Boxer (dog)

The Boxer is a medium-sized, short-haired breed of dog, developed in Germany. The coat is smooth and tight-fitting; colors are fawn or brindled, with or without white markings, and white. Boxers are brachycephalic (they have broad, short skulls), have a square muzzle, mandibular prognathism (an underbite), very strong jaws, and a powerful bite ideal for hanging on to large prey. The Boxer was bred from the Old English Bulldog and the now extinct Bullenbeisser which became extinct by crossbreeding rather than by a decadence of the breed. The purpose of the crossbreeding was the wish to eliminate the excessive white color of the breed, and the necessity of producing thousands of dogs for one of the most popular breeds in the world. The Boxer is part of the Molosser group. This group is a category of solidly built, large dog breeds that all descend from the same common ancestor, the large shepherd dog known as a Molossus. The Boxer is a member of the Working Group.[4]

The first Boxer club was founded in 1895, with Boxers being first exhibited in a dog show for St. Bernards in Munich the next year. Based on 2013 American Kennel Club statistics, Boxers held steady as the seventh-most popular breed of dog in the United States for the fourth consecutive year.[5] However, according to the AKC's website,[6] the boxer is now the eighth-most popular dog breed in the United States. Boxers have white and black markings.[7]

Boxer
Male fawn Boxer undocked
brindle fawn boxer, uncropped and undocked
Other names
  • German Boxer
  • Deutscher Boxer
OriginGermany
Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

Appearance

Boxer proportions
Head and body proportions.
Yoda kenobe5 225
A brindle boxer
Two boxer dogs (2004)
Two fawn boxer dogs

The head is the most distinctive feature of the Boxer. The breed standard dictates that it must be in perfect proportion to the body and above all it must never be too light.[8] The greatest value is to be placed on the muzzle being of correct form and in absolute proportion to the skull. The length of the muzzle to the whole of the head should be a ratio of 1:3. Folds are always present from the root of the nose running downwards on both sides of the muzzle, and the tip of the nose should lie somewhat higher than the root of the muzzle. In addition a Boxer should be slightly prognathous, i.e., the lower jaw should protrude beyond the upper jaw and bend slightly upwards in what is commonly called an underbite or "undershot bite".[9]

Boxers were originally a docked and cropped breed, and this is still done in some countries.[10] However, due to pressure from veterinary associations, animal rights groups, and the general public, both cropping of the ears and docking of the tail have been prohibited in many countries around the world. A line of naturally short-tailed (bobtail) Boxers was developed in the United Kingdom in anticipation of a tail docking ban there;[11] after several generations of controlled breeding, these dogs were accepted in the Kennel Club (UK) registry in 1998, and today representatives of the bobtail line can be found in many countries around the world. However, in 2008 the FCI added a "naturally stumpy tail" as a disqualifying fault in their breed standard, meaning those Boxers born with a bobtail can no longer be shown in FCI member countries. In the United States and Canada as of 2012, cropped ears are still more common in show dogs, even though the practice of cosmetic cropping is currently opposed by the American Veterinary Medical Association.[12] In March 2005 the AKC breed standard was changed to include a description of the uncropped ear, but to severely penalize an undocked tail. The tail of a boxer is typically docked before the cartilage is fully formed, between 3–5 days old.[13] This procedure does not require any anesthesia or sutures when performed at this young age.

Coat and colors

The Boxer is a short-haired breed, with a shiny, smooth coat that lies tight to the body. The recognized colors are fawn and brindle,[4] frequently with a white underbelly and white on the feet. These white markings, called flash, often extend onto the neck or face, and dogs that have these markings are known as "flashy". "Fawn" denotes a range of color, the tones of which may be described variously as light tan or yellow, reddish tan, mahogany or stag/deer red, and dark honey-blonde. In the UK and Europe, fawn Boxers are typically rich in color and are often called "red". "Brindle" refers to a dog with black stripes on a fawn background. Some brindle Boxers are so heavily striped that they give the appearance of "reverse brindling", fawn stripes on a black body; these dogs are conventionally called "reverse brindles", but that is actually a misnomer—they are still fawn dogs with black stripes. In addition, the breed standards state that the fawn background must clearly contrast with or show through the brindling.

