Brahmani River

The Brahmani is a major seasonal river in the Odisha state of Eastern India. The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the Sankh and South Koel rivers, and flows through the districts of Sundargarh, Deogarh, Angul, Dhenkanal, Cuttack, Jajapur and Kendrapara.[1] Together with the riversBaitarani, it forms a large delta before emptying into the Bay of Bengal at Dhamra.

Brahmani River
Koel river Jaraikela Orissa
Native nameବ୍ରାହ୍ମଣୀ ନଦୀ
Physical characteristics
SourceConfluence of South Koel River and Sankh River
 - coordinates22°14′45″N 84°47′02″E / 22.24583°N 84.78389°E
MouthBay of Bengal
 - elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Basin size39,033 km2 (15,071 sq mi)
The Brahmani River (top)


The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the rivers South Koel and Sankh near the major industrial town of Rourkela at 22 15'N and 84 47' E. The Sankh has its origins near the Jharkhand-Chhattisgarh border, not far from the Netarhat Plateau. The South Koel too arises in Jharkhand, near Lohardaga, on the other side of a watershed that also gives rise to the Damodar River. Both of these sources are in the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The site of the Brahmani's origin is mythologically reputed to be the place where Sage Parashara fell in love with the fisherman's daughter, Satyavati who later gave birth to Ved Vyasa, the compiler of the Mahabharata. The place is thus called Ved Vyasa.[2]

Koel river Jaraikela Orissa
South Koel river near Jaraikela, Orissa. One of the two tributaries of Brahmani River

After assuming the name of Brahmani, the river crosses the Tamra and Jharbera forests, skirting along National Highway 23. It then passes the town of Bonaigarh in Sundargarh district before being dammed at Rengali in Anugul district. A large reservoir of the same name is created as a consequence. It then flows through the towns of Talcher and Dhenkanal before splitting up into two streams. The main stream flows by the town of Jajpur Road beyond which it is crossed by National Highway 16 and the Kolkata-Chennai mainline of East Coast Railway. The branch stream called Kimiria receives the waters of the Birupa (a distributary of the Mahanadi, Kelua and Genguti before re joining the main stream at Indupur. It then flows crisscrossing through Pattamundai. The river then receives the Kharsuan, on its left bank before merging with the Baitarani, a major river, to form the Dhamra estuary. A distributary called Maipara branches off here to join the Bay of Bengal a short distance away while the main stream proceeds northward for a few km more before ultimately meeting the sea near Chandbali at Palmyras Point. The Brahmani delta is the site of the Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, famous for its estuarine crocodiles.[3]

Patrapur Bridge on Brahmani River in Pattamundai along SH-9A
Patrapur Bridge on Brahmani River in Pattamundai along SH-9A

Length and catchment

At about 480 kilometres (300 mi) long, the Brahmani is the second longest river in Orissa after the Mahanadi. However if its constituent rivers are included its length extends to about 799 kilometres (496 mi), of which 541 kilometres (336 mi) are in Orissa. It has a catchment area of about 39,033 square kilometres (15,071 sq mi) in Orissa alone.[4]

Irrigation projects

Apart from the Rengali dam mentioned above, there also exists a barrage shortly before Talcher called Samal Barrage. The Jokadia and the Jenapur anicuts are the other irrigation projects on the river. Near its mouth, the river is also crossed by the Orissa Coast Canal that takes water from it.[5]


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Anantashayana Vishnu

Anantashayi Vishnu, also known as Anantashayana Vishnu (both literally "sleeping on the serpent Ananta"), is a large open air rock relief of the Hindu god Vishnu, carved during the early 9th Century in the Saranga village, under the Parjang police station, in Dhenkanal district of Orissa, India. It is located on the left bank of the Brahmani River. It is the largest such exposed rock cut structure in the horizontal position measuring 15.4 metres (51 ft) in length, in the whole of India, while the largest standing image is of Gomateshwara in Southern India. It is a protected monument maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India, Bhubaneswar Circle. Worship is still offered to the four armed reclining Vishnu.

Angul Thermal Power Station

Angul Thermal Power Station is a coal based thermal power project located at Derang village in Angul district in Indian state of Odisha. The power plant is one of the coal based power plants of Jindal India Thermal Power Limited.

Coal for the power plant is sourced from Mahanadi Coalfields Limited and water is sourced from Samal Barrage on Brahmani River which is 14 km away. Bharat Heavy Electricals is the EPC contractor for this project.

Baji Rout

Baji Rout(Odia: ବାଜି ରାଉତ) is the youngest Indian martyr. This 12 year old boat boy was killed by British police when he denied to ferry them across the Brahmani River on the night of 11 October 1938 at Nila kanthapur Ghat, Bhuban, Dhenkanal district.Baji Rout was the youngest son of a boatman on the Brahmani river.

As an active member of the Banar Sena of Prajamandal (Party of People),

He had volunteered to keep watch by the river at night. The British Police force ordered him to cross the river by his Boat which he denied. The police force then fired upon Baji Rout along with Laxman Mallik and Fagu Sahoo.

