Bowfin (Amia calva) are bony fishes related to gars in the infraclass Holostei. Common names include mudfish, mud pike, dogfish, griddle, grinnel, swamp trout and choupique. They are regarded as taxonomic relicts, being the sole surviving species of the order Amiiformes which dates from the Jurassic to the Eocene, persisting to the present. Although bowfin are highly evolved, they are often referred to as "primitive fishes" because they have retained some morphological characteristics of their early ancestors.
Bowfin are demersal freshwater piscivores native to North America, and commonly found throughout much of the eastern United States, and in southern Ontario and Quebec. Fossil deposits indicate Amiiformes were once widespread in both freshwater and marine environments with a range that spanned across North and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Now their range is limited to much of the eastern United States and adjacent southern Canada, including the drainage basins of the Mississippi River, Great Lakes and various rivers exiting in the Eastern Seaboard or Gulf of Mexico. Their preferred habitat includes vegetated sloughs, lowland rivers and lakes, swamps and backwater areas; they are also occasionally found in brackish water. They are stalking, ambush predators known to move into the shallows at night to prey on fish and aquatic invertebrates such as crawfish, mollusks, and aquatic insects.
Like gars, bowfin are bimodal breathers which means they have the capacity to breathe both water and air. Their gills exchange gases in the water allowing them to exploit oxygen for breathing, but they also have a gas bladder that serves to maintain buoyancy, and also allows them to breathe air by means of a small pneumatic duct connected from the foregut to the gas bladder. They can break the surface to gulp air, which allows them to survive conditions of aquatic hypoxia that would be lethal to most other species.
The average length of a bowfin is 50 cm (20 in); females typically grow to 65–70 cm (26–28 in), males to 50–65 cm (20–26 in). Records indicate bowfin can reach 109 cm (43 in) in length, and weigh 9.75 kg (21.5 lb). Young of the year typically grow to 13–23 cm (5.1–9.1 in) by October. Females tend to grow larger than males.
The body of the bowfin is elongated and cylindrical, with the sides and back olive to brown in color, often with vertical bars, and dark reticulations, or camouflaged pattern. The dorsal fin has horizontal bars, and the caudal fin has irregular vertical bars. The underside is white or cream, and the paired fins and anal fin are bright green. During larval stage, hatchlings from about 7–10 mm (0.28–0.39 in) total length are black and tadpole-like in appearance. At approximately 25 mm (0.98 in) total length they have been described as looking like miniature placoderms. They grow quickly, and typically leave the nest within 4 to 6 weeks after hatching. Young males have a black eyespot on the base of the tail (caudal peduncle) that is commonly encircled by an orange-yellowish border while the female's is black, if present at all. It is thought the purpose of the eyespot is to confuse predators, deflecting attacks away from the head of the fish to its tail, which affords the bowfin an opportunity to escape predation. The bowfin is so named for its long, undulating dorsal fin consisting of 145 to 250 rays, and running from the middle of the back to the base of the tail.
The skull of the bowfin is made of two layers of skull, the dermatocranium and the chondrocranium. The chondrocranium layer cannot be seen because it is located below the dermal bones. The bowfin skull is made up of 28 fused bones, which compose the dermatocranium. The roof of the mouth is made up of 3 bones, the ectopterygoid, the palantine, and the vomer. The teeth are on two bones, the premaxillae and the maxillae. Another three bones make up the lower jaw the dentary, the angular, and the surangular. The cranial surface of the skull is made up of the nasals, the antorbital, the lacrimal, the parietal, the intertemporal, the post parietal, the supratemporal, the extra scapular, the post temporal, and the opercular. The entirety of the skull is attached to the girdle through another set of bones.
Bowfin are often referred to as "living fossils", or "primitive fishes" because they retained some of the primitive characters common to their ancestral predecessors, including a modified (rounded externally) heterocercal caudal fin, a highly vascularized gas bladder lung, vestiges of a spiral valve, and a bony gular plate. The bony gular plate is located underneath the head on the exterior of the lower jaw between the two sides of the lower jaw bone. Other distinguishing characteristics include long, sharp teeth, and two protruding tube-like nostrils. Unlike all of the most primitive actinopterygians, the scales of bowfin differ in that they are not ganoid scales, rather they are large, single-layered cycloid scales closer in similarity to more derived teleosts.
