Brazilian Democratic Movement
Movimento Democrático Brasileiro
|Founded||4 December 1965 (original MDB)|
30 June 1981 (registered as PMDB)
19 December 2017 (altered its name back to MDB)
|Dissolved||20 December 1979 (original MDB)|
|Headquarters||Câmara dos Deputados - Presidência do MDB, Ed. Principal sala T4 - Esplanada dos Ministérios|
|Colours||Green, yellow, red, black|
|TSE Identification Number||15|
|Seats in the Federal Senate|
12 / 81
|Seats in the Chamber of Deputies|
34 / 513
7 / 27
|Seats in Legislative Assemblies|
147 / 1,024
1,022 / 5,568
|Seats in Municipal Chambers|
7,825 / 56,810
Under military rule from 1965 to 1979, Brazil had a legally enforced two party system, with supporters of the regime gathered under the National Renewal Alliance Party (ARENA) umbrella, and the official opposition making up the MDB. Essentially, the MDB comprised nearly all of the Brazilian Labour Party and the main body of the Social Democratic Party.
From 1979 onwards, a restricted number of parties were allowed, and nearly all of the old MDB reorganized as PMDB (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).
The MDB had been a big tent party uniting nearly all of the opposition to the military dictatorship. As such, it harboured elements ranging across the political spectrum. PMDB had a similar character to its predecessor, including a range of politicians from conservatives such as José Sarney to liberals such as Pedro Simon, leftists like Roberto Requião, populists like Íris Resende, nationalists like Orestes Quércia and the former guerilla movement MR-8.
In 1985, party leader Tancredo Neves won the presidential election, but died before taking office. His running mate José Sarney, who had recently joined the party after defecting from the political wing of the military, became president, serving until 1990. Up until 2016, he was the only president of Brazil to come from the party. In recent presidential elections the party has not run candidates of its own, preferring to focus on congressional and governatorial elections.
At the legislative elections on 6 October 2002, the party won 74 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 19 out of 81 seats in the Senate, making it one of the biggest parties in Brazil.
The party decided not to launch a candidate for the 2006 presidential election in order to be free to join any coalition in the states. Under Brazilian electoral law then, parties launching presidential candidates could not form alliances at the state level that differed at the national level (this norm was subsequently repealed). At the congressional elections in October 2006, PMDB won 89 of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, becoming its biggest party; and in the Senate it had 15 of the 81 seats after its one-third renovation, becoming the third-largest party. PMDB also won seven state gubernatorial elections in the same election.
In 2010 the party made gains in the Senate, winning 16 of the elected seats for a total of 20. It was somewhat weakened in other elections, winning 79 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (becoming the second largest party) and winning five state governorships.
Notable PMDB members included: Wanderlei Silva, Tancredo Neves, Ulysses Guimarães, Itamar Franco, Orestes Quércia, Michel Temer, Anthony Garotinho, José Sarney, Renan Calheiros, Pedro Simon, Roberto Requião, Germano Rigotto, Paulo Skaf, Ramez Tebet, Marcelo Fortuna, Iris Rezende and Maguito Vilela.
On March 29, 2016, PMDB announced that it was leaving the coalition with the Workers' Party following accusations against President Dilma Rousseff and former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of corruption. The PMDB supported the impeachment process against Dilma Rousseff. After the impeachment process began, vice president Michel Temer formed a new center-right liberal coalition government with PSDB and other parties. He was confirmed as president as Dilma was permanently removed from office by the Senate on August, 31st 2016, thus becoming the second Brazilian president to hail from PMDB.
