Bow tie

The bow tie /boʊ/ is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, which is also called the bow knot for that reason. It consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner so that the two opposite ends form loops.

There are generally three types of bow ties: the pre-tied, the clip on, and the self tie.[1] Pre-tied bow ties are ties in which the distinctive bow is sewn onto a band that goes around the neck and clips to secure. Some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether, instead clipping straight to the collar. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, is also known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie.

Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, polyester, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics. Some fabrics (e.g., wool or velvet) are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties.

A striped bow tie

Origin and history

Johan Krouthén - Självporträtt 1904
Johan Krouthén wearing a bow tie

The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts. This was soon adopted (under the name cravat, derived from the French for "Croat") by the upper classes in France, then a leader in fashion, and flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is uncertain whether the cravat then evolved into the bow tie and four-in-hand necktie, or whether the cravat gave rise to the bow tie, which in turn led to the four-in-hand necktie.

The most traditional bow ties are usually of a fixed length and are made for a specific size neck. Sizes can vary between approximately 14 and 19 inches as with a comparable shirt collar. Fixed-length bow ties are preferred when worn with the most formal wing-collar shirts, so as not to expose the buckle or clasp of an adjustable bow tie. Adjustable bow ties are the standard when the tie is to be worn with a less formal, lie-down collar shirts which obscure the neckband of the tie. "One-size-fits-all" adjustable bow ties are a later invention that help to moderate production costs.

Karl Michael Ziehrer wearing a 19th-century style bow tie

Stereotypes of bow tie wearers

To its devotees, the bow tie suggests iconoclasm of an Old World sort, a fusty adherence to a contrarian point of view. The bow tie hints at intellectualism, real or feigned, and sometimes suggests technical acumen, perhaps because it is so hard to tie. Bow ties are worn by magicians, country doctors, lawyers and professors and by people hoping to look like the above. But perhaps most of all, wearing a bow tie is a way of broadcasting an aggressive lack of concern for what other people think.
- Warren St John in The New York Times[2]

HowToTieBowtie VersionA
Instructions on a common way to tie a bow tie

Popular perception tends to associate bow tie wearers with particular professions, such as architects,[3] finance receipt collectors, attorneys,[4] university professors, teachers, waiters, and politicians. Pediatricians frequently wear bow ties since infants cannot grab them the way they could grab a four-in-hand necktie. Bow ties do not readily droop into places where they would get soiled or where they could, whether accidentally or deliberately, strangle the wearer. Clowns sometimes use an oversize bow tie for its comic effect. Classical musicians traditionally perform in white tie or black tie ensembles, of which both designs are bow ties. Bow ties are also associated with weddings, mainly because of their almost universal inclusion in traditional formal attire.

Bow ties, or slight variations thereof, have also made their way into women's wear, especially business attire. The 1980s saw professional women, especially in law, banking, and the corporate world, donning very conservative tailored suits, with a rise of almost 6 million units in sales.[5] These were often worn with buttoned-up blouses, some with pleats up the front like tuxedo shirts, and accessorized with bow ties that were slightly fuller than the standard bow ties worn by their male counterparts, but typically consisting of the same fabrics, colors, and patterns as men's ties.

Russell Smith, style columnist for Toronto's The Globe and Mail, records mixed opinions of bow tie wearers. He observed that bow ties were experiencing a potential comeback among men,[6][7] though "the class conscious man recoils at the idea" of pre-tied bow ties and "[l]eft-wingers" ... "recoil at what they perceive to be a symbol of political conservatism." He argues that, however, that anachronism is the point, and that bow tie wearers are making a public statement that they disdain changing fashion. Such people may not be economic conservatives, he argues, but they are social conservatives. In Smith's view, the bow tie is "the embodiment of propriety," an indicator of fastidiousness, and "an instant sign of nerddom in Hollywood movies," but "not the mark of a ladies' man" and "not exactly sexy."[8] To this image he attributes the association of the bow tie with newspaper editors (because of their fastidiousness with words), high-school principals, and bachelor English teachers. Most men, he observes, only wear bow ties with formal dress.


The four-in-hand necktie is still more prominent in contemporary Western society, it being seen the most at business meetings, formal functions, schools, and sometimes even at home. However, the bow tie is making a comeback at fun-formal events such as dinners, cocktail parties, and nights out on the town. Bow ties are often worn with suits by those trying to convey a more dressed-up, formal image, whether in business or social venues. Bow ties are still generally popular with men of all ages in the American South, having never gone out of fashion there.

Traditional opinion remains that it is inappropriate to wear anything other than a bow tie with a dinner jacket.

