Boy Scouts may refer to:
Barnes-Wallace v. Boy Scouts of America was a case involving the City of San Diego's relationship with the Boy Scouts of America.
Plaintiffs Lori and Lynn Barnes-Wallace, a lesbian couple, joined Michael and Valerie Breen, an agnostic couple, in suing the City of San Diego and the Boy Scouts of America. Both couples are the parents of Scout-aged sons, but had never tried to use the facilities.
The Boy Scouts of America have policies forbidding gays, atheists, and agnostics from participating in the organization. Since 1957, the City of San Diego has leased part of the city's Balboa Park to the Boy Scouts of America for the price of $1 per year. In 2000, the Breens and the Barnes-Wallaces, aided by the American Civil Liberties Union, sued the city, alleging that the lease was unconstitutional.
In 2003, the District Court agreed and ruled in favor of Barnes-Wallace. The case was appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals who reversed the decision in 2012 in favor of the Boy Scouts. "There is no evidence the city's purpose in leasing the subject properties to the Boy Scouts was to advance religion, and there is abundant evidence that its purpose was to provide facilities and services for youth activities," wrote Judge William C. Canby Jr. .In 2013, the plaintiffs decided not to appeal the ruling in favor of the Boy Scouts, thus ending the suit.Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest Scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, and since then, about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time. The BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922.
The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, and self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, and outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping, aquatics, and hiking. To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier (Minnesota, Manitoba, and Ontario), Philmont Scout Ranch (New Mexico), Sea Base (Florida), and Summit Bechtel Reserve (West Virginia), as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations specifically dedicated to scouts.
The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for boys and girls ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for boys and girls ages 11 to 17, and Venturing for young men and women ages 14 (or 13 and having completed the 8th grade) through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate that provides in-school and career education. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America officially renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join (in sex-segregated troops).The BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, clubs, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led entirely by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers.Boy Scouts of America membership controversies
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA), one of the largest private youth organizations in the United States, has policies which prohibit those who are not willing to subscribe to the BSA's Declaration of Religious Principle, which is usually interpreted as banning atheists, and, until January 2014, prohibited all "known or avowed homosexuals", from membership in its Scouting program. The ban on adults who are "open or avowed homosexuals" from leadership positions was lifted in July 2015. Prior to these policy changes, BSA had denied or revoked membership status or leadership positions for violation of these foundational principles. The BSA had contended that its policies were essential in its mission to instill in young people the values of the Scout Promise, or Oath, and Scout Law.The organization's legal right to have these policies has been upheld repeatedly by both state and federal courts. In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, the Supreme Court of the United States has affirmed that as a private organization, the BSA can set its own membership standards. The BSA's policies have been legally challenged but have not been found to constitute illegal discrimination because as a private organization in the United States, the BSA has the right to freedom of association, as determined in the court case. In recent years, the policy disputes have led to litigation over the terms under which the BSA can access governmental resources, including public lands.
These policies have led to various disputes and controversies. In 2012, both Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney and then President Barack Obama stated that they opposed the ban on gay Scouts. On May 23, 2013, the BSA's National Council approved a resolution to remove the restriction denying membership to youth on the basis of sexual orientation alone effective January 1, 2014. The policy for adult leaders remained in place until July 27, 2015.Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
Boy Scouts of America et al. v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640 (2000), was a case of the Supreme Court of the United States, decided on June 28, 2000, that held that the constitutional right to freedom of association allowed the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) to exclude a homosexual person from membership in spite of a state law requiring equal treatment of homosexuals in public accommodations. More generally, the court ruled that a private organization such as the BSA may exclude a person from membership when "the presence of that person affects in a significant way the group's ability to advocate public or private viewpoints". In a five to four decision, the Supreme Court ruled that opposition to homosexuality is part of BSA's "expressive message" and that allowing homosexuals as adult leaders would interfere with that message.The ruling reversed a decision of the New Jersey Supreme Court that had determined that New Jersey's public accommodations law required the BSA to readmit assistant Scoutmaster James Dale, who had made his homosexuality public and whom the BSA had expelled from the organization for that reason.Boy Scouts of the Philippines
The Boy Scouts of the Philippines, BSP, is the national Scout association of the Philippines in the World Organization of the Scout Movement. It was "granted Recognition as a Member Organisation of the Boy Scouts International Conference...with effect from 1–10–1946" by virtue of certification signed by J. S. Wilson, Olave Baden-Powell, and Daniel Spry.