On December 19, 2017, the party reverted to its former name, Brazilian Democratic Movement (Portuguese: Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, MDB). The movement was seen as an attempt to renew party identity. The initials PMDB had become associated with corruption and cronyism, while the original acronym was associated with the struggle for democracy, according to party leader, Romero Jucá. The party announced a program based on economic liberalism, fiscal conservatism and greater openness to sectors of civil society such as evangelicals and environmentalists. The party also made it clear that it will prioritize parliamentarians who agree with the new positions of the party, which has been interpreted by many as a warning that rebel parliamentarians, especially the senator from Paraná, Roberto Requião, strongly associated with the Brazilian nationalist left, and even Renan Calheiros, the President of the Federal Senate, considered one of the most powerful personalities of Brazilian politics, but shows little alignment with Temer's government and propositions of economic liberalism, can be excluded from the party. A few days earlier, Senator Kátia Abreu of Tocantins was expelled from the party for her support of the opposition, especially for her firm stance against the pension reform, as an alignment to the PT of whom she had been allied in the mandate of Dilma Rousseff, and also an end of PMDB as a big-tent party.
The predecessor of the party, MDB, was founded as a legal, civil movement of opposition to Brazilian military government. Without a clear program except the democratization of the country, the party was a umbrella of opponents of military regime, ranging from liberal conservatives and Christian democrats from parties like Christian Democratic Party and Social Democratic Party to former labourists, socialists and communists, of Brazilian Labour Party, Brazilian Socialist Party and Brazilian Communist Party. With the redemocratization, many centrists and leftists left the party and joined other parties with more consistent ideologies.
Many Christian democrats, social liberals and social democrats broke with the party in 1988 to form the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, led by Mario Covas, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, José Serra and Franco Montoro. Other PMDB members exit the party to left-wing legends, like the new incarnation of Brazilian Socialist Party, Communist Party of Brazil and Democratic Labour Party. In 2009, the last left-wing section of the party abandoned it and formed the Free Homeland Party, a hard left party descending from the MR-8 guerrilla. Some strong leftists, like senator Roberto Requião remained in the party, but more isolated and less powerful. Other powerful politicians within the party, like former Rio de Janeiro governor Sérgio Cabral Filho and senator Renan Calheiros, stablished a neutral political stance, sometimes described as "Physiological" by its critics.
However, the left-wing loss was strong replaced eventually by dissidents of centrist, centre-left and even right-wing parties, who joined to avoid falling out of power and/or losing feuds with local or national party leadership. This replacement changed the character of the party—from a catch-all party, it started to gravitate centre-right. The party denied the centre-right character or any strict adherence to any political ideology. The party maintains that it is a centrist party for all Brazilians committed with democracy.
|Election date||Party candidate||Number of Electoral vote||Percentage of votes||Role|
|1974||Ulysses Guimarães||76||16%||In opposition|
|1978||Euler Bentes Moreiro||226||39.9%||In opposition|
|1985||Tancredo Neves||480||72.73%||In government|
|Election date||Party candidate||Number of votes||Percentage of votes||Role|
|1989||Ulysses Guimarães||3,204,853||4.7%||In government|
|1994||Orestes Quércia||2,773,497||4.4||In opposition|
|Election date||Number of votes||Percentage of votes||Number of seats|
132 / 409
87 / 310
161 / 364
191 / 422
200 / 479
260 / 487
109 / 502
107 / 513
83 / 513
74 / 513
89 / 513
79 / 513
66 / 513
34 / 513
|Election date||Number of votes||Percentage of votes||Number of seats|
4 / 23
6 / 46
16 / 22
8 / 23
9 / 25
|1986||Not released||Not released|
38 / 49
|1990||Not released||Not released|
8 / 31
26 / 81
|2002||Not released||Not released|
19 / 81
16 / 81
19 / 81
18 / 81
12 / 81
14 - BLP (PTB)
| Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
15 - BDM (MDB)
16 - USWP (PSTU)
The Brazilian gubernatorial elections, 2010 will be held on Sunday, October 3, as part of the country's general election. In these elections, all 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District governorships will be up for election. If none of the candidates receives more than a half of the valid votes, a run-off will be held on October 24, 2010. According to the Federal Constitution, Governors are elected directly to a four-year term, with a limit of two terms. Eleven governors are prohibited from seeking re-election.
Currently, ten of the total seats are held by the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), followed by five held by the Workers' Party (PT) and the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) each. The Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB) holds three seats, and the Progressive Party (PP) holds two. The Democratic Labour Party (PDT) and the Republic Party (PR) holds one seat each. Some Governors are not the same from the outcome of the previous election, since some of them had their terms repealed by the Supreme Electoral Court.