Northern snakeheads (Channa argus) are commonly mistaken for bowfin because of similarities in appearance, most noticeably their elongated, cylindrical shape, and long dorsal fin that runs along their backs. Northern snakeheads are piscivorous fishes native to the rivers and estuaries of China, Russia, and Korea. However, unlike bowfin which are native to North America, the northern snakehead is considered an invasive species and environmentally harmful. Some contrasting differences in bowfin include a black eyespot on their caudal peduncle, a tan and olive coloration, a shorter anal fin, a more rounded head, and an upper jaw that is longer than its lower jaw.
The burbot, a predatory fish native to streams and lakes of North America and Eurasia, is also commonly mistaken for bowfin. Burbots can be distinguished by their flat head and chin barbel, long anal fin, and pelvic fins situated beneath the pectoral fins.
The first fishes lacked jaws and used negative pressure to suck their food in through their mouths. The jaw in the bowfin is a result of their evolutionary need to be able to catch and eat bigger and more nutritious prey. As a result of being able to gather more nutrients, Bowfin are able to live a more active lifestyle. The jaw of a bowfin has several contributions. The maxilla and premaxilla are fused and the posterior chondrocranium articulates with the vertebra which allows the jaw freedom to rotate. The suspensorium includes several bones and articulates with the snout, brain case, and the mandible. When the jaw opens epaxial muscles lift the chondrocranium which is attached to the upper jaw, and adductor muscles close the lower jaw. This ability to open and close the jaw allows the bowfin to become more of a predator, in that it can catch bigger prey and be able to mechanical catch, and digest it.
The vertebral column in bowfin is ossified and in comparison to earlier fishes, the centra are the major support for the body, whereas in earlier fish the notochord was the main form of support. Neural spines and ribs provide additional support and help stabilize unpaired fins. In bowfin neural spines and ribs also increase in prominence, an evolutionary aspect that helps them stabilize unpaired fins. The evolution of the vertebral column allows the bowfin to withstand lateral bending that puts the column under compression without breaking. This, in turn, allows the bowfin to have more controlled and powerful movements, in comparison to fish that had only a notochord. The bowfin has a rounded heterocercal tail that resembles a homocercal tail. This type of tail gives the body a streamlined shape which allows the bowfin to improve its swimming ability by reducing drag. These types of tails are common in fish with gas bladders, because the bladder supplies the fish with natural buoyancy.
The bowfin is an actinopterygii which means that the pectoral girdle is partly endochondral but mostly dermal bone. In this group of fishes the fins function to maneuver, brake, and for slight positional adjustments. The pectoral girdle of the bowfin has six parts. The post temporal, supracleithrum, postcleithrum, cleithrum, scapulacoracoid, and the clavicle make up the pectoral girdle. The pectoral girdle is attached to the skull. The pectoral girdle is made of mostly dermal and some endochondral bone. The paired pectoral and pelvic fins of fish are homologous with the limbs of tetrapods.
Bowfin, like other physostomes such as bichirs (Polypteridae), gars (Lepisosteidae), and the lungfishes (Dipnoi), are capable of bimodal respiration. They can extract oxygen from the water when breathing through their gills, and can also break the water's surface to breathe or gulp air through a small pneumatic duct connected from their foregut to the gas bladder. When performing low-level physical activity, bowfin obtain more than half of their oxygen from breathing air. Bowfin have two distinct air-breathing mechanisms used to ventilate the gas bladder. Type I air breaths are consistent with the action of exhale-inhale stimulated by aerial or aquatic hypoxia to regulate O2 gas exchange; type II air breaths are by inhalation alone which is believed to regulate gas bladder volume for buoyancy control. Bimodal respiration helps bowfin survive and maintain their metabolic rate in hypoxic conditions. The rate of air breathing is higher in darkness, when the fish is more active.
Bowfin blood can adapt to warm, acidic waters. The fish becomes inactive in waters below 10 °C (50 °F); at this temperature they breathe almost no air; however, with increasing temperature their air breathing increases. Their preferred temperature range is between 12–26 °C (54–79 °F), with 18 °C (64 °F) the temperature of maximum activity. Air breathing is at a maximum in the range 18.4–29.6 °C (65.1–85.3 °F).