Bow ties are also sometimes worn as an alternative to ascot ties and four-in-hand neckties when wearing morning dress.

The dress code of "black tie" requires a black bow tie. Most military mess dress uniforms incorporate a bow tie.


Shown below on the right is one style of ready-tied bow tie; there is also a clip-on that does not go around the neck but clips to the collar points. Wearing a ready-tied bow tie at formal occasions requiring a black or white tie dress code is usually considered a faux pas, though at occasions such as Schools Leavers' Proms or ones at which the participants are unlikely to have had much experience wearing bow ties it may be commonplace. If choosing a self-tie/tie-it-yourself/freestyle bow tie, there are usually two shapes available: the "bat wing," which is parallel-sided like a cricket bat, and the "thistle," also known as the "butterfly." An example of each can also be seen below. Which is worn is a matter of personal preference. Some other shapes do exist; for instance, the Diamond Point, with pointed tips at both ends. This is a double-ended type, with both ends shaped, though occasionally, ties are tied in the single-ended type, in which only one end flares out to give the batwing or thistle shape, and the other remains thin. To tie one of these requires careful consideration, to ensure the broader end finishes in front of the thinner one.

2 Silk Bow Ties

Silk bow ties. Fixed length with "thistle" ends (left) and adjustable with "bat wing" ends (right).

BOWTIE red velvet pretied clipon

A pre-tied bow tie

Yellow self tie cotton bow tie, designed and made in the UK

Bright Yellow patterned self-tie bow tie, made of cotton, designed and made in the UK

Bowtie Butterfly

Bow tie, type Butterfly, silk

Bowtie Batwing

Bow tie, type Batwing, wool

Bowtie Diamond

Bow tie, type Diamond Point, silk

Colourful Bow tie

Informal bow tie


Some notable designers of bow ties are Charvet, who invented some novel styles such as a cross between a batwing and a butterfly for the Duke of Windsor in the 1950s,[9] Duchamp or Paul Smith.



Jim Rogers wearing a bow tie in 2010

Elio Di Rupo 2012

Elio Di Rupo, former Prime Minister of Belgium, is a regular wearer of bow ties.

Colonel Harland Sanders in character

Colonel Sanders wearing his distinctive string tie

Bill Nye with trademark blue lab coat and bowtie

Bill Nye, on his show, wore a powder blue lab coat and bow tie.

Pee-Wee Herman (1988)

Paul Reubens as Pee-wee Herman wore a trademark red bow tie.


Michael Maxey, president of Roanoke College is well known for wearing bow-ties.

Tucker Carlson (5222916)

Tucker Carlson, presently a host on the Fox News Channel, wearing a bow tie in early 2004.

See also

  • Continental tie


  1. ^
  2. ^ St John, Warren (June 26, 2005). "A Red Flag That Comes in Many Colors". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
  3. ^ Hammel, Bette Jones (1989). From Bauhaus to Bowties. Minneapolis, MN: Hammel, Green, & Abrahamson. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-9622610-0-8.
  4. ^ Cook, Joan (February 19, 1988). "The Law; In Celebration of 'Dignified Frivolity'". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Smith, Russell (2007). Men's Style. Macmillan. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-312-36165-5.
  7. ^ Smith, Russell (November 15, 2008). "Rock the bow tie without looking nerdy". The Globe and Mail.
  8. ^ Smith, Russell (September 14, 2015). "Rock the bow tie without looking nerdy". Toronto Globe and Mail. Bow ties are tricky. They carry strong connotations: conservative, newspaperman, high-school principal. They are instant signs of nerddom in Hollywood movies. They look fastidious but not exactly sexy.
  9. ^ Gavenas, Mary Lisa (2008). Encyclopedia of Menswear. New York: Fairchild Publications. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-56367-465-5.

External links


In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

Angles formed by two rays lie in a plane, but this plane does not have to be a Euclidean plane. Angles are also formed by the intersection of two planes in Euclidean and other spaces. These are called dihedral angles. Angles formed by the intersection of two curves in a plane are defined as the angle determined by the tangent rays at the point of intersection. Similar statements hold in space, for example, the spherical angle formed by two great circles on a sphere is the dihedral angle between the planes determined by the great circles.

Angle is also used to designate the measure of an angle or of a rotation. This measure is the ratio of the length of a circular arc to its radius. In the case of a geometric angle, the arc is centered at the vertex and delimited by the sides. In the case of a rotation, the arc is centered at the center of the rotation and delimited by any other point and its image by the rotation.