These elections will coincide with the presidential election, as well as the elections for Legislative Assemblies and both houses of the National Congress. These will be the 8th direct gubernatorial elections, and the sixth since the end of the military dictatorship.2014 Brazilian gubernatorial elections
Gubernatorial elections were held in Brazil on 5 October 2014 alongside nationwide general elections, with runoff elections held in several states on 26 October.Alberto Goldman
Alberto Goldman (Portuguese pronunciation: [awˈbɛɾtu ˈɡowdmã]; São Paulo, 12 October 1937) is a Brazilian engineer and politician. He was elected Vice Governor of São Paulo in 2006 with Governor José Serra. After Serra's resignation, Goldman became governor of São Paulo on 6 April 2010.André Franco Montoro
André Franco Montoro (Portuguese: [ɐ̃ˈdrɛ ˈfrãku mõˈtoru]; 14 July 1916 – 16 July 1999) was a Brazilian politician and lawyer. He was born in São Paulo as the son of André de Blois Montoro and Tomásia Alijostes. He was a senator and governor of São Paulo. He was a member of several parties, such as PDC, MDB, PMDB and one of the founders of PSDB. He was also a law philosopher and a professor at PUC-SP, who wrote several law books.
Montoro is credited as being one of the key figures in the Diretas Já movement, along with Tancredo Neves and Ulysses Guimarães, which helped to bring about the return of direct elections to Brazil.
The São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport is named after him.Dário Berger
Dário Berger (born December 7, 1956) is a Brazilian politician. He has represented Santa Catarina in the Federal Senate since 2015. Previously, he was mayor of Florianópolis from 2005 to 2012. He is a member of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party.Berger has been repeatedly accused of corruption. While mayor of São José, Santa Catarina he was fined for several financial irregularities during the construction of a highway. He also faced criticism when he awarded South Stage Events LTDA a contract to build a big Christmas tree in the center of São Jose without a fair bidding process. Despite this, he was part of a Senate committee to investigate President Dilma Rousseff’s alleged tampering of fiscal data.Eduardo Braga
Carlos Eduardo de Sousa Braga (born December 6, 1960) is a Brazilian politician, businessman, current Minister of Mines and Energy and former senator representing the state of Amazonas.
Better known as Eduardo Braga, he was a councilman in Manaus (1981–1985), state deputy (1987–1991), representative (1991–1993), vice-mayor (1993–1994) and mayor (1994–1997). He campaigned for the government of Amazonas in 1998 and for the city hall of Manaus in 2000 without success. He was elected governor of Amazonas in October 2002, in the first turn, with 52.4% of the votes, and assumed office on 1 January 2003. In 2006, Braga was re-elected, in the first turn. He renounced in 2010 to run for the Senate on the elections of that year.On January 1, 2015 he was named Minister of Minister of Mines and Energy in the cabinet of Dilma Rousseff.He is a member of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB).Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Portuguese: [ferˈnɐ̃dʊ ẽˈhiki karˈdozʊ]; born June 18, 1931), also known by his initials FHC ([ɛfjaɡaˈse]), is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2002. He was the first Brazilian president to be reelected for a subsequent term. An accomplished scholar noted for research on slavery and political theory, Cardoso has earned many honors including the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation (2000) and the Kluge Prize from the US Library of Congress (2012).Helder Barbalho
Helder Zahluth Barbalho (born 18 May 1979 in Belém) is a Brazilian administrator, politician, former Chief Minister of National Secretariat of Ports and Minister of Fishing and Aquaculture and former Minister of National Integration, appointed by president Michel Temer. Is son of former governor of Pará and current senator Jader Barbalho and federal deputy Elcione Zahluth. He is mentioned in 2017 among the beneficiaries of bribes from the multinational JBS.Itamar Franco
Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco (Portuguese pronunciation: [itaˈmaɾ ˈfɾɐ̃ku]; June 28, 1930 – July 2, 2011) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 33rd President of Brazil from December 29, 1992 to December 31, 1994. Previously he was Vice President of Brazil from 1990 until the resignation of President Fernando Collor de Mello. During his long political career Franco also served as Senator, Mayor, Ambassador and Governor. At the time of his death he was a Senator from Minas Gerais, having won the seat in the 2010 election.Jarbas Vasconcelos
Jarbas Vasconcelos (born August 23, 1942) is a Brazilian politician and lawyer. He represented Pernambuco in the Federal Senate from 2007 to 2015. Previously, he was governor of Pernambuco from 1999 to 2006. He is a member of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party.José Maranhão
José Targino Maranhão (born September 6, 1933 in Araruna, Paraíba) active in Brazilian politics, was former governor of Paraíba.