Bali Jatra

Bālijātrā (also Bōita Bandāṇa) literally means A Voyage to Bali. This festival is held in Odisha (a state in eastern India), in the city of Cuttack at Gadagadia Ghata of the Mahanadi river, to mark the day when ancient Sadhabas (Odia mariners) would set sail to distant lands of Bali, as well as Java (at the time of the voyage known as "Yawadvipa"), Sumatra, Borneo (all in Indonesia), and Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) for trade and cultural expansion. To commemorate this, the festival is celebrated every year from the day of Kartika Purnima (full moon day of the month of Kartika) according to the Odia Calendar.

On Kartika Purnima, which comes around the end of October and November, people of Odisha gather near banks of Mahanadi, Brahmani river, other river banks, ponds, water tanks and sea shores to float miniature toy boats, made of colored paper, dried banana tree barks, and cork, as a symbolic gesture of their ancestors' voyage. These toy boats, usually launched early in the morning contain traditional paan and small oil lamps, which are lit and placed inside them, to provide an attractive sight during the festival. People sing a song Aa ka ma boi, pan gua thoi... to remember the early maritime history of Odisha. The song tells about four months that are important for marine merchants of Kalinga (the earlier name of Odisha). This festival is also celebrated with great fanfare in Paradeep. Bali Jatra bears testimony to the rich maritime legacy of ancient Odisha. This is the specific time that was considered auspicious by the Sadhabas to begin their voyage in vessels called Boitas. The voyage is begun on Kartika Purnima to take advantage of the favorable wind blowing during this time. Ajhala or big fabric sails were used to harness the wind power to move the Boitas.

Bali Jatra is also associated with Taapoi and rituals like Bhalukuni Osha or Khudurukuni Osha and Bada Osha. Taapoi is closely associated with the Bali Jatra festival, which recalls traditional memories of young maidens waiting for the return of their sailor brothers.

In Cuttack, Bali Jatra is celebrated annually as a large open fair near the Barabati Fort area. It is said to be the largest fair of Asia. There are several attractions for children like toy stalls, giant wheels, differnts games, maut ka kuan (literally well of death) and food stalls selling Odia delicacies (Cuttack Dahivada Aludum, Thunka puri, Kulfi, Gupchup, Mathura Cake, Banarasi Paan etc.) from different parts of the state, and other vendors selling toys, curiosities, and other gifts. Bali Jatra also provides a lot of cultural programs. Every year millions of people from all over the nation come to experience it.

Bamra State

Bamra State or Bamanda State, covering an area of 5149 km², was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj, its capital was in Debagarh (Deogarh). Bamra State acceded to India in 1948.

The state was located in a hilly area between the Mahanadi valley and the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. Most of its territory was forest, producing timber and lac but said to be rich in iron ore. The most important river was the Brahmani River. The state was one of the five Orissa Tributary States which were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal on the reconstitution of that province in October 1905. The capital is Deogarh.

Brahmani River (Birbhum)

The Brahmani River is a tributary of the Dwarka River.

Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary

Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary is a marine wildlife sanctuary located in Odisha and is a very popular tourist attraction of Odisha in India. It is the world's largest nesting beach for Olive Ridley Turtles. It extends from Dhamra River mouth in the north to Brahmani river mouth in the south.

It is very famous for its nesting beach for olive ridley sea turtles. It is the one of world's most important nesting beach for turtles.

Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang

The Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology (IGIT) (Odia: ଇନ୍ଦିରା ଗାନ୍ଧୀ ବୈଷୟିକ ମହାବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ) an autonomous institute is located at Sarang in Dhenkanal district in the Indian state of Odisha. It was established in 1982 by the government of Odisha. It is considered one among the premier institutions in the state. In addition to four year undergraduate degree courses, it offers three year Diploma courses in technical disciplines and a 3-year postgraduate degree in computer applications. It also offers five year BArch courses.It offers postgraduate degree courses in engineering. The college has 179 acres (0.72 km2) of land and it is situated near the Brahmani River. Currently, Dr. Satyabrata Mahanta is the director of the institute.

Five branches in undergraduate courses of the institute are accredited by the NBA in the year 2016. It is affiliated to Biju Patnaik University of Technology and the State Council for Technical Education & Vocational Training. In 2014 the Government of Odisha has decided to confer unitary university status to IGIT.

Koel (disambiguation)

The koel is a genus of birs.

Koel or KOEL may also refer to:

KOEL (AM), a radio station (950 AM) licensed to Oelwein, Iowa, United States

KOEL-FM, a radio station (98.5 FM) licensed to Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States

South Koel River, a river in Jharkhand, India, a tributary of the Brahmani River

North Koel River, a river in Jharkhand, India, a tributary of the Son River

List of National Waterways in India

There are 111 officially notified Inland National Waterways (NWs) in India identified for the purposes of inland water transport,

as per The National Waterways Act, 2016. Out of the 111 NWs, 106 were created in 2016. The NW network covers around 20,275.5 km. NW-1, 2, & 3 are already operational. Cargo as well as passenger / cruise vessels are plying on these waterways. Detailed Project Report(DPR) for development of NW-4 & 5 was completed in 2010. The DPR of NW 5 was updated in 2014. For the newly declared 106 NWs, techno-economic feasibility studies have been initiated.

