Bran

Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of the combined aleurone and pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains.

Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley, rye and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, which is a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself.

Wheat-kernel nutrition
Wheat kernel compartments and macronutrients

Composition

Bran is particularly rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein, vitamins, and dietary minerals. It is also a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption.

The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is often separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is often heat-treated to increase its longevity.

Nutrients (%) Wheat Rye Oat Rice Barley
Carbohydrates without starch 45–50 50–70 16–34 18–23 70–80
Starch 13–18 12–15 18–45 18–30 8–11
Proteins 15–18 8–9 13–20 15–18 11–15
Fats 4–5 4–5 6–11 18–23 1–2

Rice bran

Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process (the conversion of brown rice to white rice), and it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health.[1] A major rice bran fraction contains 12%-13% oil and highly unsaponifiable components (4.3%). This fraction contains tocotrienols (a form of vitamin E), gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol; all these constituents may contribute to the lowering of the plasma levels of the various parameters of the lipid profile. Rice bran also contains a high level of dietary fibres (beta-glucan, pectin and gum). In addition, it also contains ferulic acid, which is also a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However, some research suggests there are levels of inorganic arsenic present in rice bran. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water.[2]

Uses

Rice bran
Rice bran
WheatBran
Wheat bran
Salvado de avena
Oat bran

Bran is often used to enrich breads (notably muffins) and breakfast cereals, especially for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may also be used for pickling (nukazuke) as in the tsukemono of Japan. Rice bran in particular finds many uses in Japan, where it is known as nuka (; ぬか). Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people also add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots, and use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is called jinda and used for stewing fish, such as sardine.

Rice bran is also stuck to the surface of commercial ice blocks to prevent them from melting. Bran oil may be also extracted for use by itself for industrial purposes (such as in the paint industry), or as a cooking oil, such as rice bran oil.

Wheat bran is useful as feed for poultry and other livestock, as part of a balanced ration with other inputs. Wheatings, a milling byproduct comprising mostly bran with some pieces of endosperm also left over, are included in this category.

Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme, Gardeners' World. It is a common substrate and food source used for feeder insects, such as mealworms and waxworms. Wheat bran has also been used for tanning leather since at least the 16th century.[3]

Brewing

George Washington had a recipe for small beer involving bran, hops, and molasses.[4]

Stability

It is common practice to heat-treat bran with the intention of slowing undesirable rancidification. However, a very detailed 2003 study of heat-treatment of oat bran found a complex pattern whereby increasingly intense heat treatment reduced the development of hydrolitic rancidity and bitterness with time, but increased oxidative rancidity. The authors recommended that heat treatment should be sufficient to achieve selective lipase inactivation, but not so much as to render the polar lipids oxidisable upon prolonged storage.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Barron, Jon (21 September 2010). "Black Rice Bran, the Next Superfood?". Baseline of Health Foundation. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  2. ^ "Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Bran and Its Products Are an Order of Magnitude Higher than in Bulk Grain - Environmental Science & Technology (ACS Publications)". Pubs.acs.org. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  3. ^ Rossetti, Gioanventura (1969). the plictho. Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-0262180306.
  4. ^ George Washington (1757), "To make Small Beer", George Washington Papers. New York Public Library Archive.
  5. ^ Lehtinen, Pekka; Kiiliäinen, Katja; Lehtomäki, Ilkka; Laakso, Simo (2003). "Effect of Heat Treatment on Lipid Stability in Processed Oats". Journal of Cereal Science. 37 (2): 215–221. doi:10.1006/jcrs.2002.0496. ISSN 0733-5210. See figure 1 in particular
Bran, Brașov

Bran (German: Törzburg; Hungarian: Törcsvár) is a commune in Brașov County, Romania. It lies at 30 km from the city of Brașov and is composed of five villages: Bran, Poarta (Hungarian: Porta), Predeluț (Kispredeál), Șimon (Simon) and Sohodol (Szohodol).

The medieval Bran Castle, which was once besieged by Vlad the Impaler, is a popular tourist destination, partly because it resembles the home of Dracula in Bram Stoker's novel.

Bran, Charente-Maritime

Bran is a small commune in southwestern France situated in the department of Charente-Maritime.

The inhabitants of Bran are known as les Brannais and les Brannaises.

Bran Castle

Bran Castle (Romanian: Castelul Bran; German: Törzburg; Hungarian: Törcsvár), situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Brașov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The fortress is situated on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia, on DN73.

Commonly known outside Romania as Dracula's Castle (although it is one among several locations linked to the Dracula legend, including Poenari Castle and Hunyadi Castle), it is often erroneously referred to as the home of the title character in Bram Stoker's Dracula. There is, however, no evidence that Stoker knew anything about this castle, which has only tangential associations with Vlad the Impaler, voivode of Wallachia, the putative inspiration for Dracula. Dutch author Hans Corneel de Roos proposes as location for Castle Dracula an empty mountain top, Mount Izvorul Călimanului, 2,033 metres (6,670 ft) high, located in the Călimani Alps near the former border with Moldavia. Stoker's description of Dracula's crumbling fictional castle also bears no resemblance to Bran Castle.