The Boxer does not carry the gene for a solid black coat color and therefore purebred black Boxers do not exist.[14]

HYPSO

The color brindle can be with or without white markings

Bokser portret

A red fawn boxer

Brindle cd

"Reverse" brindle Boxer, cropped and docked

White Boxers

Boxers with white markings covering more than one-third of their coat – conventionally called "white" Boxers – are neither albino nor rare; approximately 20–25% of all Boxers born are white.[15] Genetically, these dogs are either fawn or brindle, with excessive white markings overlying the base coat color. Like fair-skinned humans, white Boxers have a higher risk of sunburn and associated skin cancers than colored Boxers. The extreme piebald gene, which is responsible for white markings in Boxers, is linked to congenital sensorineural deafness in dogs. It is estimated that about 18% of white Boxers are deaf in one or both ears,[16] though Boxer rescue organizations see about double that number.[17][18]

In the past, breeders often euthanized white puppies at birth. A 1998 study of Boxers in the Netherlands showed that 17% of Boxer pups were euthanized because they were white.[19] Previously, the American Boxer Club "unofficially recommended euthanasia for these animals."[20] Reasons for euthanizing white pups includes the view that it is unethical to sell a dog with "faults" and the perception that white Boxers are at higher risk of ending up abandoned in rescues.[21] Today, breeders are increasingly reluctant to euthanize healthy pups[20] and may choose to neuter and place them in pet homes instead.

Perra Boxer

White boxer.

Alert white boxer full body

The side-view of another white boxer.

Temperament

The character of the Boxer is of the greatest importance and demands the most solicitous attention. He is renowned from olden times for his great love and faithfulness to his master and household. He is harmless in the family, but can be distrustful of strangers, bright and friendly of temperament at play, but brave and determined when aroused. His intelligence and willing tractability, his modesty and cleanliness make him a highly desirable family dog and cheerful companion. He is the soul of honesty and loyalty, and is never false or treacherous even in his old age.

— 1938 AKC Boxer breed standard[22]

Boxers are a bright, energetic and playful breed and tend to be very good with children.[4] They are patient and spirited with children but also protective, making them a popular choice for families.[4] They are active, strong dogs and require adequate exercise to prevent boredom-associated behaviors such as chewing, digging, or licking. Boxers have earned a slight reputation of being "headstrong," which can be related to inappropriate obedience training. Owing to their intelligence and working breed characteristics, training based on corrections often has limited usefulness. Boxers, like other animals, typically respond better to positive reinforcement techniques such as clicker training, an approach based on operant conditioning and behaviorism, which offers the dog an opportunity to think independently and to problem-solve.[23][24] Stanley Coren's survey of obedience trainers, summarized in his book The Intelligence of Dogs, ranked Boxers at #48 – average working/obedience intelligence. Many who have worked with Boxers disagree quite strongly with Coren's survey results, and maintain that a skilled trainer who uses reward-based methods will find Boxers have far above-average intelligence and working ability.[23][24][25]

The Boxer by nature is not an aggressive or vicious breed. It is an instinctive guardian and can become very attached to its family. Like all dogs, it requires proper socialization.[26] Boxers are generally patient with smaller dogs and puppies, but difficulties with larger adult dogs, especially those of the same sex, may occur. Boxers are generally more comfortable with companionship, in either human or canine form.

Boxer bringe

Brindle boxer head

Brindle Boxers 1

Brindle boxer head with white neck

Boxer puppy fawn portrai

A fawn Boxer puppy

Boxer dog

A fawn boxer head

History

Friederich Roberth
Friedrich Robert and his boxer, 1894

The Boxer is part of the Molosser dog group, developed in Germany in the late 19th century from the now extinct Bullenbeisser, a dog of Mastiff descent, and Bulldogs brought in from Great Britain.[4] The Bullenbeisser had been working as a hunting dog for centuries, employed in the pursuit of bear, wild boar, and deer. Its task was to seize the prey and hold it until the hunters arrived. In later years, faster dogs were favored and a smaller Bullenbeisser was bred in Brabant, in northern Belgium. It is generally accepted that the Brabanter Bullenbeisser was a direct ancestor of today's Boxer.[27]