Herpetologist Wilfred T. Neill reported in 1950 that he unearthed a bowfin aestivating in a chamber 4 inches (10 cm) below the ground surface, 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter, .25 miles (0.4 km) from a river. It was further noted that flood levels had previously reached the area, and receded. It is not unusual for riverine species like bowfin to move into backwaters with flood currents, and become trapped when water levels recede. While aestivation is anecdotally documented by multiple researchers, laboratory experiments have suggested instead that bowfin are physiologically incapable of surviving more than three to five days of air exposure. However, no field manipulation has been performed. Regardless of the lack of evidence confirming the bowfin's ability to aestivate, it has been noted that bowfin can survive prolonged conditions of exposure to air because they have the ability to breathe air. Their gill filaments and lamellae are rigid in structure which helps prevent the lamellae from collapsing and aids gas exchange even during air exposure.
Competing hypotheses and debates continue over the evolution of Amia and relatives, including their relationship among basal extant teleosts, and organization of clades. Bowfin are the last remaining member of Halecomorphi, a group that includes many extinct species in several families. Halecomorphs were generally accepted as the sister group to Teleostei but not without question. While a halecostome pattern of neopterygian clades was produced in morphology-based analyses of extant actinopterygians, a different result was produced with fossil taxa which showed a monophyletic Holostei. Monophyletic Holostei were also recovered by at least two nuclear gene analyses, in an independent study of fossil and extant fishes, and in an analysis of ultraconserved genomic elements.
The extant ray-finned fishes of the subclass Actinopterygii include 42 orders, 431 families and over 23,000 species. They are currently classified into two infraclasses, Chondrostei (holosteans) and Neopterygii (teleost fishes). Sturgeons, paddlefish, bichirs and reed fish compose the thirty-eight species of chondrosteans, and are considered relict species. Included in the over 23,000 species of neopterygians are eight relict species comprising gars and the bowfin.
Neopterygians are the second major occurrence in the evolution of ray-finned fishes and today include the majority of modern bony fish. They are distinguished from their earlier ancestors by major changes to the jaws, shape of the skull, and tail. They are divided into three divisions:
List of species.
The bowfin genome contains an intact ParaHox gene cluster, similar to the bichir and to most other vertebrates. This is in contrast, however, with teleost fishes, which have a fragmented ParaHox cluster, probably because of a whole genome duplication event in their lineage. The presence of an intact ParaHox gene cluster suggests that bowfin ancestors separated from other fishes before the last common ancestor of all teleosts appeared. Bowfin are thus possibly a better model to study vertebrate genome organization than common teleost model organisms such as zebrafish.
Bowfin are stalking, ambush predators that customarily move into the shallows at night to prey on fish, and aquatic invertebrates such as crawfish, mollusks, and aquatic insects. Young bowfin feed mostly on small crustaceans, while adults are mostly piscivorous, but also known to be opportunistic. Bowfin are remarkably agile, can move quickly through the water, and they have a voracious appetite. Their undulating dorsal fin propels them silently through the water while stalking their prey. The attack is straightforward and swift with a movement that lasts approximately 0.075 seconds. There were also some studies regarding the capacity of the bowfin to survive without food. In 1916, A female bowfin was starved for twenty months. It was the longest period that any vertebrate had been without food, as far the writer was aware during the observation. Some independent studies focus on the bowfin's ability to use organic material as a source of food and studied the structure of the gill raker. They concluded that it did not benefit from the organic material in the water because the gill rakers were short with blunt processes and a short space between them. Even bacteria could enter and exit through the gill easily. Its structure alone indicated that the Amia doesn't use microorganism as a source of food.
Fossil deposits indicate amiiforms included freshwater and marine species that were once widely distributed in North America, South America, Eurasia and Africa. Today, bowfin (Amia calva) are the only remaining species in the order Amiiformes; they are demersal freshwater piscivores, and their range is restricted to freshwater environments in North America, including much of the eastern United States and adjacent southern Canada from the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain drainage of southern Ontario and Quebec westward around the Great Lakes in southern Ontario into Minnesota. Historically, their distribution in North America included the drainage basins of the Mississippi River from Quebec to northern Minnesota, the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, including Georgian Bay, Lake Nipissing and Simcoe, Ontario, south to the Gulf of Mexico; Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain from the Susquehanna River drainage in southeastern Pennsylvania to the Colorado River in Texas.