For most of the late 20th century and into the 21st century, the Boy Scouts of the Philippines was among the largest Scout organizations in the world in terms of membership count (usually behind the Boy Scouts of America and the co-ed Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia), largely due to the organization's dependence on the Department of Education.Boys' Life
Boys' Life is the monthly magazine of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Its target readers are between the ages of 6 and 18. The magazine headquarters are in Irving, Texas.Boys' Life is published in two demographic editions. Both editions often have the same cover, but are tuned to the target audience through the inclusion of 16–20 pages of unique content per edition.
The first edition is suitable for the youngest members of Cub Scouting, the 6-to-10-year-old Cub Scouts and first-year Webelos Scouts. The second edition is appropriate for 11-to-18-year-old boys, which includes second-year Webelos through 18-year-old Boy Scouts, Varsity Scouts and Venturers. If the subscription is obtained through registration in the Boy Scouts of America program, the publisher selects the appropriate edition based on the boy's age.
In June 2007, Boys' Life garnered four Distinguished Achievement Awards conferred by the Association of Educational Publishers (AEP), including Periodical of the Year.The magazine's mascot is Pedro the Mailburro, who answers readers' letters and is the subject of a comic strip.COPE (Boy Scouts of America)
COPE is an acronym for Challenging Outdoor Personal Experience, a program in the Boy Scouts of America. It consists of group initiative games, trust events, and high and low ropes course. Some activities involve a group challenge, while others develop individual skills and agility. Participants climb, swing, balance, jump, rappel, and devise solutions to a variety of problems. It is also jokingly called Children On Playground Equipment because of the activities the scouts participate in.Cub Scout
Cub Scouts, Cubs or Wolf Cubs are programs associated with Scouting for young children usually between 5 and 12, depending on the national organization to which they belong. A participant in the program is called a Cub. A group of Cubs is called a 'Pack'.
The Wolf Cub program was originated by The Boy Scouts Association in the United Kingdom in 1916 to provide a program for boys who were too young to be Boy Scouts. It was adopted by many other Scouting organizations. Many Scouting organizations, including The Scout Association, no longer use the Wolf Cub program and have replaced it with other programs but have retained the name Cubs. Others, including Traditional Scouting organizations, maintain the original Wolf Cubs program.
Originally Cubs programs were open only to boys, while young girls could join the Brownies. Some Cub organizations are open to both girls and boys, although not necessarily in the same unit. A few organizations also operate a Sea Cub version of Cubs.Cub Scouting (Boy Scouts of America)
Cub Scouting is part of the Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), available to boys and girls from kindergarten through fifth grade, or 5 to 10 years of age and their families. Its membership is the largest of the five main BSA divisions (Cub Scouting, Scouts BSA, Venturing, Exploring and Sea Scouting). Cub Scouting is part of the worldwide Scouting movement and aims to promote character development, citizenship training, personal fitness, and leadership.Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
Eagle Scout is the highest achievement or rank attainable in the Scouts BSA program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). The designation "Eagle Scout" was founded over one hundred years ago. Only four percent of Boy Scouts are granted this rank after a lengthy review process. The requirements necessary to achieve this rank take years to fulfill. Since its founding, the Eagle Scout rank has been earned by almost 2.5 million youth.Requirements include earning at least 21 merit badges. The Eagle Scout must demonstrate Scout Spirit, an ideal attitude based upon the Scout Oath and Law, service, and leadership. This includes an extensive service project that the Scout plans, organizes, leads, and manages. Eagle Scouts are presented with a medal and a badge that visibly recognizes the accomplishments of the Scout. Additional recognition can be earned through Eagle Palms, awarded for completing additional tenure, leadership, and merit badge requirements.First Class Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
First Class Scout is a rank in the Boy Scouts of America, the rank above Second Class and below Star Scout. It is the highest of the lower four ranks in Scouting, and is the minimum rank that need be attained for entry into the Order of the Arrow or service as a troop's senior patrol leader.