In 1894, three Germans by the names of Friedrich Robert, Elard König, and R. Höpner decided to stabilize the breed and put it on exhibition at a dog show. This was done in Munich in 1896, and the year before they founded the first Boxer Club, the Deutscher Boxer Club. The Club went on to publish the first Boxer breed standard in 1904, a detailed document that has not been changed much to this day.[28]

Boxerfirstshow
Boxers on the first boxer exhibition, Munich 1896

The breed was introduced to other parts of Europe in the late 19th century and to the United States around the turn of the 20th century. The American Kennel Club (AKC) registered the first Boxer in 1904,[4] and recognized the first Boxer champion, Dampf vom Dom, in 1915. During World War I, the Boxer was co-opted for military work, acting as a valuable messenger dog, pack-carrier, attack dog, and guard dog.[4] It was not until after World War II that the Boxer became popular around the world. Taken home by returning soldiers, they introduced the dog to a wider audience and soon became a favorite as a companion, a show dog, and a guard dog.

Early genealogy

Boxer early genealogy
Boxer early genealogy chart

The German citizen George Alt, a Munich resident, mated a brindle-colored female dog imported from France named Flora with a local dog of unknown ancestry, known simply as "Boxer", resulting in a fawn-and-white male, named "Lechner's Box" after its owner.

G flocky
Flocki, the first boxer

This dog was mated with his own dam Flora, and one of its offspring was a female dog called Alt's Schecken. George Alt mated Schecken with a Bulldog named Dr. Toneissen's Tom to produce the historically significant dog Mühlbauer's Flocki. Flocki was the first Boxer to enter the German Stud Book after winning the aforementioned show for St. Bernards in Munich 1896, which was the first event to have a class specific for Boxers.[27][28]

The white female dog Ch. Blanka von Angertor, Flocki's sister, was even more influential when mated with Piccolo von Angertor (Lechner's Box grandson) to produce the predominantly white (parti-colored) female dog Meta von der Passage, which, even bearing little resemblance with the modern Boxer standard (early photographs depict her as too long, weak-backed and down-faced), is considered the mother of the breed.[29][30] John Wagner, in The Boxer (first published in 1939) said the following regarding this female dog:[31]

Meta von der Passage played the most important role of the five original ancestors. Our great line of sires all trace directly back to this female. She was a substantially built, low to the ground, brindle and white parti-color, lacking in underjaw and exceedingly lippy. As a producing female few in any breed can match her record. She consistently whelped puppies of marvelous type and rare quality. Those of her offspring sired by Flock St. Salvator and Wotan dominate all present-day pedigrees. Combined with Wotan and Mirzl children, they made the Boxer.

Breed name

Brindle boxer female
A brindle Boxer with two white socks.
Thegang
Brindle, fawn and white Boxer puppies

The name "Boxer" is supposedly derived from the breed's tendency to play by standing on its hind legs and "boxing" with its front paws.[4] According to Andrew H. Brace's Pet owner's guide to the Boxer, this theory is the least plausible explanation.[29] He claims "it's unlikely that a nation so permeated with nationalism would give to one of its most famous breeds a name so obviously anglicised".

German linguistic and historical evidence find the earliest written source for the word Boxer in the 18th century, where it is found in a text in the Deutsches Fremdwörterbuch (The German Dictionary of Foreign Words),[32] which cites an author named Musäus of 1782 writing "daß er aus Furcht vor dem großen Baxer Salmonet ... sich auf einige Tage in ein geräumiges Packfaß ... absentiret hatte". At that time the spelling "baxer" equalled "boxer". Both the verb (boxen [English "to box, to punch, to jab"]) and the noun (Boxer) were common German words as early as the late 18th century. The term Boxl, also written Buxn or Buchsen in the Bavarian dialect, means "short (leather) trousers" or "underwear". The very similar-sounding term Boxerl, also from the Bavarian dialect, is an endearing term for Boxer.[33] More in line with historical facts, Brace states that there exist many other theories to explain the origin of the breed name, from which he favors the one claiming the smaller Bullenbeisser (Brabanter) were also known as "Boxl" and that Boxer is just a corruption of that word.[33]