Research from the late 1800s to the 1980s suggests a trend of intentional stockings of non-indigenous fishes into ponds, lakes and rivers in the United States. At that time, little was known about environmental impacts, or long-term effects of new species establishment and spread as a result of "fish rescue and transfer" efforts, or the importance of nongame fishes to the ecological balance of aquatic ecosystems. Introductions of bowfin to areas they were considered a non-indigenous species included various lakes, rivers and drainages in Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Many of the introductions were intentional stockings by various resource management; however, there is no way to positively determine distribution resulting from flood transfers, or other inadvertent migrations. Bowfin are typically piscivorous, but as an introduced species are capable of being voracious predators that pose a threat to native fishes and their prey.
Bowfin prefer vegetated sloughs, lowland rivers and lakes, swamps, backwater areas, and are occasionally found in brackish water. They are well camouflaged, and not easy to spot in slow water with abundant vegetation. They often seek shelter under roots, and submerged logs. Oxygen-poor environments can be tolerated because of their ability to breathe air.
Bowfin spawn in the spring or early summer, typically between April and June, more commonly at night in abundantly vegetated, clear shallow water in weed beds over sand bars, and also under stumps, logs, and bushes. Optimum temperatures for nesting and spawning range between 16–19 °C (61–66 °F). The males construct circular nests in fibrous root mats, clearing away leaves and stems. Depending on the density of surrounding vegetation there may be a tunnel-like entrance at one side. The diameter of the nests commonly range between 39–91 cm (15–36 in), at a water depth of 61–92 cm (24–36 in).
During spawning season, the fins and underside of male bowfin often change in color to a bright lime green. The courtship/spawning sequence lasts one to three hours, and can repeat up to five times. Courtship begins when a female approaches the nest. The ritual consists of intermittent nose bites, nudges, and chasing behavior by the male until the female becomes receptive, at which time the pair lie side by side in the nest. She deposits her eggs while he shakes his fins in a vibratory movement, and releases his milt for fertilization to occur. A male often has eggs from more than one female in his nest, and a single female often spawns in several nests.
Females vacate the nest after spawning, leaving the male behind to protect the eggs during the eight to ten days of incubation. A nest may contain 2,000 to 5,000 eggs, possibly more. Fecundity is usually related to size of the fish, so it isn't unusual for the roe of a large gravid female to contain over 55,000 eggs. Bowfin eggs are adhesive, and will attach to aquatic vegetation, roots, gravel, and sand. After hatching, larval bowfin do not swim actively in search of food. During the seven to nine days required for yolk-sac absorption, they attach to vegetation by means of an adhesive organ on their snout, and remain protected by the parent male bowfin. Bowfin aggressively protect their spawn from the first day of incubation to a month or so after the eggs have hatched. When the fry are able to swim and forage on their own, they will form a school and leave the nest accompanied by the parent male bowfin who slowly circles them to prevent separation.
A common parasite of bowfin is the anchor worm (Lernaea). These small crustaceans infest the skin and bases of fins, with consequences ranging from slowed growth to death. The mollusk Megalonaias gigantea lays eggs in the bowfin gills, that are then externally fertilized by sperm passing in the water flow. The small glochidia larvae then hatch and develop in the gill tubes.
As a sport fish, bowfin are not considered desirable to many anglers. They were once considered a nuisance fish by anglers and early biologists who believed the bowfin's predatory nature was harmful to sport fish populations. As a result, efforts were taken to reduce their numbers. Research has since proven otherwise, and that knowledge together with a better understanding of maintaining overall balance of ecosystems, regulations were introduced to help protect and maintain viable populations of bowfin. Bowfin are strong fighters, a prized trait in game fish. However, they do have a jaw full of sharp teeth which requires careful handling. The current tackle record is 21.5 lb (9.8 kg)
Bowfin were once considered to have little commercial value because of its poor-tasting meat which has been referred to as "soft, bland-tasting and of poor texture". However, it is considered quite palatable if cleaned properly and smoked, or prepared fried, blackened, used in courtbouillion, or in fishballs or fishcakes. Over the years, global efforts have imposed strict regulations on the international trade of caviar, particularly on the harvest of sturgeons from the Caspian Sea where the highly prized caviar from the beluga sturgeon originates. The bans imposed on Caspian sturgeons have created lucrative markets for affordable substitutes in the United States including paddlefish, bowfin, and various species of sturgeon. In Louisiana, bowfin are harvested in the wild, and cultured commercially in hatcheries for their meat and roe. The roe is processed into caviar, and sold as "Cajun caviar", or marketed under the trade name "Choupiquet Royale".
