléans-Braganza (Portuguese: Príncipe Luiz Gastão Antônio Maria Filipe de Orleans e Bragança; 19 February 1911 – 8 September 1931) was a member of the House of Orléans-Braganza, and was descended from the Brazilian Imperial Family.

Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza

Prince Luiz of Orleans-Braganza (born 6 June 1938) is the head of the Vassouras branch of the House of Orléans-Braganza and a claimant to the defunct Brazilian throne. The Vassouras branch claims the throne in opposition to the Petrópolis branch of the Orléans-Braganzas, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza. Though both Prince Luiz and Prince Pedro Carlos are great-great-grandchildren of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, of the House of Braganza, they dispute leadership over the Brazilian Imperial Family due to a dynastic dispute concerning their fathers, who were cousins.

Prince Luiz actively claims the throne and participates in matters concerning Brazil's imperial past.

Prince Pedro Thiago of Orléans-Braganza

Prince Pedro Thiago of Orléans-Braganza (born 12 January 1979) is a member of the Brazilian Imperial Family.

Prince of Brazil

Prince of Brazil (Portuguese: Príncipe do Brasil) was the title held by the heir-apparent to the Kingdom of Portugal, from 1645 to 1815. Tied with the title of Prince of Brazil was the title Duke of Braganza and the various subsidiary titles of the Dukedom of Braganza.

The title's name has its origins in the Viceroyalty of Brazil, a colony of the Portuguese Empire.

The title was abandoned and changed to that of Prince Royal in the wake of Brazil's elevation from the status of a colony to the rank of a Kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Brazil would later break from the United Kingdom and become the independent Empire of Brazil. The heirs presumptive of Brazil were known as The Prince Imperial of Brazil or The Princess Imperial of Brazil, with the style of Imperial Highness. Other members of the Brazilian Imperial Family were known by the title of Prince or Princess prefixed to their given names, with the style of Highness. The Portuguese title of Prince of Brazil, that existed as a title of the Portuguese heir apparent only while Brazil was still a colony of Portugal, should therefore not be confused with the later ranks of Brazilian Prince or Brazilian Princess, that stem from the era of the Empire of Brazil.

Princess Maria da Glória, Duchess of Segorbe

Princess Dona Maria da Glória Henriqueta Dolores Lúcia Miguela Rafaela Gabriela Gonzaga of Orléans-Braganza, Duchess of Segorbe, Countess of Rivadavia (Portuguese: Dona Maria da Glória Henriqueta Dolores Lúcia Miguela Rafaela Gabriela Gonzaga de Orléans e Bragança e Bourbon, princesa de Orléans e Bragança, duquesa de Segorbe, condesa de Rivadavia; Serbian: Марија да Глорија од Орлеана и Браганце; born 13 December 1946) is a descendant of the Brazilian Imperial Family and the second wife of the Duke of Segorbe. She is also the former wife of Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia.

Princess of Brazil

This is a list of Princesses of Brazil, from 1645 to 1815, both by marriage and birth. The title was preceded by the titles Princess of Portugal and succeed by Princess Royal of Portugal.

The title was created by King John IV of Portugal on 27 October 1645 in favor of his eldest son and heir Infante Teodósio, soon after Portugal had gotten rid of its Spanish rulers. During the 1645–1815, "Prince of Brazil" was always conferred on the heir apparent of the throne, who also received the title of Duke of Braganza. The title was abolished when Brazil became independent and joined the United Kingdom of Portugal.

Brazil would later break from the United Kingdom and become the independent Empire of Brazil. The heirs presumptive of Brazil were known as Prince Imperial of Brazil or Princess Imperial of Brazil, with the style of Imperial Highness. Other members of the Brazilian Imperial Family were known by the title of Prince or Princess prefixed to their given names, with the style of Highness. The Portuguese title of Prince of Brazil, that existed as a title of the Portuguese heir apparent only while Brazil was still a possession of Portugal, should therefore not be confused with the later ranks of Brazilian Prince or Brazilian Princess, that stem from the era of the Empire of Brazil.

Thiago

Thiago is the Portuguese equivalent of the names Jacob and James. It is the archaic spelling of the name Tiago, being presently mostly used in Brazil, while in Portugal the modern spelling largely prevails.

Prince Pedro Thiago of Orléans-Braganza (born 1979), member of the Brazilian Imperial Family. According to the claims of the Petrópolis branch, he is the current Prince Imperial of Brazil and therefore first in line of succession to the defunct Brazilian throne.

Thiago de Los Reyes (born 1989), Brazilian television and film actor

Thiago Alcântara (born 1991), Brazilian-Spanish professional football player, known simply as Thiago

Thiago Alves (tennis) (born 1982), Brazilian tennis player

Thiago Alves (fighter) (born 1983), Brazilian mixed martial artist

Thiago Soares Alves (born 1986), Brazilian volleyball player

Thiago Cionek (born 1986), Polish-Brazilian football player

Thiago Corrêa (born 1982), Brazilian football player

Thiago Monteiro (table tennis) (born 1981), Brazilian table tennis player

Thiago Maia (born 1997), Brazilian football player

Thiago Motta (born 1982), Brazilian football player

Thiago Neves (born 1985), Brazilian football player

Thiago Quirino (born 1985), Brazilian football player

Thiago Ribeiro (born 1986), Brazilian football player

Thiago Silva (born 1984), Brazilian football player

Thiago Silva (fighter) (born 1982), Brazilian mixed martial artist

Vassouras

Vassouras (Portuguese: [vɐˈsowɾɐs], lit. 'Brooms') is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Its population was 34,439 (2010) and its area is 552 km².Vassouras is known for its colonial-era coffee farms and significant royal structures of the Brazilian imperial family.

Brazilian imperial family
Forefathers
1st generation
2nd generation
3rd generation
4th generation
Brazilian royalty
Imperial titles
Other titles
Kingdom of Brazil
Empire of Brazil

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