Bowlby

Bowlby is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

See also

Affectional bond

In psychology, an affectional bond is a type of attachment behavior one individual has for another individual, typically a caregiver for her or his child, in which the two partners tend to remain in proximity to one another. The term was coined and subsequently developed over the course of four decades, from the early 1940s to the late 1970s, by psychologist John Bowlby in his work on attachment theory. The core of the term affectional bond, according to Bowlby, is the attraction one individual has for another individual. The central features of the concept of affectional bonding can be traced to Bowlby's 1958 paper, "The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother".

Alan Mollohan

Alan Bowlby Mollohan (born May 14, 1943) is an American politician who was the U.S. Representative for West Virginia's 1st congressional district from 1983 to 2011. He is a member of the Democratic Party and the Blue Dog Coalition.

The district encompasses the northern part of the state; it is based in Wheeling and includes Parkersburg, Morgantown, Fairmont and Clarksburg. He served on the House Appropriations Committee and was ranking Democrat on the Ethics Committee until being asked to step down in 2006. He was defeated in the Democratic primary election held on May 11, 2010, by Mike Oliverio.

Anthony Bowlby

Major-General Sir Anthony Alfred Bowlby, 1st Baronet (10 May 1855 – 7 April 1929) was a British Army officer, surgeon and pathologist.

April Bowlby

April Michelle Bowlby (born July 30, 1980) is an American actress. She is known for portraying Kandi on the CBS comedy series Two and a Half Men (2006–2015), Stacy Barrett on Drop Dead Diva (2009–2014) and Rita Farr on Titans (2018) and Doom Patrol (2019–present).

Attachment theory

Attachment theory is a psychological model attempting to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans. "Attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships; it addresses only a specific facet": how human beings respond in relationships when hurt, separated from loved ones, or perceiving a threat.Provided any caregiver, all infants become attached—however, individual differences in the quality of the relationships remain significant.

In infants, attachment as a motivational and behavioral system directs the child to seek proximity with a familiar caregiver when they are alarmed, with expectation they will receive protection and emotional support.

John Bowlby believed that the tendency for primate infants to develop attachments to familiar caregivers was the result of evolutionary pressures, since attachment behavior would facilitate the infant's survival in the face of dangers such as predation or exposure to the elements.The most important tenet of attachment theory is an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for the child's successful social and emotional development, and in particular for learning how to regulate their feelings. Any caregiver is likely to become the principal attachment figure if they provide most of the child care and related social interaction. In the presence of a sensitive and responsive caregiver, the infant will use the caregiver as a "safe base" from which to explore.

This relationship can be dyadic, as in the mother-child dyad often studied in Western culture, or it can involve a community of caregivers (siblings/extended family/teachers) as can be seen in areas of Africa and South America.It should be recognized "even sensitive caregivers get it right only about fifty per cent of the time. Their communications are either out of sync, or mismatched. There are times when parents feel tired or distracted. The telephone rings or there is breakfast to prepare. In other words, attuned interactions rupture quite frequently. But the hallmark of a sensitive caregiver is that the ruptures are managed and repaired."Attachments between infants and caregivers form even if this caregiver is not sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. This has important implications. Infants cannot exit unpredictable or insensitive caregiving relationships. Instead they must manage themselves as best they can in such relationships.

Based on her established Strange Situation Protocol, research by developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s and 1970s found children will have different patterns of attachment depending on how they experienced their early caregiving environment. Early patterns of attachment, in turn, shape — but do not determine — the individual's expectations in later relationships.Four different attachment classifications have been identified in children:

Secure attachment occurs when children feel they can rely on their caregivers to attend to their needs of proximity, emotional support and protection. It is considered to be the most advantageous attachment style.

Anxious-ambivalent attachment occurs when the infant feels separation anxiety when separated from the caregiver and does not feel reassured when the caregiver returns to the infant.

Anxious-avoidant attachment occurs when the infant avoids their parents.

Disorganized attachment occurs when there is a lack of attachment behavior.In the 1980s, the theory was extended to attachment in adults. Attachment applies to adults when adults feel close attachment to their parents, their romantic and platonic partners and their friends.

Attachment theory has become the dominant theory used today in the study of infant and toddler behavior and in the fields of infant mental health, treatment of children, and related fields.

Bowlby, West Virginia

Bowlby is an unincorporated community in Monongalia County, West Virginia.