National Waterway 5

National Waterway 5 (NW-5) is one of six National Waterways in India and it covers the state of Odisha and a part of West Bengal. It runs a total length of 623 km of which 91 km is within West Bengal and the remaining 532 km is in Odisha. It was declared a National Waterway in November 2008.

The NW-5 consists of the stretches from Talcher to Dhamra on the Brahmani River a distance of 265 km including the Kharsua and Dhamra river systems, the Geonkhali–Charbatia stretch of the East Coast Canal of 217 km, the Charbatia–Dhamra stretch of Matai River of 40 km and the Mangalgadi–Paradip stretch of the Mahanadi River Delta running for 101 km. The waterway also includes a 91 km stretch in Bengal between Geonkhali and Nasirabad, West Bengal.A bill was introduced in Parliament on December 8, 2006, to declare these stretches as NW 5 and it was passed with amendments in 2008 and a sum of Rs. 1525 crore was allocated towards readying the identified waterways as the NW 5.When the project reaches its peak capacity by 2016, it is expected to handle over 18 million tonnes of cargo annually. The traffic on the NW 5 will consist largely of cargo such as coal, fertiliser, cement, iron ore and agricultural and industrial products that will be handled at four terminals— Talcher, Nasirabd, Balasore and Rajnagar. The transport of coal from Talcher to the Dhamra and Paradip ports is expected to contribute to the bulk of the traffic and it is estimated that the total tonnage will near 23 million tonnes in about 15 years from the completion of the project.Since the Brahmani River has a sharp river regime, 5 barrages are to be constructed on the river between Talcher and Jokadia to maintain a minimum draft. Each barrage will have navigational locks that allows for the passage of two 500 tonne vessels at a time. With the addition of NW 4 and NW 5, the total length of National Waterways in India became 4460 km.


Nimapur is a village situated in Kendrapara district in the state of Odisha, India, situated next to the Brahmani river (second largest river in Orissa).

The Bay Of Bengal is only few miles away towards the east of Nimapur.

Palmyras Point

Palmyras Point or Point Palmyras is a low headland in the Bay of Bengal.

It is located at the eastern end of the Brahmani River delta in the state of Odisha, India, close to the Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, an area of mangroves.False Point, located further south, derives its name from the circumstance that vessels proceeding up the Bay of Bengal frequently mistook it for Point Palmyras.


Pattamundai is a town and a municipality in Kendrapara district in the Indian state of Odisha, located on the centre of SH-9A from Cuttack to Chandbali along the south end of Brahmani River. It is also the headquarter of Pattamundai Block.

Rengali Dam

Rengali dam is located in Odisha. It is constructed across Brahmani River in Rengali village located 70 km from Angul in Angul district, Odisha in India.

Sankh River

The Sankh River flows across Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Odisha states in India. The river flows for 240 kilometres (150 mi) before it meets the Koel River in Odisha.


Talcher also named as Coal City of Odisha is one of the fastest growing industrial and coal hubs in the state. Because of its huge coal reserves, the city has been ranked among the highest in terms of GDP in Odisha. It is also one of the 4 sub-divisions of Angul district in the Indian state of Odisha. Situated on the right bank of the river Brahmani, it is one of the fastest growing industrial and mining complexes of the country. The city is surrounded by the coalfields under MCL (Mahanadi Coalfields Limited) and has three Mega Power plants like NTPC, TTPS. Jindal power plant

Talcher Super Thermal Power Station

Talcher Super Thermal Power Station or NTPC Talcher Kaniha located in Angul district of the Indian state of Odisha is the first mega power plant of India to have an installed generation capacity of 3000MW. The power plant is one of the coal-based power plants of NTPC. The coal for the power plant is sourced from Lingraj Block & Kaniha coal block of Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. Source of water for the power plant is from Samal Barrage Reservoir on Brahmani River.

The plant supplies power to Indian states of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana as well as Bihar and West Bengal. The East South Interconnection of the Indian power grid starts from NTPC kaniha and ends at Kolar in Karnataka. This being a DC link is one of its kind in India as uptill now there are only 3 installed HVDC system present in India. The Southern grid is weakly interconnected to the National grid of India through the Talcher-Kolar HVDC system in the East.

Talcher Thermal Power Station

Talcher Thermal Power station is located in Talcher sub-division of Angul district in the Indian state of Odisha Pin.759101.The power plant is one of the coal-based plants of NTPC. The coal for the power plant is sourced from Jagannath Mines of Mahanadi Coalfields Limited. Source of water for the plant is from Brahmani River.This power plant has been ranked among the best power plants in the country despite being the oldest plant in the state. It has consistently topped the charts in NTPC for the last 4 years and was also the nation's top power plant (by PLF) in 2015-16.

On 23 November 2016, TTPS achieved the highest ever power generation among all the power plants in the country in a single day at 104.13% PLF.

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Harbours/Ports/Proposed Ports
Related topics
Hydrography of surrounding areas
Mahanadi–Brahmani–Baitarani basin
Dams, barrages
Geographical features
Riparian districts
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