In the same vein runs a theory based on the fact that there were a group of dogs known as Bierboxer in Munich by the time of the breed's development. These dogs were the result from mixes of Bullenbeisser and other similar breeds. Bier (beer) probably refers to the Biergarten, the typical Munich beergarden, an open-air restaurant where people used to take their dogs along. The nickname "Deutscher Boxer" was derived from bierboxer and Boxer could also be a corruption of the former or a contraction of the latter.[34]

A passage from the book "The Complete Boxer" by Milo G Denlinger states:

It has been claimed that the name "Boxer" was jokingly applied by an English traveler who noted a tendency of the dog to use its paws in fighting. This seems improbable. Any such action would likely result in a badly bitten if not broken leg. On the other hand, a German breeder of forty years' experience states positively that the Boxer does not use his feet, except to try and extinguish a small flame such as a burning match. But a Boxer does box with his head. He will hit (not bite) a cat with his muzzle hard enough to knock it out and he will box a ball with his nose. Or perhaps, since the German dictionary translates 'boxer' as 'prize-fighter' the name was bestowed in appreciation of the fighting qualities of the breed rather than its technique.

Boxer is also the name of a dog owned by John Peerybingle, the main character in the best-selling 1845 book The Cricket on the Hearth by Charles Dickens, which is evidence that "Boxer" was commonly used as a dog name by the early 19th century, before the establishment of the breed by the end of that same century.

The name of the breed could also be simply due to the names of the very first known specimens of the breed (Lechner's Box, for instance).

Health

Boxer puppy fawn
A healthy boxer puppy.

Leading health issues to which Boxers are prone include cancers, heart conditions such as aortic stenosis and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (the so-called "Boxer cardiomyopathy"),[35] hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and degenerative myelopathy and epilepsy; other conditions that may be seen are gastric dilatation volvulus (also known as bloat), intestinal problems, and allergies (although these may be more related to diet than breed).[36][37] Entropion, a malformation of the eyelid requiring surgical correction, is occasionally seen, and some lines have a tendency toward spondylosis deformans, a fusing of the spine,[38] or dystocia.[39] Other conditions that are less common but occur more often in Boxers than other breeds are hystiocytic ulcerative colitis (sometimes called Boxer colitis), an invasive E. coli infection,[40] and indolent corneal ulcers, often called Boxer eye ulcers.

About 22% of puppies die before reaching 7 weeks of age.[41] Stillbirth is the most frequent cause of death, followed by infection. Mortality due to infection increases significantly with increases in inbreeding.[41]

According to a UK Kennel Club health survey, cancer accounts for 38.5% of Boxer deaths, followed by old age (21.5%), cardiac (6.9%) and gastrointestinal (6.9%) related issues. The breed is particularly predisposed to mast cell tumours, a cancer of the immune system.[42] Median lifespan was 10.25 years.[43] Responsible breeders use available tests to screen their breeding stock before breeding, and in some cases throughout the life of the dog, in an attempt to minimize the occurrence of these diseases in future generations.[44]

Boxers are known to be very sensitive to the hypotensive and bradycardiac effects of a commonly used veterinary sedative, acepromazine.[45] It is recommended that the drug be avoided in the Boxer breed.[46]

As an athletic breed, proper exercise and conditioning is important for the continued health and longevity of the Boxer.[4] Care must be taken not to over-exercise young dogs, as this may damage growing bones; however, once mature, Boxers can be excellent jogging or running companions. Because of their brachycephalic head, they do not do well with high heat or humidity, and common sense should prevail when exercising a Boxer in these conditions.

Nutrition

Boxer are very energetic even at old ages. They need plenty of exercise which means their diet should be high in quality calories. The main source of these calories should be lean animal protein, which include lean chicken, turkey, lamb and fish.[47] While on a high calorie diet, owners should be thoughtful of the amount of treats given as this tends to cause obesity.[4] Owners should be mindful of the food to snack ratio being consumed by the Boxer when determining how many treats are acceptable.[47] Some healthy snacks include raw fruits and vegetables.[47]

Boxers are also prone to dental problems, increasing their susceptibility for bad breath; dry dog food that is large and difficult for them to chew improves the likelihood for plaque removal.[48] Plaque can also be removed by crude fiber in kibble, which has a flexible structure that increases chewing time.[49] Polyphosphates are often coated on the outside of dry dog food, which further reduce plaque buildup by preventing calcium production in saliva.[48] Odor production from the boxer's mouth is likely to be reduced if its teeth and oral cavity are kept in healthy conditions.

