Bowl barrow

A bowl barrow is a type of burial mound or tumulus. A barrow is a mound of earth used to cover a tomb. The bowl barrow gets its name from its resemblance to an upturned bowl. Related terms include cairn circle, cairn ring, howe, kerb cairn, tump and rotunda grave.[1]

Bowl barrow colt hoare wiltshire
Engraving of a bowl barrow by Richard Colt Hoare

Description

Heywood sumner bowl barrow
Section and plan of a generic bowl barrow

Bowl barrows were created from the Neolithic through to the Bronze Age in Great Britain. A bowl barrow is an approximately hemispherical mound covering one or more Inhumations or cremations. Where the mound is composed entirely of stone, rather than earth, the term cairn replaces the word barrow. The mound may be simply a mass of earth or stone, or it may be structured by concentric rings of posts, low stone walls, or upright stone slabs. In addition, the mound may have a kerb of stones or wooden posts.

Barrows were usually built in isolation in various situations on plains, valleys and hill slopes, although the most popular sites were those on hilltop. Bowl barrows were first identified in Great Britain by John Thurnam (1810–73), an English psychiatrist, archaeologist, and ethnologist.

British bowl barrows

Matley heath bowl barrow
A 15-metre diameter bowl barrow in the New Forest, U.K.

English Heritage proposed the following classification of British bowl barrows:

  • Type 1: Kerbless and ditchless barrows
  • Type 2: Kerbless with continuous ditch
  • Type 3: Kerbless with penannular ditch
  • Type 4: Kerbless with segmented ditch
  • Type 5: Kerbed but ditchless
  • Type 6: Kerbed with continuous ditch
  • Type 7: Kerbed with pennanular ditch
  • Type 8: Kerbed with segmented ditch
  • Type 9: Structured but ditchless
  • Type 10: Structured with continuous ditch
  • Type 11: Structured with penannular ditch
  • Type 12: Structured with segmented ditch

Tump

Tump is Worcestershire dialect term for a small hill, such as a barrow, even a large barrow such as the Whittington Tump in the village of Whittington south east of Worcester, or an "unty tump" meaning mole hill (unty being Worcestershire dialect for a mole). It is related to the Welsh language term Twmpath which was once applied to the mound or village green. From a short list of tumps, it can be seen that the term is used extensively in the Welsh Marches and its use extends beyond that, to Somerset, Wiltshire, Oxfordshire, and Buckinghamshire.

See also

References

  1. ^ English Heritage (1988). "Monument protection programme. Monument class description". Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2010-08-14.

External links

Blaxhall Common

Blaxhall Common is a nature reserve in the parish of Blaxhall in the Suffolk Coastal district of Suffolk. The reserve is owned by Blaxhall Parish Council and managed by Suffolk Wildlife Trust. It is designated a 45.9 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest as Blaxhall Heath. It is part of the Sandlings Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds, and of the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A Bronze Age bowl barrow is a Scheduled Monument.

Drove Cottage Henge

Drove Cottage Henge (sometimes called Hunter's Lodge Henge) is a Scheduled Ancient Monument in the Priddy parish of Somerset, England. It is located 370 metres (1,210 ft) north of Drove Cottage. The site is a ceremonial Neolithic location. Since this henge is one of only around 80 henges throughout England, it is considered to be nationally important.

Fin Cop

Fin Cop is a hill and an associated Iron Age hill fort in Monsal Dale, close to Ashford in the Water in Derbyshire, England.The fort shows evidence of hurried construction, indicating a defensive response to a real threat, rather than the more usual assumption that such forts were a display of status and prestige. The hillfort, along with an adjacent bowl barrow, lime kiln and quarry, constitutes a Scheduled Ancient Monument.In 2011 excavations unearthed a mass burial containing only women and children, the first such segregated burial in Iron Age Britain. Carbon dating of the site suggests it was constructed between 440BC and 390BC.

Glory Wood and Devil's Den

Glory Wood and Devil's Den is a 13-hectare (32-acre) nature reserve south-east of Dorking in Surrey. It is owned by Mole Valley District Council, and was managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust until 1 April 2019. There is a bowl barrow dating to the Late Neolithic or Bronze Age in Glory Wood.The highest points of this wooded site have views over the North and South Downs. The main trees are oak and sweet chestnut and mammals include bats, roe deer, badgers and foxes.There is access from Deepdene Avenue.On 1 April 2019, Surrey Wildlife Trust notices were removed from the reserve's notice board and replaced with a notice stating that Mole Valley District Council was taking over management.