He is the son of Benjamim Gomes Maranhão, ex-mayor of Araruna, Paraíba and Dona Benedita Targino Maranhão (Dona YaYá).
Allied with PMDB, he was state representative, federal representative, senator, vice-governor and governor of the state Paraíba for three times.
Currently he is without any political mandate.Kátia Abreu
Kátia Abreu (born February 2, 1962) is a Brazilian politician. She represented Tocantins in the Federal Senate from 2007 to 2014. She was a congresswoman elected by the Tocantins State from 2003 to 2007. She is a member of Democratic Labour Party, since the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party expelled her in 23 November 2017.On 23 December 2014, President Dilma Rousseff appointed Abreu as Minister of Agriculture, to serve during the president's second term, amid controversies among environmentalists, including the group Greenpeace. Abreu took office on January 1, 2015 during Rousseff's second inauguration. Abreu was fired in 12 May 2016, after president Rousseff was suspended by the Senate and vice-president Michel Temer was sworn as acting president, being replaced by Blairo Maggi.Liberalism in Brazil
This article gives an overview of liberal parties in Brazil. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament. The sign ⇒ means a reference to another party in that scheme. For inclusion in this scheme it isn't necessary so that parties labeled themselves as a liberal party.Newton Cardoso
Newton Cardoso (born 22 May 1938) is a Brazilian politician who served as a Member of the Chamber of Deputies and as Governor of Minas Gerais from 1987 to 1991.His son Newton Cardoso Jr is a Member of the Chamber of Deputies.Paulo Câmara
Paulo Henrique Saraiva Câmara (born August 8, 1972 in Recife) is a Brazilian politician. He became Governor of Pernambuco on January 1, 2015.He was a member of the PMDB, from 1985 to 1990.Renan Filho
José Renan Vasconcelos Calheiros Filho (born December 8, 1979) is a Brazilian economist and politician. He is currently governor of Alagoas since January 2015. He is affiliated with the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party.
He was elected mayor of the municipality of Murici, Alagoas, in the 2004 election, and was re-elected in 2008. In early April 2010, he resigned to possibly play a state office of Member of the Legislative Assembly, replaced by Remi Calheiros, former mayor and who was his deputy.
In the elections of October 2010 he was elected Congressman, and that election the most voted candidate of Alagoas. was the one who received the most votes in 22 of the 104 Alagoas state municipalities.
He is the son of the previous president of the Senate, Renan Calheiros, and Maria Veronica Rodrigues Calheiros.In October 2014, he was elected in the first round governor of Alagoas with 52.16% of the votes.Roberto Rocha
Roberto Coelho Rocha (born August 4, 1965) is a Brazilian politician. He became a Federal Senator from Maranhão on February 1, 2015.Rose de Freitas
Rose de Freitas (born January 23, 1949) is a Brazilian politician and journalist. She has represented Espírito Santo in the Federal Senate since 2015. Previously, she was a Deputy from Espírito Santo from 2003 to 2015. She is a member of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party.Simone Tebet
Simone Tebet (born February 27, 1970) is a Brazilian politician. She has represented Mato Grosso do Sul in the Federal Senate since 2015. Previously, she was mayor of Três Lagoas from 2005 to 2010. She is a member of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party.She is the daughter of former governor and senator Ramez Tebet. In June 2015, an investigation implicated Tebet in diverting public resources for a fraudulent contractor while mayor of Três Lagoas. She has not faced prosecution for this, however.