Uses

Zelda the boxer dog on a boat in Lake Lanier, South Carolina (9 September 2002)
A Boxer on a boat in Lake Lanier, South Carolina

Boxers are friendly, lively companions that are popular as family dogs.[4] Their suspicion of strangers, alertness, agility, and strength make them formidable guard dogs. As puppies, Boxers demonstrate a fascinating combination of mood-mirroring expressions, energetic curiosity, flexible attention spans and charming characteristics. They sometimes appear at dog agility or dog obedience trials and flyball events. These strong and intelligent animals have also been used as service dogs, guide dogs for the blind, therapy dogs, police dogs in K9 units, and occasionally herding cattle or sheep. The versatility of Boxers was recognized early on by the military, which has used them as valuable messenger dogs, pack carriers, and attack and guard dogs in times of war.

Notable Boxers

References

  1. ^ "Breed Standard". The Kennel Club. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  2. ^ American Kennel Club. "Breed Standard".
  3. ^ Cassidy, Kelly M. "Breed Longevity Data". Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k http://www.akc.org/dog-breeds/boxer/#standard "Get to Know the Boxer", 'The American Kennel Club', Retrieved 14 May 2014
  5. ^ American Kennel Club. "Registration Statistics".
  6. ^ http://www.akc.org/dog-breeds/boxer/Club, American Kennel. "Boxer Dog Breed Information". www.akc.org. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
  7. ^ Molly Sawyer. "Registration Statistics".
  8. ^ The Worldwide Boxer. "The Boxer Head".
  9. ^ American Boxer Club Illustrated Standard. "The Boxer Bite".
  10. ^ "How People Perceive Dogs With Docked Tails and Cropped Ears". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  11. ^ Bruce Cattanach. "Genetics Can Be Fun".
  12. ^ American Veterinary Medical Association. "Ear Cropping and Tail Docking of Dogs".
  13. ^ "The Boxer and Tail Docking". www.pedigree.com. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  14. ^ "Position statements - black Boxers". American Boxer Club (America). Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Boxer Club of Canada Code of Ethics".
  16. ^ Cattanach, Bruce. "White Boxers and Deafness". Archived from the original on 2006-08-23. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  17. ^ R.D. Conrad & Ann Gilbert. "Coat Colors in Boxers and the American Boxer Club, Inc".
  18. ^ Claudia Moder, Green Acres Boxer Rescue of WI. "A Boxer is a Boxer is a Boxer: Deaf Whites in Rescue".
  19. ^ Nielen, A. L. J.; Van Der Gaag, I.; Knol, B. W.; Schukken, Y. H. (1998). "Investigation of mortality and pathological changes in a 14.month birth cohort of boxer puppies". Veterinary Record. 142 (22): 602. doi:10.1136/vr.142.22.602.
  20. ^ a b "A "White" Paper" (PDF). AKC gazette. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  21. ^ "A proposal for the betterment of our breed". American Boxer Club. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  22. ^ "1938 AKC Boxer Breed Standard".
  23. ^ a b Karla Spitzer (2006). The Everything Boxer Book (1st ed.). Avon, MA: F+W Publications, Inc. pp. 174–175. ISBN 1-59337-526-3.
  24. ^ a b Joan Hustace Walker (2001). Training Your Boxer (1st ed.). Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. pp. 7, 11, 16–17. ISBN 0-7641-1634-7.
  25. ^ Abraham, Stephanie (July 1994). "Your Boxer's IQ: Breaking The Code" (PDF). American Boxer Club/AKC Gazette. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  26. ^ "Boxer Disposition and Temperament". Boxer-dog.org. 2003-05-24. Retrieved 2006-06-09.
  27. ^ a b John Wagner. "Short History of the Boxer Breed". Retrieved 2007-07-13.
  28. ^ a b Anne Rogers Clark and Andrew H. Brace, ed. (1995). The International Encyclopedia of Dogs (1st ed.). New York, New York: Howell Book house. pp. 140–142. ISBN 0-87605-624-9. OCLC 32697706.
  29. ^ a b Brace, Andrew H. (2004). Pet Owner's Guide to the Boxer. Interpet Ltd. ISBN 1-86054-288-3.
  30. ^ Wagner, John (1939). The Boxer.
  31. ^ Wagner, John (1950). The Boxer. p. 47.
  32. ^ Strauss, Gerhard; Kämper-Jensen, Heidrun; Nortmeyer, Isolde (1997). Deutsches Fremdwörterbuch Bd. 3. Berlin: de Gruyter; Auflage: 2., vollst. neubearb. Aufl. p. 468. ISBN 3-11-015741-1.
  33. ^ a b Institute for the German Language, Mannheim and University of Osnabrück, Institute for Linguistic and Literary Sciences.
  34. ^ "Chronik des Boxer-Klub E.V. Sitz München". Boxer-Klub E.V. – Sitz München – Deutscher Boxerklub. Retrieved 2006-08-17.
  35. ^ "Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  36. ^ American Boxer Club. "Boxer Health Information". Archived from the original on 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  37. ^ American Boxer Club. "Genetic and Suspect Diseases in the Boxer". Archived from the original on 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  38. ^ Fred Lanting. "Spondylosis Deformans". Archived from the original on 2007-10-12.
  39. ^ A survey of dystocia in the Boxer breed
  40. ^ Mansfield, CS; et al. (2009). "Remission of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in Boxer dogs correlates with eradication of invasive intramucosal Escherichia coli". Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 23 (5): 964–9. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0363.x. PMID 19678891.
  41. ^ a b van der Beek S, Nielen AL, Schukken YH, Brascamp EW (1999). "Evaluation of genetic, common-litter, and within-litter effects on preweaning mortality in a birth cohort of puppies". Am. J. Vet. Res. 60 (9): 1106–10. PMID 10490080.
  42. ^ "Mast Cell Tumour". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  43. ^ "Summary results of the Purebred Dog Health Survey for Boxers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2011. Report from the Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee
  44. ^ American Boxer Club. "Recommendations for Health Screening of Boxers in Breeding Programs". Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  45. ^ Jennifer Walker, ABC Health & Research Committee. "Acepromazine and Boxers – References". Retrieved 2009-01-16.
  46. ^ Wendy Wallner, DVM. "Warning on Acepromazine". Retrieved 2009-01-16.
  47. ^ a b c "How to Feed Your Boxer Dog". Boxer Fan Club.
  48. ^ a b Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raasch, M. F. (2010). Canine and Feline Nutrition-E-Book: A Resource for Companion Animal Professionals. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  49. ^ Grandjean, D; Butterwick, R. (2009). Waltham pocket book of essential nutrition for cats and dogs. [Electronic Resource] Walthan-on-the-Wolds: Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition.