In some areas of the United States where aquatic environments have tested positive for elevated levels of toxins, such as mercury, arsenic, chromium, and copper, there are posted signs with warnings about the consumption of fish caught in those areas. Concentration of mercury biomagnifies as it passes up the food chain from organisms on lower trophic levels to apex predators. It bioaccumulates in the tissues of larger, long-lived predatory fishes. When compared to smaller, short-lived fishes, bowfin tend to concentrate mercury at higher levels thereby making them less safe for human consumption.
The American pickerels are two subspecies of Esox americanus, a species of freshwater fish in the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes: the redfin pickerel, E. americanus americanus Gmelin, 1789, and the grass pickerel, E. americanus vermiculatus Lesueur, 1846.
Both subspecies are native to North America. They are not to be confused with their aggressive counterpart the Northern pike. The redfin pickerel's range extends from the Saint Lawrence drainage in Quebec down to the Gulf Coast, from Mississippi to Florida, while the grass pickerel's range is further west, extending from the Great Lakes Basin, from Ontario to Michigan, down to the western Gulf Coast, from eastern Texas to Mississippi.
The two subspecies are very similar, but the grass pickerel lacks the redfin's distinctive orange to red fin coloration, its fins having dark leading edges and amber to dusky coloration. In addition, the light areas between the dark bands are generally wider on the grass pickerel and narrower on the redfin pickerel. These pickerels grow to a maximum overall length of 40 cm (16 in) and a maximum weight of 2.25 pounds
The redfin and grass pickerels occur primarily in sluggish, vegetated waters of pools, lakes, and swamps, and are carnivorous, feeding on smaller fish. Larger fishes, such as the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), bowfin (Amia calva), and gray weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), in turn, prey on the pickerels when they venture into larger rivers or estuaries.
These fishes reproduce by scattering spherical, sticky eggs in shallow, heavily vegetated waters. The eggs hatch in 11–15 days; the adults guard neither the eggs nor the young.
The E. americanus subspecies are not as highly prized as a game fish as their larger cousins, the northern pike and muskellunge, but they are caught by anglers. McClane's Standard Fishing Encyclopedia describes ultralight tackle as a sporty if overlooked method to catch these small but voracious pikes.
Lesueur originally classified the grass pickerel as E. vermiculatus, but it is now considered a subspecies of E. americanus.
E. americanus americanus is sometimes called the brook pickerel. There is no widely accepted English common collective name for the two E. americanus subspecies; "American pickerel" is a translation of the systematic name and the French brochet d'Amérique.Amiidae
The Amiidae are a family of basal ray-finned fishes. The bowfin is the only species to survive today, although additional species in all four subfamilies of Amiidae are known from Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene fossils.Bowfins are now found throughout eastern North America, typically in slow-moving backwaters, canals, and ox-bow lakes. When the oxygen level is low (as often happens in still waters), the bowfin can rise to the surface and gulp air into its swim bladder, which is lined with blood vessels and can serve as a primitive lung.Amiiformes
The Amiiformes order of fish has only one extant species, the bowfin (Amia calva).Aspidorhynchus
Aspidorhynchus (meaning "shield snout") is an extinct genus of ray-finned fish from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Fossils have been found in Europe and Antarctica.
Aspidorhynchus was a slender, fast-swimming fish, 60 centimetres (2.0 ft) long, with tooth-lined, elongated jaws. It also had heavy scales and a symmetrical tail. The upper jaw was longer than the lower jaw, ending in a toothless spike. Although it would have looked superficially similar to the present day gar, its closest living relative is actually the bowfin.Grand Lake (Michigan)
Grand Lake is a 5,660-acre (22.9 km2) lake in Presque Isle County in the U.S. state of Michigan. Grand Lake is a substantial lake of approximately 7 miles (11 km) in length and up to 1.5 miles (2.5 km) in width. The lake is on the boundary between Presque Isle Township to the east and Krakow Township to the west, approximately 15 miles (25 km) north of Alpena on U.S. Highway 23, which passes to the south and west of the lake.Fishing species include: bluegill, bullhead catfish, northern pike, garpike, bowfin, pumpkinseed sunfish, rock bass, smallmouth bass, white sucker, yellow perch, and walleye.The lake lies on the landward side of a prominent promontory in the county that juts out into Lake Huron, thereby making the promontory almost an island and indirectly giving the promontory and county their name of "Presque Isle." The lake contains many islands, such as Brown Island, Grand Island, and Macombers Island.The two Presque Isle, Michigan lighthouses are nearby to the east: the New Presque Isle Lighthouse at 4500 E. Grand Lake Road and the Old Presque Isle Lighthouse at 5295 Grand Lake Road.
