Brachiocephalic artery

The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.

It is the first branch of the aortic arch, and soon after it emerges, the brachiocephalic artery divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery.

There is no brachiocephalic artery for the left side of the body. The left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery, come directly off the aortic arch. However, there are two brachiocephalic veins.

Brachiocephalic artery.
Gray506
Schematic of the proximal aorta, frontal view. The brachiocephalic artery (labeled innominate) is the first branch of the aorta and the first branch from the arch of the aorta. The heart in the lower left is not shown.
Gray560
The veins of the thyroid gland.
Details
Sourceaortic arch
Branchesright common carotid artery
right subclavian artery
thyroid ima artery
Veinbrachiocephalic vein
Identifiers
Latintruncus brachiocephalicus
MeSHD016122
TAA12.2.04.004
FMA3932
Anatomical terminology

Structure

It arises, on a level with the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, from the start of the aortic arch, on a plane anterior to the origin of the left carotid artery; it ascends obliquely upward, backward, and to the right to the level of the upper border of the right sternoclavicular articulation, where it divides into the right common carotid artery and right subclavian arteries. The artery then crosses the trachea in front of it obliquely from the left to the right, roughly at the middle of the trachea or the level of the ninth tracheal cartilage.

In infants, it often divides cephalad to the sternoclavicular articulation, within the anterior triangle of the neck.

Branches

The thyreoidea ima (arteria thyreoidea ima) ascends in front of the trachea to the lower part of the thyroid gland, which it supplies.

Variation

The innominate artery usually gives off no branches, but occasionally a small branch, the thyreoidea ima, arises from it. Other times, it gives off a thymic or bronchial branch.

It varies greatly in size, and appears to compensate for deficiency or absence of one of the other thyroid vessels. It occasionally arises from the aorta, the right common carotid, the subclavian or the internal mammary.

Additional images

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Brachiocephalic artery

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Brachiocephalic trunk

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 548 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

External links

Anterior interventricular sulcus

The anterior interventricular sulcus (or anterior longitudinal sulcus) is one of two grooves that separates the ventricles of the heart, the other being the posterior interventricular sulcus.

The anterior interventricular sulcus is situated on the sternocostal surface of the heart, close to its left margin.

The anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery runs in the sulcus along with the great cardiac vein.

Aortic arch

The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch (English: ) is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta. The arch travels backward, so that it ultimately runs to the left of the trachea.

Artery

An artery (plural arteries) (from Greek, Modern ἀρτηρία (artēria), meaning 'windpipe, artery') is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc). Most arteries carry oxygenated blood; the two exceptions are the pulmonary and the umbilical arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood to the organs that oxygenate it. The effective arterial blood volume is that extracellular fluid which fills the arterial system.

The arteries are part of the circulatory system, which is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products, the maintenance of optimum blood pH, and the circulation of proteins and cells of the immune system.

Brachiocephalic

Brachiocephalic can refer to the following:

The brachiocephalic artery supplies blood to the right arm, head and neck.

The left and right brachiocephalic veins merge to form the superior vena cava, one of the primary pathways by which blood is returned to the heart.

Brachiocephalic, an alternate spelling of brachycephalic, is a grouping within the cephalic index describing "short headed" animals or persons. A common use of this term is in describing pug-nosed dogs.

Brachiocephalic vein

The left and right brachiocephalic veins (or innominate veins) in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. This is at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. The left brachiocephalic vein is usually longer than the right.

These veins merge to form the superior vena cava, a great vessel, posterior to the junction of the first costal cartilage with the manubrium sternum.

The brachiocephalic veins are the major veins returning blood to the superior vena cava.

Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) (English: ) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

Descending thoracic aorta

The descending thoracic aorta is a part of the aorta located in the thorax. It is a continuation of the descending aorta and contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity. The descending thoracic aorta begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

At its commencement, it is situated on the left of the vertebral column; it approaches the median line as it descends; and, at its termination, lies directly in front of the column.

The descending thoracic aorta has a curved shape that faces forward, and has small branches. It has a radius of approximately 1.16 cm.

Head and neck anatomy

This article describes the anatomy of the head and neck of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat.

Inferior thyroid veins

The inferior thyroid veins appear two, frequently three or four, in number, and arise in the venous plexus on the thyroid gland, communicating with the middle and superior thyroid veins. While the superior and middle thyroid veins serve as direct tributaries to the internal jugular vein, the inferior thyroid veins drain directly to the brachiocephalic veins.

They form a plexus in front of the trachea, behind the Sternothyreoidei.

From this plexus, a left vein descends and joins the left brachiocephalic vein, and a right vein passes obliquely downward and to the right across the brachiocephalic artery to open into the right brachiocephalic vein, just at its junction with the superior vena cava; sometimes the right and left veins open by a common trunk in the latter situation.