External links

1895

1895 (MDCCCXCV)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1895th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 895th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1895, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Andrew Balding

Andrew Matthews Balding (born 29 December 1972) is a racehorse trainer based at Park House Stables, Kingsclere, near Newbury, Berkshire.

Balding attended Caldicott School, a boys preparatory school, and Radley College, a public school. He became a licensed trainer in January 2003, when he succeeded his father Ian Balding.His elder sister is Clare Balding. His maternal grandfather was the trainer Peter Hastings-Bass and his maternal uncle William Hastings-Bass, 17th Earl of Huntingdon, former trainer to Queen Elizabeth II. His maternal grandmother Priscilla Hastings is descended from the Earls of Derby.

Balding has been married to his wife Anna-Lisa since 15 July 2005. The couple has two sons, Jono and Toby, a daughter, Flora, and a boxer dog, Tonto.Notable horses trained by Andrew Balding include Casual Look, the winner of The Oaks in 2003. The win led to a very emotional post-race interview with his sister.In 2014, the Baldings' Park House Stables were visited by Irish President Michael D. Higgins as part of his state visit to the UK.

Bullenbeisser

The Bullenbeisser, also known as the German Bulldog, was a breed of dog known for its strength and agility. The breed was closely related to the Bärenbeisser (some believe that the two breeds were one and the same; the names mean "bull-biter" and "bear-biter," respectively), and was an ancestor to the modern Boxer. It was, in all its aspects, similar to the present Alano Español (Spanish Bulldog) and very alike to the Dogo Argentino, not only in aspect, but also in usage. There were two regional varieties, the Brabanter Bullenbeisser and the Danziger Bullenbeisser. The breed is now extinct.