King's Standing Bowl Barrow

King's Standing Bowl Barrow or Kingstanding Mound, is a scheduled monument in the Kingstanding area of Birmingham. It comprises the buried and earthwork remains of a bowl barrow from the late Neolithic to the late bronze age, lying alongside the Icknield Street Roman road to the South of Sutton Park.

It is reputedly the site from where King Charles I reviewed his troops on 18 October 1642, during the English Civil War; from which event both the mound and the area take their name.

Knook Castle

Knook Castle is the site of an Iron Age univallate hillfort on Knook Down, near the village of Knook in Wiltshire, England, but within the civil parish of Upton Lovell. It has also been interpreted as a defensive cattle enclosure associated with nearby Romano-British settlements. It is roughly rectangular in plan with a single entrance on the south/southeast side, but with a later break in the wall on the western side.John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870–1872) described Knook Castle as follows:

Knook Castle is an ancient single ditched entrenchment, of about 2 acres; is supposed to have been originally a British village, and afterwards a Roman summer camp; and has yielded Roman coins. Traces of another ancient British village are to the N. "The site of these villages", says Sir R. Hoare, "is decidedly marked by great cavities and a black soil; and the attentive eye may easily trace out the lines of houses and the streets, or rather the hollow ways, conducting to them. Numerous tumuli and barrows are in the neighbourhood."

The site and surrounding downs are easily accessible by public footpath, with the Imber Range perimeter path running east to west immediately to the north of the site. Further to the north lies Imber Range, one of the military firing ranges of Salisbury Plain.

Leiston - Aldeburgh

Leiston - Aldeburgh is a 534.8 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest which stretches from Aldeburgh to Leiston in Suffolk. Part of it is The Haven, Aldeburgh Local Nature Reserve, and another area is the North Warren RSPB nature reserve. There is also a prehistoric bowl barrow on Aldringham Common, which is a Scheduled Monument. The site is in the Sandlings Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds, and the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.This diverse site has open water, fen, acid grassland, scrub, woodland, heath and vegetated shingle. There are many breeding and overwintering birds, abundant dragonflies, and nationally scarce plants such as mossy stonecrop and clustered clover.

List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire dated to before 1066

There are more than two hundred scheduled monuments in Cheshire, a county in North West England, which date from the Neolithic period to the middle of the 20th century. This list includes the scheduled monuments in Cheshire dating from before the year 1066, the year accepted by Revealing Cheshire's Past as the start of the Medieval period.

A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites. The current legislation supporting this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The term "monument" can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have been deliberately constructed by human activity. They range from prehistoric standing stones and burial sites, through Roman remains and medieval structures such as castles and monasteries, to later structures such as industrial sites and buildings constructed for the World Wars.At least 84 monuments dating from before 1066 have been scheduled in Cheshire, the oldest probably being The Bridestones, a Neolithic long cairn. The monument at Somerford is also thought to have been a long cairn and there is evidence of a Neolithic settlement at Tatton. The Bronze Age is the period most strongly represented before 1066 with 44 monuments, almost all of which are round barrows. Eleven Iron Age hillforts or promontory forts are scheduled. The period of Roman rule left a variety of scheduled monuments, including the remains of settlements at Heronbridge and Wilderspool, and parts of Chester city walls. Definite or possible Roman military camps have been revealed by aerial photography showing cropmarks and parchmarks. The monuments remaining from the Dark Age and the Saxon period consist mainly of portions of crosses, and there is evidence of Saxon occupation of villages, now deserted, at Tatton and Baddiley.

List of scheduled monuments in North Somerset

North Somerset is a unitary authority area in England. Its area covers part of the ceremonial county of Somerset but it is administered independently of the non-metropolitan county. Its administrative headquarters is in the town hall in Weston-super-Mare. North Somerset borders the local government areas of Bristol, Bath and North East Somerset, Mendip and Sedgemoor. North Somerset contains the parliamentary constituencies of Weston-super-Mare and North Somerset.