The castle is now a museum dedicated to displaying art and furniture collected by Queen Marie. Tourists can see the interior on their own or by a guided tour. At the bottom of the hill is a small open-air museum exhibiting traditional Romanian peasant structures (cottages, barns, water-driven machinery, etc.) from the Bran region.

Bran Stark

Brandon Stark is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of epic fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones.

Introduced in 1996's A Game of Thrones, Bran is the second son and fourth child of Eddard Stark, the honorable lord of Winterfell, an ancient fortress in the North of the fictional kingdom of Westeros. He subsequently appeared in Martin's A Clash of Kings (1998) and A Storm of Swords (2000). Bran was one of a few prominent characters that were not included in 2005's A Feast for Crows, but returned in the next novel A Dance with Dragons (2011). Martin told Rolling Stone in 2014 that Bran's chapter with Jaime and Cersei Lannister is what "hooked" many readers early in the first novel.Bran is portrayed by English actor Isaac Hempstead Wright in the HBO television adaptation.

Bran Van 3000

Bran Van 3000 (also known as BV3) is a Canadian alternative rock and hip hop collective from Montreal, Quebec. Founded by DJ James Di Salvio and E.P. Bergen, they collaborated on a number of songs with Stéphane Moraille, Sara Johnston, Steve "Liquid" Hawley, Jayne Hill, Jean Leloup, Kim Bingham, Pierre-Luc Cerat and other musicians.

The name of the group is derived etymologically from Swedish liquor Brännvin, a style of spirit best described as low-grade vodka. The name originated as a joke associated with the taupe-coloured Volkswagen Camper Van owned by Bergen in the mid-1990s which was said to run solely on bran flakes, brännvin and brand recognition when carrying the artists on tour around Canada.

Brandy Norwood

Brandy Rayana Norwood (born February 11, 1979), known professionally by her mononym Brandy, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. Born into a musical family in McComb, Mississippi and raised in Carson, California, she began her career as a child and performed as a backing vocalist for teen groups. In 1993, Norwood signed with Atlantic Records. The following year, she released her self-titled debut album, which was certified quadruple Platinum in the US, selling six million copies worldwide. Norwood starred in the UPN sitcom Moesha as the title character, which lasted six seasons and resulted in numerous other roles. She resumed her music career in 1998 with the wildly successful duet with fellow R&B contemporary Monica, "The Boy Is Mine", which went on to become the best selling female duet of all time, and one of the longest running number one singles in history. Her second album, Never Say Never, sold 16 million copies worldwide, featured two number one singles, and earned Norwood her first Grammy Award. This launched her into international stardom, with films, endorsements, sold out concert tours, and her own line of Barbie dolls.

Throughout the 2000s, Norwood held a precarious position in the pop industry. In 2002, she starred in the reality series Brandy: Special Delivery, documenting the birth of her daughter. Her third and fourth albums, Full Moon (2002) and Afrodisiac (2004), were released to critical and commercial success. She served as a judge on the first season of America's Got Talent before being involved in a widely publicized car accident in 2006. After several lawsuits stemming from the accident, Norwood's fifth album, Human (2008), was released to commercial failure.

In the 2010s, Norwood received a critical and commercial resurgence. In 2010, she returned to television as a contestant on the eleventh season of Dancing with the Stars and starred in the reality series Brandy & Ray J: A Family Business. In 2012 she became a series regular in the BET series The Game, and released her sixth album Two Eleven to critical praise. In April 2015, Norwood made her Broadway debut in the musical Chicago. She starred in and executive produced a new sitcom Zoe Ever After on the BET network in January 2016.

As of July 2018, she has sold over 40 million records worldwide, over 10.5 million in album sales, and has been streamed over 1.5 billion times, making her the only 90's female artist to do so. This makes her one of the best selling female artists of all time. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) lists Norwood as one of the top selling artists in the United States, with 10.5 million certified albums. Her work has earned her numerous awards and accolades, including a Grammy Award, an American Music Award, and seven Billboard Music Awards. She has become known for her distinctive sound, characterized by her peculiar timbre, voice-layering, and intricate riffs, which has earned her the nickname 'The Vocal Bible' from industry peers and critics.

Brân the Blessed

Brân the Blessed (Welsh: Bendigeidfran or Brân Fendigaidd, literally "Blessed Crow") is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. He appears in several of the Welsh Triads, but his most significant role is in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, Branwen ferch Llŷr. He is a son of Llŷr and Penarddun, and the brother of Brânwen, Manawydan, Nisien and Efnysien. The name "Brân" in Welsh is usually translated as crow or raven.

Caer Bran

Caer Bran Hill Fort is an archaeological site near Sancreed and Carn Euny Iron Age village, on the Penwith peninsula in Cornwall.