DeltaWing

The DeltaWing is a racing car designed by Ben Bowlby and debuted at the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans. The entry was run under the Project 56 name, composed of Ben Bowlby (design), Dan Gurney's All American Racers (constructor), Duncan Dayton's Highcroft Racing (racing team) and International Motor Sports Association owner Don Panoz (managing partner). Nissan's NISMO division provided the engine in return for naming rights for part of 2012.

The DeltaWing is built and maintained at Panoz headquarters in Braselton, Georgia.

Doom Patrol (TV series)

Doom Patrol is an American web television series based on the DC Comics superhero team of the same name that premiered on February 15, 2019, on DC Universe. It is a spin-off of Titans, with April Bowlby, Brendan Fraser, and Matt Bomer reprising their roles, as well as Diane Guerrero, Alan Tudyk, Joivan Wade and Timothy Dalton joining the cast. Filming began in Georgia in late August 2018, and the first season is expected to consist of 15 episodes.

Elasti-Girl

Elasti-Girl (also known as Elasti-Woman) is a fictional comic book superheroine appearing in books published by DC Comics, primarily as a member of the Doom Patrol. Created by writer Arnold Drake and artist Bruno Premiani, the character first appeared in My Greatest Adventure #80 (June 1963).

Elasti-Girl has appeared in numerous cartoon television shows and films. Rita Farr made her first live-action appearance as a guest star on the DC Universe series, Titans, played by April Bowlby. She is also a main cast member on its sister series, Doom Patrol.

George Bowlby

Doctor George Herbert Bowlby (July 16, 1865 – November 10, 1916) was a physician and politician in Ontario, Canada. He served as mayor of Berlin in 1901. Bowlby was the first person born in Berlin to become its mayor.The son of David Sovereign Bowlby and Martha Esther Murphy, he was born in Berlin (later Kitchener). He was educated there, at St. Jerome's College and at Toronto University, where he earned a degree in medicine Bowlby subsequently became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in London and was also licensed to practice by the Royal College of Physicians.In 1894, he married Blanche Alexandrine "Adine" Seagram, daughter of Joseph Emm Seagram.During World War I, he served in the Army Medical Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, later becoming assistant director of Medical Services with the rank of Captain. Bowlby died in England in November 1916, aged 51, after falling off a cliff near a military hospital in Bath, Somerset, and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium in London. His widow died from injuries sustained in a car crash two years later.His uncle Ward Hamilton Bowlby had served as reeve of Berlin. His nephew William Pope Clement later served as mayor of Kitchener.

Henry Bowlby

Henry Bond Bowlby (23 August 1823 – 27 August 1894) was an English churchman, the Bishop of Coventry (a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Worcester) from 1891 until 1894.

History of attachment theory

Attachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby, is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for understanding interpersonal relationships between human beings.

In order to formulate a comprehensive theory of the nature of early attachments, Bowlby explored a range of fields including evolution by natural selection, object relations theory (psychoanalysis), control systems theory, evolutionary biology and the fields of ethology and cognitive psychology. There were some preliminary papers from 1958 onwards but the full theory is published in the trilogy Attachment and Loss, 1969- 82. Although in the early days Bowlby was criticised by academic psychologists and ostracised by the psychoanalytic community, attachment theory has become the dominant approach to understanding early social development and given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships.

John Bowlby

Edward John Mostyn Bowlby, CBE, FRCP, FRCPsych (; 26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Bowlby as the 49th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.

Maternal deprivation

The term maternal deprivation is a scientific term summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or mother substitute) although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care led to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951, which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis.Bowlby drew together such empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the US, including Spitz (1946) and Goldfarb (1943, 1945). His main conclusions, that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment" and that not to do so might have significant and irreversible mental health consequences, were both controversial and influential. The monograph was published in 14 different languages and sold over 400,000 copies in the English version alone. Bowlby's work went beyond the suggestions of Otto Rank and Ian Suttie that mothering care was essential for development, and focused on the potential outcomes for children deprived of such care.

The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children, and in changing practices relating to the stays of small children in hospitals so that parents were allowed more frequent and longer visits. Although the monograph was primarily concerned with the removal of children from their homes it was also used for political purposes to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. The publication was also highly controversial with, amongst others, psychoanalysts, psychologists and learning theorists, and sparked significant debate and research on the issue of children's early relationships.