A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites. The legislation governing this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The term "monument" can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have been deliberately constructed by human activity. They range from prehistoric standing stones and burial sites, through Roman remains and medieval structures such as castles and monasteries, to later structures such as industrial sites and buildings constructed for the World Wars or the Cold War.There are 68 scheduled monuments in North Somerset. The oldest site Aveline's Hole, a cave in which bones from the Mesolithic have been identified maling it the earliest scientifically dated cemetery in Britain. There are also multiple Neolithic tumuli. There are also several Iron Age hillforts, such as the one at Worlebury Camp. Dolebury Warren, another Iron Age hillfort, was reused as a medieval rabbit warren. The Romano-British period is represented with sites including villas. Sites from the Middle Ages include motte-and-bailey castles, such as Locking Castle, and church crosses. There are also several deserted medieval settlements. Woodspring Priory is a former Augustinian priory founded in the early 13th century. More recent sites date from the Industrial Revolution and include the Elms colliery and glassworks in Nailsea. The most recent monuments are two Palmerstonian gun batteries, built in the 1860s, on the island of Steep Holm. The monuments are listed below using the titles given in the English Heritage data sheets.

List of scheduled monuments in Sedgemoor

Sedgemoor is a low-lying area of land in Somerset, England. It lies close to sea level south of the Polden Hills, forming a large part of the Somerset Levels and Moors, a wetland area between the Mendips and the Blackdown Hills. The Neolithic people exploited the reed swamps for their natural resources and started to construct wooden trackways, including the world's oldest known timber trackway, the Post Track, dating to the 3800s BC. The Levels were the location of the Iron Age Glastonbury Lake Village as well as two lake villages at Meare Lake. Several settlements and hill forts were built on the natural "islands" of slightly raised land, including Brent Knoll and Glastonbury. In the Roman period sea salt was extracted and a string of settlements were set up along the Polden Hills.A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites. The legislation governing this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The term "monument" can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have been deliberately constructed by human activity. They range from prehistoric standing stones and burial sites, through Roman remains and medieval structures such as castles and monasteries, to later structures such as industrial sites and buildings constructed for the World Wars or the Cold War.There are 79 scheduled monuments in Sedgemoor. The oldest are Neolithic, Bronze Age or Iron Age including hill forts, bowl barrows and occupied caves including several in Cheddar Gorge. Cannington Camp (which is also known as Cynwit Castle) dates from the Bronze Age, while Brent Knoll Camp between the Somerset Levels and Brean Down is Iron Age (although there are some Bronze Age artefacts) and it was reused in the Roman period. The Romano-British period is represented with several sites. Medieval sites include several motte-and-bailey castles and church or village crosses. Industrial development, particularly in Bridgwater, are represented by brick and tile kilns and a telescopic railway bridge. The most recent monuments are World War II bunkers and bombing decoys on Black Down. The monuments are listed below using the titles given in the English Heritage data sheets.

List of scheduled monuments in Taunton Deane

Taunton Deane is a local government district with borough status in Somerset, England. Its council is based in Taunton. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the Municipal Borough of Taunton, Wellington Urban District, Taunton Rural District, and Wellington Rural District. Taunton Deane was granted borough status in 1975, enabling the mayoralty of Taunton to be continued, when other districts did not have mayors. The district was given the name of an alternate form of the Taunton Deane Hundred.

A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites. The legislation governing this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The term "monument" can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have been deliberately constructed by human activity. They range from prehistoric standing stones and burial sites, through Roman remains and Medieval structures such as castles and monasteries, to later structures such as industrial sites and buildings constructed for the World Wars or the Cold War.There are 33 scheduled monuments in Taunton Deane. Many of them are Neolithic through to the Bronze and Iron Ages such as bowl barrows, cairns along with hill forts such as Norton Camp. Castle Neroche was an Iron Age hill fort which was reused as a Norman motte-and-bailey castle. Burrow Mump shows evidence of Roman use but is better known as a Norman motte-and-bailey castle, and later church. It was presented, in 1946, by Major Alexander Gould Barrett, to the National Trust to serve as a memorial to the 11,281 Somerset men who lost their lives during the first and second world wars.The Medieval period is represented by several churchyard crosses. The defensive walls and part of Taunton Castle, which has Anglo-Saxon origins and was expanded during the Medieval and Tudor eras, is included. More recent sites include Poundisford Park, Buckland Priory, Bradford Bridge and a duck decoy from the 17th century. Some of the sites such as Balt Moor Wall are of uncertain date; however the most recent are air traffic control buildings, pillboxes and fighter pens from RAF Culmhead, situated at Churchstanton on the Blackdown Hills. The monuments are listed below using the titles given in the English Heritage data sheets.