Deposits of Rock salt were discovered at a depth of 1284 feet in the vicinity of Grand Lake. On the west shore of the lake are ledges, which rise to a height of 40 feet above lake level, and include Cerepatora fossils along with crinoid stems.Halecomorphi
Halecomorphi is a taxon of bony fishes in the clade Neopterygii. The sole living Halecomorph is the bowfin (Amia calva), but the group contains many extinct species in several families, including Amiidae, Caturidae, Liodesmidae, Sinamiidae, and the orders Ionoscopiformes, and Parasemionotiformes). The Halecomorphi exhibit a combination of ancestral features, such as most heavily mineralized scales, but also by more derived or "modern" features, particularly in the structure of the skull (e.g. position and shape of preopercles).
Unique derived traits (synapomorphies) of the Halecomorphi include:
Unique jaw articulation in which the quadrate and symplectrum participate in the joint.
Lengthened dorsal fins
Two biconcave vertebrae per segment in the posterior body region (a condition known as diplospondyly)
Fan like arrangement of small bones (hypurals) in the tail.On the systematic position of the Halecomorphi are two competing hypotheses:
The Halecostomi hypothesis proposes Halecomorphi as a sister group of the major group (Teleostei) (rendering Holostei paraphyletic).
The Holostei hypothesis proposes Halecomorphi as a sister group of gars (Lepisosteidae) and their fossil relatives together under the name Ginglymodi.Halecostomi
The Halecostomi are a group of Neopterygian fish uniting the halecomorphs (represented by the living bowfin and many extinct groups) and the teleosts, the largest radiation of bony fish.Haplobothriidea
Haplobothriidea is an order of Cestoda (tapeworms). The two species of this order, both in the genus Haplobothrium, are gut parasites of Amia calva, the bowfin. The intermediate hosts are freshwater teleosts.Holostei
Holostei are bony fish. There are eight species divided among two orders, the Amiiformes represented by a single living species, the Bowfin (Amia calva), and the Lepisosteiformes, represented by seven living species in two genera, the gars. Further species are to be found in the fossil record and the group is often regarded as paraphyletic. Holosteians are closer to teleosts than are the chondrosteans, the other group intermediate between teleosts and cartilaginous fish. The spiracles are reduced to vestigial remnants and the bones are lightly ossified. The thick ganoid scales of the gars are more primitive than those of the bowfin.Libby, Minnesota
Libby is an unincorporated community in Libby Township, Aitkin County, Minnesota, United States. The community is located between McGregor and Jacobson along State Highway 65 (MN 65). The Mississippi River flows nearby. Libby is located immediately northwest of Big Sandy Lake.
Nearby places include Palisade, McGregor, Tamarack, Jacobson, Ball Bluff, and Savanna Portage State Park.
Libby is located 13 miles north of McGregor, and 16 miles south of Jacobson.
Aitkin lake is near to Libby, stocked with black bullhead, black crappie, bluegill, brown bullhead, hybrid sunfish, largemouth bass, northern pike, pumpkinseed, tullibee (cisco), walleye, yellow bullhead, yellow perch, bowfin (dogfish), shorthead redhorse, white sucker, golden shiner, minnowsThe community had a post office from 1891 to 1953.List of fishes of Arkansas
The state of Arkansas has a wide variety of freshwater fish species in its rivers, lakes, and streams.List of freshwater fishes of Maryland
This is a list of freshwater fish living wild in the US state of Maryland.Ralph Waldo Christie
Ralph Waldo Christie (30 August 1893 – 19 December 1987) was an admiral in the United States Navy who played a pivotal role in the development of torpedo technologies. During World War II, he commanded submarine operations out of the Australian ports of Brisbane and Fremantle.
A 1915 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, Christie served on a variety of warships beginning with the battleship New Jersey in 1915. He was trained in torpedo design and implementation and became one of the first members of the Submarine School at New London. In 1923 Christie graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering, specializing in torpedoes. During the 1920s, he was involved with project G-53, a highly secret program to develop a magnetic influence exploder for torpedoes. The result of this was the development of the Mark 6 exploder and the Mark 14 torpedo. Christie also developed a design for an oxygen torpedo, designated project G-49 or "Navol".