Robert Baden-Powell wanted a First Class Scout to be the complete outdoorsman. Originally, First Class scout was the final and highest rank. Later ranks were originally recognitions of earning merit badges beyond First Class, and not properly ranks. Now these additional ranks form a second tier where Scouts can further develop leadership skills and explore potential vocations and avocations through the merit badge program.
For a brief period in Scouting's history, prior to the introduction of Eagle Scout, First Class Scout was the highest rank in the BSA; for several more years, it was the highest rank needed (until Star and Life became mandatory) for Eagle.
The number of Scouts achieving First Class within one year of joining is still one of the key measures of unit effectiveness. Studies have shown that if a Scout achieves First Class within a year of joining, he typically stays in the Scout program for at least three years. Scouts who do so are more likely to retain Scout values as an adult and achieve the BSA primary mission of "producing useful citizens".List of national presidents of the Boy Scouts of America
The national president is the leading volunteer of the Executive Board of the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America, a position comparable to the chairman of a board of directors.
Effective 2018, the role of National President has been renamed National Chair. The National Chair is a member of the National Key 3 along with the National Commissioner and the Chief Scout Executive.Merit badge (Boy Scouts of America)
Merit Badges are awards earned by members of Scouts BSA, based on activities within the area of study by completing a list of periodically updated requirements. The purpose of the merit badge program is to allow Scouts examine subjects to determine if they would like to further pursue them as a career or vocation. Originally, the program also introduced Scouts to the life skills of contacting an adult they hadn't met before, arranging a meeting and then demonstrating their skills, similar to a job or college interview. Increasingly, though, merit badges are earned in a class setting at troop meetings and summer camps.
Each merit badge has a pamphlet (booklet) associated with it; the pamphlet contains information on completing the requirements for the badge. Scouts must meet up with their Scoutmasters to receive a signed blue card in order to begin working on a merit badge. The Scout then contacts an adult who is registered as a counselor for that merit badge in order to learn which badge requirements they must complete before meeting. Once these requirements are completed, the Scout meets with the counselor to demonstrate that the Scout has completed the requirements. The counselor then 'signs off' on each requirement. After completing the merit badge, the Scout can then purchase a merit badge patch.The award of a merit badge is represented by a circular patch with an image representing the badge's topic. The patches for the Eagle-required merit badges are distinguishable by the silver ring on the outside edge. Merit badges are displayed on a sash which can be worn with the Boy Scout uniform on formal occasions. Every year the National Council reviews and updates a certain number of merit badges. There are over 100 merit badges.
Scouting organizations in other countries issue or have issued merit badges, including Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Spain, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Austria has a program similar to merit badges for certain age groups.Ranks in the Boy Scouts of America
The advancement program for Boy Scouts of the Boy Scouts of America is symbolized by the earning of seven ranks. The advancement program is often considered to be divided into two phases. The first phase from joining to First Class is designed to teach the boy Scoutcraft skills, how to participate in a group and to learn self-reliance. The Scout badge is awarded when the Scout demonstrates a rudimentary knowledge of the Scouting ideals and program. Tenderfoot, Second Class, and First Class have progressively harder requirements in the areas of Scoutcraft, physical fitness, citizenship, personal growth and Scout Spirit.
The second phase: Star, Life, and Eagle, is designed to develop leadership skills and allow the Scout to explore potential vocations and avocations through the merit badge program. The Star and Life ranks require that the boy serve in a position of responsibility and perform community service. Except for Scout rank (and Eagle Palms as of August 1, 2017), all ranks require that the candidate participate in a Scoutmaster conference and pass a Board of Review.Religious emblems programs (Boy Scouts of America)
A variety of religious emblems programs are used by the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) to encourage youth to learn about their faith and to recognize adults who provide significant service to youth in a religious environment. These religious programs are created, administered and awarded by the various religious groups, not the BSA, but each program must be recognized by the BSA.Scouting
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills.