The limited empirical data and lack of comprehensive theory to account for the conclusions in Maternal Care and Mental Health led to the subsequent formulation of attachment theory by Bowlby. Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infant's ties emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. Bowlby claimed to have made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published between 1969 and 1980.Although the central tenet of maternal deprivation theory—that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships are crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child is as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences, discipline and child care—has become generally accepted, "maternal deprivation" as a discrete syndrome is not a concept that is much in current use other than in relation to severe deprivation as in "failure to thrive". In the area of early relationships it has largely been superseded by attachment theory and other theories relating to even earlier infant–parent interactions. As a concept, parental deficiencies are seen as a vulnerability factor for, rather than a direct cause of, later difficulties. In relation to institutional care there has been a great deal of subsequent research on the individual elements of privation, deprivation, understimulation and deficiencies that may arise from institutional care.

Nissan ZEOD RC

The Nissan ZEOD RC (Zero Emission On Demand Racing Car) was a hybrid electric racing car that competed as the experimental "Garage 56" entry at the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans race.

The ZEOD RC was designed by Ben Bowlby. Bowlby had worked for DeltaWing LLC, a Chip Ganassi company created to develop a concept race car for the IndyCar Series' post-2012 chassis. When IndyCar awarded the tender to the Dallara DW12, Bowlby - working for DeltaWing Project 56 LLC, a consortium led by Don Panoz - adapted the DeltaWing design to race at Le Mans. Nissan Motor Company provided an engine for the Le Mans-specification DeltaWing, and received naming rights on the car, which raced as the Garage 56 entry at the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans race.

During 2013, the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) announced that Nissan had been granted the Garage 56 entry for 2014 in its own right. Nissan unveiled their car for the race, known as the ZEOD RC, during the 2013 24 Hours of Le Mans weekend. The ZEOD RC utilized a hybrid electric drivetrain with lithium ion battery packs in a chassis similar in design to the DeltaWing. In a 22 June 2013 article at Autosport.com, Bowlby said: "This is a new car, but it uses the narrow track technology of the DeltaWing and that gives us great efficiency. It is something we understand and it is an efficient way of getting around Le Mans."

At the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans, the ZEOD RC's first race, the car had to retire during the race's early hours due to a gearbox failure. However it managed to achieve its goals of reaching a speed above 300 km/h and completing a lap at Circuit de la Sarthe (Le Mans) using electric power only.

Psychodynamics

Psychodynamics, also known as psychodynamic psychology, in its broadest sense, is an approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience. It is especially interested in the dynamic relations between conscious motivation and unconscious motivation.The term psychodynamics is also used by some to refer specifically to the psychoanalytical approach developed by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and his followers. Freud was inspired by the theory of thermodynamics and used the term psychodynamics to describe the processes of the mind as flows of psychological energy (libido or psi) in an organically complex brain.There are 4 different schools of thought regarding psychological treatment: Psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, biological, and humanistic treatment. In the treatment of psychological distress, psychodynamic psychotherapy tends to be a less intensive, once- or twice-weekly modality than the classical Freudian psychoanalysis treatment of 3-5 sessions per week. Psychodynamic therapies depend upon a theory of inner conflict, wherein repressed behaviours and emotions surface into the patient’s consciousness; generally, one's conflict is subconscious.

Ronald Bowlby

Ronald Oliver Bowlby (born 16 August 1926), also known as Ronnie Bowlby, is a British Anglican bishop. He was the ninth Bishop of Newcastle from 1973 until 1980. He was then translated to Southwark where he served until his retirement eleven years later in 1991.

Thomas William Bowlby

Thomas William Bowlby (7 January 1818 – 22 September 1860) was a British correspondent for The Times in Germany and China in the 19th century.

Ward Bowlby

Ward Hamilton Bowlby, (October 4, 1834 – 1917) was a lawyer and politician in Ontario, Canada. He served as reeve of Berlin from 1865 to 1868.The son of Adam Bowlby and Elizabeth Sovereign, both of United Empire Loyalist descent, he was born in Townsend township, Norfolk County, Upper Canada and was educated in Simcoe, Streetsville and St. Thomas, at University College in Toronto and at the University of Toronto. He articled in law with a firm in Toronto and was called to the Ontario bar in 1858. Bowlby then set up practice in Berlin. In 1876, he founded the firm Bowlby, Colquhoun and Clement.He served on the town and county councils and on the Berlin public school board. In 1862, he was named registrar for South Waterloo. In 1867, Bowlby was named Crown Attorney and clerk of the peace for Waterloo County. He was named King's Counsel. Bowlby retired from the practice of law in 1903.In 1861, Bowlby married Lissie, the daughter of Jacob Hespeler. His daughter Annie Hespeler Bowlby married George Perley.

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