After the United States entered World War II, Christie was posted to Brisbane and commanded submarine operations during the Solomon Islands campaign. He then returned to the U.S. as Inspector of Ordnance at the Newport Torpedo Station. In January 1943, Christie returned to Australia as commander of submarine operations in Fremantle. Despite growing evidence of problems with the Mark 6 exploder and the Mark 14 torpedo, he remained convinced of their effectiveness. During 1944, he accompanied war patrols on the submarines USS Bowfin and USS Harder. In November 1944, Christie was relieved of command of submarine operations at Fremantle by Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid and returned to the United States, where he commanded the Puget Sound Navy Yard. He retired from the Navy in August 1949 with the rank of vice admiral.Sinamia
Sinamia is an extinct genus of bowfin fish which existed in China during the early Cretaceous period. It contains the species Sinamia zdanskyi.Siquijor
Siquijor [Pronounced as "See-Kee-Hor"] Cebuano: Lalawigan sa Siquijor, Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Siquijor) is a 5th provincial income class island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the municipality also named Siquijor. To the north of Siquijor is Cebu, to the west is Negros, northeast is Bohol, and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.
During the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines, the Spaniards called the island Isla del Fuego (Island of Fire). Siquijor is commonly associated with mystic traditions that the island's growing tourism industry capitalizes on.The Silent Service (TV series)
The Silent Service is an American syndicated anthology television series based on actual events in the submarine section of the United States Navy. The Silent Service was narrated by Rear Admiral Thomas M. Dykers, who retired from the Navy in 1949 after twenty-two years of service. He began each episode with this refrain: "Tonight, we bring you another thrilling episode of Silent Service stories, of warfare under the sea."
Many of the episodes focused on the history of specific submarines, including:
USS Bergall (SS-320)
USS Bowfin (SS-287)
USS Crevalle (SS-291), season 1, episode 19.
USS Dace (SS-247)
USS Darter (SS-227)
USS Flier (SS-250)
USS Gato (SS-212), subject of the series finale.
USS Grayling (SS-209)
USS Growler (SS-215)
USS Guardfish (SS-217)
USS Hawkbill (SS-366)
USS Nautilus (SS-168)
USS Perch (SS-176)
USS S-38 (SS-143)
USS Sculpin (SS-191)
USS Spearfish (SS-190)
USS Sunfish (SS-281)
USS Swordfish (SS-193)
USS Tang (SS-306)
USS Tinosa (SS-283)
USS Tirante (SS-420)
USS Trigger (SS-237)
USS Triton (SS-201)
USS Wahoo (SS-238)Many of these episodes have been uploaded to YouTube.
Actors appearing on The Silent Service included Russell Johnson, cast three times in the role of the character "Beach". DeForest Kelley appeared in three episodes as Lieutenant Commander James Dempsey and Leonard Nimoy appeared in two episodes as Sonarman. Jerry Paris and Liam Sullivan each guest starred twice. Wright King played "Bony" in the 1957 episode "The Squallfish". Eric Morris appeared in nineteen episodes, identified only as "Soldier".Other guest stars included Joe Conley, Jack Lord, Chuck Connors, Lawrence Dobkin, Ron Hagerthy, Adam Kennedy, Robert Knapp, Paul Richards, Edward Platt, Bing Russell, Craig Stevens, Dennis Weaver, Bob Denver, Dick Van Patten, L. Q. Jones, and Stuart Whitman.The Silent Service was produced by California National Productions and Twin Dolphin Productions, Inc.Comedian Bob Newhart spoofed the program with "The Cruise of the U.S.S. Codfish", a routine from his 1960 live album The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart.Tsushima Maru
Tsushima Maru (対馬丸) was a Japanese passenger/cargo ship that was sunk by the submarine USS Bowfin during World War II, while carrying hundreds of schoolchildren from Okinawa to Kagoshima.USS Bowfin (SS-287)
USS Bowfin (SS/AGSS-287), a Balao-class submarine, was a boat of the United States Navy named for the bowfin fish. Since 1981, she has been open to public tours at the USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, next to the USS Arizona Memorial Visitor Center.
Bowfin was laid down by the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard at Kittery, Maine, on 23 July 1942, and launched on 7 December 1942 by Mrs. Jane Gawne, wife of Captain James Gawne, and commissioned on 1 May 1943, Commander Joseph H. Willingham in command.