These veins receive esophageal tracheal, and inferior laryngeal veins, and are provided with valves at their terminations in the brachiocephalic veins.

Innominate

Innominate (from Latin: innominatus "nameless") may refer to:

The brachiocephalic artery

The brachiocephalic veins

The three large bones which form the hip bone

An innominate contract, a contract not of a type regulated by law

An innominate or anonymous jury, where the identity of the jury members is not publicly known

Innominate (album), by Off Minor, 2004

The Innominate, a mountain in the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming, USInnominata, from the same root, is used in:

Substantia innominata, a part of the brain

Iris innominata, a flower

Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (Latin: arterial ligament) is a small ligament that is the remnant of the ductus arteriosus formed within three weeks after birth.

At the superior end, the ligamentum attaches to the aorta—at the final part of the aortic arch (the isthmus of aorta) or the first part of the descending aorta. On the other, inferior end, the ligamentum is attached to the top of the left pulmonary artery.The ligament is a vestige of the ductus arteriosus, a temporary fetal structure that shunts blood from the pulmonary arteries to the aorta, in order to avoid circulating blood through the lungs, which are inactive in the womb. The ductus arteriosus becomes the ligamentum arteriosum within three weeks of birth, so that deoxygenated blood can be selectively circulated to the lungs for more efficient oxygenation of the blood.

The ligamentum arteriosum is closely related to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the left vagus nerve. After splitting from the left vagus nerve, the left recurrent laryngeal loops around the aortic arch behind the ligamentum arteriosum, after which it ascends to the larynx.

This ligament also plays a role in major trauma; it fixes the aorta in place during abrupt motions, consequently potentially resulting in ruptured aorta.

Mediastinum

The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax. The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, the trachea, the phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, the thymus and the lymph nodes of the central chest.

Papillary muscle

The papillary muscles are muscles located in the ventricles of the heart. They attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (also known as the mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendineae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves on systole (or ventricular contraction). The papillary muscles constitute about 10% of the total heart mass.

Phrenic nerve

The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. It takes its name from the Ancient Greek phren, meaning diaphragm. It is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it. There are two phrenic nerves, a left and a right one.

The phrenic nerve originates mainly from the 4th cervical nerve, but also receives contributions from the 5th and 3rd cervical nerves (C3-C5) in humans. Thus, the phrenic nerve receives innervation from parts of both the cervical plexus and the brachial plexus of nerves.

The phrenic nerves contain motor, sensory, and sympathetic nerve fibers. These nerves provide the only motor supply to the diaphragm as well as sensation to the central tendon. In the thorax, each phrenic nerve supplies the mediastinal pleura and pericardium.

Subclavian artery

In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle. They receive blood from the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax. On the left side of the body, the subclavian comes directly off the aortic arch, while on the right side it arises from the relatively short brachiocephalic artery when it bifurcates into the subclavian and the right common carotid artery.

The usual branches of the subclavian on both sides of the body are the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery, the thyrocervical trunk, the costocervical trunk and the dorsal scapular artery, which may branch off the transverse cervical artery which is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk. The subclavian becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib.

Takayasu's arteritis

Takayasu's arteritis (also known as Takayasu's disease, "aortic arch syndrome," "nonspecific aortoarteritis," and "pulseless disease") is a form of large vessel granulomatous vasculitis with massive intimal fibrosis and vascular narrowing, most commonly affecting often young or middle-age women of Asian descent, though anyone can be affected. It mainly affects the aorta (the main blood vessel leaving the heart) and its branches, as well as the pulmonary arteries. Females are about 8–9 times more likely to be affected than males.Those with the disease often notice symptoms between 15 and 30 years of age. In the Western world, atherosclerosis is a more frequent cause of obstruction of the aortic arch vessels than Takayasu's arteritis. Takayasu's arteritis is similar to other forms of vasculitis, including giant cell arteritis which typically affects older individuals. Due to obstruction of the main branches of the aorta, including the left common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic artery, and the left subclavian artery, Takayasu's arteritis can present as pulseless upper extremities (arms, hands, and wrists with weak or absent pulses on the physical examination) which may be why it is also commonly referred to as the "pulseless disease." Involvement of renal arteries may lead to a presentation of renovascular hypertension.

Tracheoinnominate fistula

Tracheoinnominate fistula (TIAF or TIF) is an abnormal connection (fistula) between the innominate artery (brachiocephalic trunk or brachiocephalic artery) and the trachea. A TIF is a rare but life-threatening iatrogenic injury, usually the sequela of a tracheotomy.

Arteries of the torso and chest
Lungs
Heart
Aorta

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