Norsey Wood

Norsey Wood is a 67.2 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Billericay, Essex. It is also a Local Nature Reserve and a Scheduled Monument.The site is ancient oak woodland on acid soil which has been converted to mixed sweet chestnut coppice. Bluebell, bracken and bramble are dominant on the ground layer, but there are sphagnum mosses (sphagnum palustre and Sphagnum cuspidatum) in acidic flushes, and the rare water violet in one of the four ponds. There are nine species of dragonfly. Archaeolocal features include a Bronze Age bowl barrow, Iron Age and Roman cemeteries, and a medieval deer bank.There is a Forest nursery school based on the outside of the woods with access to the woods for the children, toilets, a car park and a trail. There is access from Outwood Common Road, Break Egg

Hill, Norsey Close, Deerbank and Norsey Road.

Ramsden, Oxfordshire

Ramsden is a village and civil parish about 3 1⁄2 miles (5.6 km) north of Witney in West Oxfordshire. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 342.

Round Loaf

Round Loaf is a late-Neolithic or Bronze Age tumulus on Anglezarke Moor in the West Pennine Moors near Chorley in Lancashire, England. The bowl barrow is a scheduled monument considered to be of national importance. It was first scheduled in March 1954. The structure is aligned between Great Hill and Pikestones.

Sand Point and Middle Hope

Sand Point in Somerset, England, is the peninsula stretching out from Middle Hope, an 84.1-hectare (208-acre) biological and geological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It lies to the north of the village of Kewstoke, and the stretch of coastline called Sand Bay north of the town of Weston-super-Mare. On a clear day it commands views over Flat Holm, of the Bristol Channel, South Wales, Clevedon, the Second Severn Crossing and the Severn Bridge. A line drawn between Sand Point and Lavernock Point in South Wales marks the lower limit of the Severn Estuary and the start of the Bristol Channel.

Middle Hope is a sequence of carboniferous limestone with unusual geological features including a Pleistocene-aged fossil cliff and as a result has been designated as a regionally important geological site. The underlying geology and soil types support scarce plants such as the smallflower buttercup, honewort, Cheddar pink and Somerset hair grass. Human use of the sites is shown by a bowl barrow and disc barrow from late Neolithic or Bronze Age and the site of a likely motte-and-bailey castle. Woodspring Priory, a former Augustinian priory which was founded in the early 13th century, sits just inland of the rocky promontory. The priory and surrounding land is owned by the National Trust and is a popular place for walking.

Scheduled monuments in Mendip

Mendip is a local government district of Somerset in England. The Mendip district covers a largely rural area of 285 square miles (738 km2) ranging from the Mendip Hills through on to the Somerset Levels. It has a population of approximately 110,000. The administrative centre of the district is Shepton Mallet but the largest town (with more than twice the population of Shepton Mallet) is Frome.A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; Historic England takes the leading role in identifying such sites. The legislation governing this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The term "monument" can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have been deliberately constructed by human activity. They range from prehistoric standing stones and burial sites, through Roman remains and medieval structures such as castles and monasteries, to later structures such as industrial sites and buildings constructed for the World Wars or the Cold War.There are 234 scheduled monuments in Mendip. These include a large number of bowl and round barrows and other neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tumuli such as the Priddy Circles and Priddy Nine Barrows and Ashen Hill Barrow Cemeteries. There are also several Iron Age hill forts on the hill tops and lake villages on the lowlands such as Meare and Glastonbury Lake Villages. The lake villages were often connected by timber trackways such as the Sweet Track. There are several Roman sites particularly around the Charterhouse Roman Town and lead mining. Some later coal mining sites are also included in the list.

Two major religious sites in Mendip at Glastonbury Abbey and Wells Cathedral and their precincts and dispersed residences, tithe barns and The Abbot's Fish House, are included in the list. Prehistoric defensive features such as Ponter's Ball Dyke were supplemented in the medieval period by motte-and-bailey castles such as Farleigh Hungerford, Nunney and Fenny Castle. Commercial and industrial development is represented by the Old Iron Works at Mells and various market crosses. The most recent site on the list is a World War II bombing decoy complex and anti-aircraft obstructions, which were built in 1940, on Black Down, the highest point of the Mendip Hills. The monuments are listed below using the titles given in the Historic England data sheets.

Scheduled monuments in West Somerset

West Somerset is a local government district in the English county of Somerset. The council covers a largely rural area, with a population of 35,075 in an area of 740 square kilometres (290 sq mi).

According to figures released by the Office for National Statistics in 2009, the population of West Somerset has the oldest average age in the United Kingdom at 52.

The largest centres of population are the coastal towns of Minehead (population 10,000) and Watchet (4,400).