Kellogg's

The Kellogg Company, doing business as Kellogg's, is an American multinational food-manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States. Kellogg's produces cereal and convenience foods, including cookies, crackers, and toaster pastries and markets their products by several well known brands including Corn Flakes, Keebler, and Cheez-It. Kellogg's mission statement is "Nourishing families so they can flourish and thrive."Kellogg's products are manufactured in 18 languages and marketed in over 180 countries. Kellogg's largest factory is at Trafford Park in Trafford, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom, which is also the location of its European headquarters. Other corporate office locations outside of Battle Creek include Chicago, Dublin, Shanghai, and Querétaro City. Kellogg's holds a Royal Warrant from Queen Elizabeth II and the Prince of Wales.

List of breakfast cereals

This is a list of notable breakfast cereals. Many cereals are trademarked brands of large companies, such as Kellogg's, General Mills, Malt-O-Meal, Nestlé, Quaker Oats and Post Foods, but similar equivalent products are often sold by other manufacturers and as store brands.

Note: Products of the Cereal Partners Worldwide's joint-venture are sold under the Nestlé brand.

Llanfihangel Nant Brân

Llanfihangel Nant Brân is a small village lying next to the Nant Brân river in Powys, Wales about 7.5 miles (12 km) west of Brecon.

It is largely a farming community. Llanfihangel includes a church, dedicated to St. Michael, which was probably built in the 16th century and was substantially reconstructed in 1882.

Bethel Chapel was built between 1810 and 1811, and later rebuilt or modified between 1865 and 1866. It is in the simple round-headed style, of the long-wall entry type. The walls are rendered and whitewashed, with a slate eaved roof above. The windows are small-paned sashes with intersecting tracery in their heads. The interior of the chapel was gutted in 2000.

Muffin

A muffin is an individual-sized, baked product. It can refer to two distinct items, a part-raised flatbread and a cupcake-like quickbread.

The flatbread is of British or European derivation, and dates from at least the early 18th century, while the quickbread originated in North America during the 19th century. Both are common worldwide today.

New wave music in Yugoslavia

New wave in Yugoslavia (Bosnian, Croatian and Slovenian: Novi val; Serbian: Нови талас, Novi talas; Macedonian: Нов бран, transl.: Nov bran; all meaning "New wave") was the new wave music scene of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. As its counterparts, the British and the US new wave, from which the main influences came, the Yugoslav scene was also closely related to punk rock, ska, reggae, 2 Tone, power pop and mod revival. Some of its acts are also counted as belonging to the Yugoslav punk scene which already existed prior to new wave. Such artists were labeled as both punk rock and new wave (the term "new wave" was initially interchangeable with "punk").

Post Consumer Brands

Post Consumer Brands (previously Post Cereals and Postum Cereals) is an American consumer cereal brand that includes Honey Bunches of Oats, Pebbles, Great Grains, Post Shredded Wheat, Post Raisin Bran, Grape-Nuts, Honeycomb, Frosted Mini Spooners, Golden Puffs, Oh's, Cinnamon Toasters, Fruity Dyno-Bites, Cocoa Dyno-Bites, Berry Colossal Crunch and Malt-O-Meal hot wheat cereal.

Raisin Bran

Raisin bran (sultana bran in some countries) is a breakfast cereal manufactured by several companies under a variety of brand names, including Kellogg's Raisin Bran, General Mills' Total Raisin Bran and Post Cereals' Post Raisin Bran.

Rice bran oil

Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff (rice husk). It is known for its high smoke point of 232 °C (450 °F) and mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying. It is popular as a cooking oil in several Asian countries, including Bangladesh, Japan, India, and China.

The Voyage of Bran

Immram Brain (maic Febail) (The Voyage of Bran [son of Febail]) is a medieval Irish narrative.

Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain

The Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain (Welsh: Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain) are a series of items in late medieval Welsh tradition. Lists of the items appear in texts dating to the 15th and 16th centuries. Most of the items are placed in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North", the Brittonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and Northern England; some early manuscripts refer to the whole list specifically as treasures "that were in the North". The number of treasures is always given as thirteen, but some later versions list different items, replacing or combining entries to maintain the number. Later versions also supplement the plain list with explanatory comments about each treasure.

Wheat flour

Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. Wheat varieties are called "soft" or "weak" if gluten content is low, and are called "hard" or "strong" if they have high gluten content. Hard flour, or bread flour, is high in gluten, with 12% to 14% gluten content, and its dough has elastic toughness that holds its shape well once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and thus results in a loaf with a finer, crumbly texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.

In terms of the parts of the grain (the grass fruit) used in flour—the endosperm or protein/starchy part, the germ or protein/fat/vitamin-rich part, and the bran or fiber part—there are three general types of flour. White flour is made from the endosperm only. Brown flour includes some of the grain's germ and bran, while whole grain or wholemeal flour is made from the entire grain, including the bran, endosperm, and germ. Germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran.

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