Canine brain tumors

Cancer of the nervous system is common in domestic canids, and includes primary neoplasia of the peripheral nervous system, primary neoplasia of the central nervous system and various metastatic cancers. Some of the most common of the central nervous system tumors are several types of primary (originating from brain tissue) canine brain tumors. Examples of these include: meningiomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendriomas, choroid plexus papillomas, and pituitary adenomas. Breeds predisposed to brain tumors include: Boxer Dog, Pug, English Bull Dog, Boston Terrier, and Golden Retrievers.

Canine degenerative myelopathy

Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi. Progressive weakness and incoordination of the rear limbs are often the first signs seen in affected dogs, with progression over time to complete paralysis. Myelin is an insulating sheath around neurons in the spinal cord. One proposed cause of degenerative myelopathy is that the immune system attacks this sheath, breaking it down. This results in a loss of communication between nerves in lower body of the animal and the brain.

Coyote

The coyote (from Nahuatl coyōtl pronunciation ), Canis latrans, is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists.

The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013.

As of 2005, 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs 8 to 20 kg (18 to 44 lb) and the average female 7 to 18 kg (15 to 40 lb). Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA.

The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.

David Wright

David Allen Wright (born December 20, 1982) is an American former professional baseball third baseman who played his entire 14-year Major League Baseball (MLB) career for the New York Mets. He was drafted by the Mets in 2001 and made his major league debut on July 21, 2004 at Shea Stadium. Wright was nicknamed "Captain America" after his performance in the 2013 World Baseball Classic.Wright is a seven-time All-Star, a two-time Gold Glove Award winner, a two-time Silver Slugger Award winner, and a member of the 30–30 club. He holds Mets franchise records for most career runs batted in (RBIs), doubles, total bases, runs scored, walks, sacrifice flies, times on base, extra base hits, strikeouts, double plays, and hits. He was named captain of the Mets in 2013, becoming the fourth captain in the team's history.

Throughout the latter half of Wright's career, he was plagued by injuries, most notably spinal stenosis, as well as additional ailments in his neck and shoulder. After missing significant time from 2015 to 2018 and receiving word from doctors that his spinal stenosis would not improve, Wright announced that 2018 would be his final season as an active player. Wright finished his major league career with a .296 career batting average, 242 home runs, and 970 runs batted in. Upon completion of his playing career, Wright was named a special advisor in the Mets front office.

Dime to Retire

Dime to Retire is a Looney Tunes cartoon that stars Daffy Duck and Porky Pig. It was released on September 3, 1955, directed and animated by Robert McKimson and voices by Mel Blanc. It runs 7 minutes.

Fable III

Fable III is an action role-playing open world video game, developed by Lionhead Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios for the Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows. The third game in the Fable series, the story focuses on the player character's struggle to overthrow the King of Albion, the player character's brother, by forming alliances and building support for a revolution. After a successful revolt, the player becomes the monarch and is tasked with attempting to defend Albion from a great evil. The game includes voice acting by Ben Kingsley (Sabine), Stephen Fry (Reaver), Simon Pegg (Ben Finn), Naomie Harris (Page), Michael Fassbender (Logan), Zoë Wanamaker (Theresa), Bernard Hill (Sir Walter Beck), Nicholas Hoult (Elliot), John Cleese (Jasper), Johnathan Ross (Barry Hatch), Kellie Bright (Hero of Brightwall female), and Louis Tamone (Hero of Brightwall male).

The game was released on 29 October 2010 for Xbox 360 and on 20 May 2011 for PC via both Games for Windows and Steam. The PC version includes a Hardcore mode and 3D functionality not found in the Xbox 360 version.

High School Caesar

High School Caesar is a 1960 American film directed by O'Dale Ireland. Matt Stevens (John Ashley) as the "guy with the power" at his high school but everyone despises him. He isn't, after all, known for his fairness and generosity. The tables are turned, however, when his fellow students resent his power and show him up at a drag race.