During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys (Cub Scout, Boy Scout, Rover Scout) and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls (Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide). It is one of several worldwide youth organizations.
In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys (London, 1908), based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham (Chief of Scouts in British Africa), Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, and his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book. This camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are generally regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches.
The two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion.Scouts BSA
Scouts BSA (formerly known as the Boy Scouts) is the flagship membership level of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) for boys and girls between the ages of 11 and 17. It provides youth training in character, citizenship, and mental and personal fitness. Scouts are expected to develop personal religious values, learn the principles of American heritage and government, and acquire skills to become successful adults.
To achieve these, Scouting applies eight methods of Scouting: Ideals (viz., the Scout Oath, the Scout Law, the Scout Motto, and the Scout Slogan), the patrol method, participation in outdoor programs, advancement, adult association, personal growth, leadership development, and the uniform.
The participants, known as Scouts, are organized in Scout troops, administered by volunteers with support of paid professional staff. Youth and adult members are referred to as Scouts, and the adult leaders as Scouters. Prior to February 1, 2019, the program was called Boy Scouts, and girls were not allowed to participate.In 1994, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility. The study ranked the Boy Scouts as the 7th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 42% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing Love and Like A Lot for the Boy Scouts .Sea Scouting (Boy Scouts of America)
Sea Scouting is a program of the Boy Scouts of America for young men and women ages 14 to 20. Along with Cub Scouting, Scouts BSA, and Venturing, Sea Scouting provides a program for religious, fraternal, educational, and other community organizations to use for character, citizenship, and mental and personal fitness training for youth. As part of this training, Sea Scouts are expected to develop personal religious values, learn the principles of American heritage and government, and acquire skills that will prepare them to become successful adults.
Sea Scouting is the BSA's implementation of the Sea Scout program, initially developed in 1910 by Warington Baden-Powell in England. The founders of Sea Scouting in the United States are Arthur A. Carey of Waltham, Massachusetts, and Charles T. Longstreth of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Both leaders independently established Sea Scout groups in the summer of 1912. This accomplishment was recorded in the inaugural issue of Scouting.
The advancement scheme for Sea Scouts places an initial emphasis on nautical skills before encouraging the youth to take a major role in planning activities in the unit. Young men and women who are willing to abide by the requirements of BSA membership, including agreeing to live by the ideals expressed in the Sea Promise, Scout Oath, and Scout Law are eligible to join a Sea Scouting ship. Ships are administered by volunteers with the assistance and support of some paid professional staff.
As of 2016, Sea Scouting is currently its own independent program within the BSA. From 1998 to 2016, it had been part of Venturing, and prior to that part of Exploring.World Organization of the Scout Movement
The World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM ) is the largest international Scouting organization. WOSM has 170 members. These members are recognized national Scout organizations, which collectively have over 50 million participants. WOSM was established in 1922, and has its operational headquarters at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and its legal seat in Geneva, Switzerland. It is the counterpart of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS).
The WOSM's current stated mission is "to contribute to the education of young people, through a value system based on the Scout Promise and Scout Law, to help build a better world where people are self-fulfilled as individuals and play a constructive role in society". WOSM is organized into regions and operates with a conference, committee and bureau.
The WOSM is associated with three World Scout Centres. The World Scout Jamboree is held roughly every four years under the auspices of the WOSM, with members of WAGGGS also invited. WOSM also organises the World Scout Moot, a Jamboree for 17- to 26-year-olds, and has organised the World Scout Indaba, a gathering for Scout leaders. The World Scout Foundation is a perpetual fund governed by a separate Board of Governors and supported by donations for the development of WOSM associated Scouting programs throughout the world.
WOSM is a non-governmental organization with General Consultative Status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
Scouting and Guiding topics