A scheduled monument is a nationally important archaeological site or monument which is given legal protection by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites. The legislation governing this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. The term "monument" can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have been deliberately constructed by human activity. They range from prehistoric standing stones and burial sites, through Roman remains and medieval structures such as castles and monasteries, to later structures such as industrial sites and buildings constructed for the World Wars or the Cold War.There are 201 scheduled monuments in West Somerset. Some of the oldest, particularly on Exmoor and the Quantock Hills are Neolithic, Bronze Age or Iron Age including hillforts, cairns, bowl barrows and other tumulis. More recent sites include several motte-and-bailey castles and church or village crosses which date from the Middle Ages. The geography with large numbers of streams is reflected by the number of packhorse and other bridges included in the list. The mining history of the area is also represented by several sections of the West Somerset Mineral Railway and associated ruins of mine buildings which are now scheduled. The most recent monuments are World War II pillboxes. The monuments are listed below using the titles given in the English Heritage data sheets.

Shiplate Slait

Shiplate Slait (grid reference ST365567) is a 33.9 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest near the village of Loxton, within the Mendip Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, North Somerset, notified in 1987.

The site is underlain by Clifton Down Limestone, Burrington Oolite, Black Rock Dolomite and Black Rock Limestone of the Carboniferous Limestone Series. There is dolomitic conglomerate (Triassic Mudstone) at the lower edges of the site. The site has unimproved calcicolous grassland, some of which is mixed with dwarf-shrub, mosaics of calcicolous grassland and scrub and woodland. Four nationally rare types of vegetation form most of the grassland. Rare species include Koeleria vallesiana (Somerset hair-grass), Carex humilis (dwarf sedge) and Potentilla tabernaemontani (spring cinquefoil).A bowl barrow of Neolithic to Bronze Age with a diameter of 24 metres (79 ft) and around 1.2 metres (3 ft 11 in) high, is scheduled as an ancient monument. Two further bowl barrows are also scheduled.

The Bull Ring

The Bull Ring is a Class II henge that was built in the late Neolithic period near Dove Holes in Derbyshire, England.It has coordinates 53.300695°N 1.884423°W / 53.300695; -1.884423

(grid reference SK 0785 7823), and is National Monument number 23282. There are also two barrows about 20m away from the henge; one oval, one bowl.The henge consists of a large, circular earthwork, which is currently about 1 metre (3 ft) high and 9–11 metres (30–36 ft) wide; however it was originally 2 metres (7 ft) high and 5.5–7 metres (18–23 ft) wide. The henge has a ditch on the inside, which varies between 0.5 and 1 metre (1 ft 8 in and 3 ft 3 in) deep and 8 and 12 metres (26 and 39 ft) wide; it was originally 1.2–2 metres (3 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) deep and 5–6.5 metres (16–21 ft) wide. The ditch and bank are separated by a berm, which was originally 5 metres (16 ft) wide. It encloses an area 53 (north–south) by 46 (east–west) metres, with entrances to the north and south, each of which have a causeway across the ditch. A skeleton was reputedly found near the north entrance; this entrance was also damaged in the 19th century by quarrying. The centre of the henge was ploughed in the 18th century; a drystone wall was also built across the site during the same era.A single standing stone (orthostat) was recorded as remaining in 1789 by Pilkington, potentially the remnant of a stone circle. It has been suggested that stones from the henge were used as sleepers for the Peak Forest Tramway circa 1790.A minor excavation was carried out in the west ditch in 1902; this reputedly discovered some pottery sherds and flint flakes, which have since been lost. A trial excavation by Oxford University Archaeological Society in 1949 established that the ring has two entrances, and also provided information about the original size of the bank and ditch. However, it did not provide any evidence of stones on the site. The excavation also turned up flint flakes, as well as a rim from a pottery food vessel.A third excavation was carried out in 1984 outside the south entrance, which found further flint flakes and pottery, several pits, and stakeholes of a fence following the henge bank, which are potentially original features of the henge. Most recently, Magnetometer and earth resistance surveys were carried out in 2000, with no conclusive results.The oval barrow to the south-west of the henge is about 27 by 21 metres (89 ft × 69 ft), and is approximately 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) high. It was constructed some time in the early to mid-Neolithic period. A later (late Neolithic to late Bronze Age) bowl barrow is superimposed on it. The summit of the oval barrow was disturbed by a World War II slit trench; the edges of the barrow have also been disturbed by ploughing as well as a drystone wall, which has subsequently been removed. The barrow has not been excavated.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.