Histiocytoma (dog)

A histiocytoma in the dog is a benign tumor. It is an abnormal growth in the skin of histiocytes (histiocytosis), a cell that is part of the immune system. A similar disease in humans, Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is also a Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Dog breeds that may be more at risk for this tumor include Bulldogs, American Pit Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Scottish Terriers, Greyhounds, Boxers, and Boston Terriers. They also rarely occur in goats and cattle.

Kate Upton

Katherine Elizabeth Upton (born June 10, 1992) is an American model and actress. Upton was named the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue Rookie of the Year following her appearance in the magazine in 2011, and was the cover model for the 2012, 2013 and 2017 issues. She was also the subject of the 100th-anniversary Vanity Fair cover. Upton has also appeared in the films Tower Heist (2011), The Other Woman (2014) and The Layover (2017).

List of animal names

Many animals, particularly domesticated, have specific names for males, females, young, and groups.

The best-known source of many English words used for collective groupings of animals is The Book of Saint Albans, an essay on hunting published in 1486 and attributed to Juliana Berners. Most terms used here may be found in common dictionaries and general information web sites.

List of cultural icons of Germany

This list of cultural icons of Germany is a list of people and things from any period which are independently considered to be cultural icons characteristic of Germany. [1].

Me to You Bears

Me to You Bears (also known as Tatty Teddies) is the brand name of a collection of teddy bears made by the Carte Blanche Greetings Ltd. They are often found in Clinton Cards. They were first created in 1987 and appeared in their current guise in 1995. A number of products are available related to Tatty Teddy including plush toys, figurines, cards, mugs, and wedding accessories.

Natural bobtail

A natural bobtail is an animal's tail which due to a mutated gene grows unusually short or is missing completely. The genes for the shortened tail may be dominant or recessive.

Due to legislation restricting or preventing docking, natural bobtails are growing in popularity among the dog fancy for some traditionally docked breeds. For example, one Boxer breeder and geneticist in England has successfully petitioned the Kennel Club for permission to cross Corgis into his lines and then backcross to Boxers, introducing the gene into his lines. This would have been unheard of in decades past. A number of these bobtail Boxers have been exported to various countries around the world.

Phaeohyphomycosis

Phaeohyphomycosis is a heterogeneous group of mycotic infections caused by dematiaceous fungi whose morphologic characteristics in tissue include hyphae, yeast-like cells, or a combination of these. It can be associated an array of darkly-pigmented hyphomycetes including Alternaria species, Exophiala jeanselmei, and Rhinocladiella mackenziei.The term “phaeohyphomycosis” was introduced to determine infections caused by dematiaceous or pigmented filamentous fungi which contain melanin in their cell walls. Phaeohyphomycosis is an uncommon infection, however the number of case reported has been increasing in recent years. The presence of melanin in cell walls may be a virulence factor for the pathogens caused by the fungi. The outcome of antifungal treatment is poor, and mortality is almost 80%. Phaeohyphomycosis has been attributed to more than 100 species and 60 genera of fungi over the past several decades. The pathogens are considered opportunistic. Almost all cases of widely disseminated infection have occurred in immunosuppressed patients.

Sebastian the Ibis

Sebastian the Ibis is the official mascot for the University of Miami. He is an anthropomorphized American white ibis with a Miami Hurricanes football jersey, number 0. Sebastian is the first and only Hispanic-American college mascot and identifies as Cuban.

Traits
Weight Male 55–71 lb (25–32 kg)[1]
Female 55–71 lb (25–32 kg)
Height Male 22–25 in (56–64 cm)[2]
Female 21–24 in (53–61 cm)
Coat short, shiny, smooth, close-lying
Color fawn or brindle, and white
Litter size average 6–8
Life span average 9–15 years[3]
Classification / standards
FCI Group 2, Section 2.1 Molossian: Mastiff type #144 standard
AKC Working standard
ANKC Group 6 (Utility) standard
CKC Group 3 – Working standard
KC (UK) Working standard
NZKC Utility standard
UKC Guardian Dog standard
Dogs originating in Germany
Hounds
Gundogs
Pastoral dogs
Molossers
Utility dogs
Earth dogs
Toy dogs
Non-specific
See also

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