The word angle comes from the Latin word angulus, meaning "corner"; cognate words are the Greek ἀγκύλος (ankylοs), meaning "crooked, curved," and the English word "ankle". Both are connected with the Proto-Indo-European root *ank-, meaning "to bend" or "bow".Euclid defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other. According to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. The first concept was used by Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straight line; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and obtuse angles are certainly quantitative.

Batwing antenna

A batwing or super turnstile antenna is a type of broadcasting antenna used at VHF and UHF frequencies, named for its distinctive shape which resembles a bat wing or bow tie. Stacked arrays of batwing antennas are used as television broadcasting antennas due to their omnidirectional characteristics. Batwing antennas generate a horizontally polarized signal. The advantage of the "batwing" design for television broadcasting is that it has a wide bandwidth. It was the first widely used television broadcasting antenna.

Black tie

Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is often referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket (sometime abbreviated to just a DJ). In American English, the equivalent term, tuxedo, is common. The dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie, typically an evening waist coat or a cummerbund, and black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include a semi-formal homburg, bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn.

The dinner jacket evolved in late 19th century out of the smoking jacket – originally 19th century informal evening wear without tails designated for more comfortable tobacco smoking – following the first documented example in 1865 of the then Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII (1841–1910). Thus in many non-English languages, it is known as a "smoking". In American English, its synonym "tuxedo" was derived from the town of Tuxedo Park in New York State, where it was first introduced in 1886 following the example of Europeans.

Traditionally worn only for events after 6 p.m., black tie is less formal than white tie but more formal than informal or business dress. As semi-formal, black tie are worn for dinner parties (public, fraternities, private) and sometimes even to balls and weddings, although etiquette experts discourage wearing of black tie for weddings. Traditional semi-formal day wear equivalent is black lounge suit. Supplementary semi-formal alternatives may be accepted for black tie: military uniform (mess dress), religious clothing (such as cassock), folk costumes (such as highland dress), etc.

Boomerang Nebula

The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus. It is also known as the Bow Tie Nebula and catalogued as

LEDA 3074547. The nebula's temperature is measured at 1 K (−272.15 °C; −457.87 °F) making it the coolest natural place currently known in the Universe.The Boomerang Nebula is believed to be a star system evolving toward the planetary nebula phase. It continues to form and develop due to the outflow of gas from its core where a star is in its late stage life sheds mass and emits starlight illuminating dust in the nebula. Millimeter scale dust grains mask portions of the nebula's center so most escaping visible light is in two opposing lobes forming a distinctive hourglass shape as viewed from Earth. The outflowing gas is moving outwards at a speed of about 164 km/s and expanding rapidly as it moves out into space; this gas expansion results in the nebula's unusually low temperature.

Keith Taylor and Mike Scarrott called it the "Boomerang Nebula" in 1980 after observing it with the Anglo-Australian telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory. Unable to view it with great clarity, the astronomers saw merely a slight asymmetry in the nebula's lobes suggesting a curved shape like a boomerang. The nebula was photographed in detail by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1998 revealing a more symmetric hourglass shape.

In 1995, using the 15-metre Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope in Chile, astronomers revealed that it is the coldest place in the Universe found so far, besides laboratory-created temperatures. With a temperature of −272 °C, it is only 1 °C warmer than absolute zero (the lowest limit for all temperatures). Even the −270 °C background glow from the Big Bang is warmer than the nebula. Aside from the CMB cold spot, it is the only object found so far that has a temperature lower than the background radiation.In 2013, observations of the ALMA radio interferometer revealed other features of the Boomerang Nebula. The visible double lobe of the Boomerang Nebula was observed to be surrounded by a larger spherical volume of cold gas seen only in sub-millimeter radio wavelengths. The nebula's outer fringes appear to be gradually warming.

In mid-2017, it is believed that the star at the center of the nebula is a dying red giant.

Bow Tie Cinemas

Bow Tie Cinemas is an American movie theater chain, with 38 locations in Colorado, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia. As of 2013, it is the eighth-largest movie theater chain in the United States and is the oldest, having been founded in 1900. Bow Tie Cinemas is family-owned and has been for four generations.

Bow tie (biology)

In the biological sciences, the term bow tie (so called for its shape) is a recent concept that tries to grasp the essence of some operational and functional structures observed in biological organisms and other kinds of complex and self-organizing systems. In general, bow tie architectures refer to ordered and recurrent structures that often underlie complex technological or biological systems, and that are capable of conferring them a balance among efficiency, robustness and evolvability. In other words, bow ties are able to take into account a great diversity of inputs (fanning in to the knot), showing a much smaller diversity in the protocols and processes (the knot) able to elaborate these inputs, and finally an extremely heterogeneous diversity of outputs (fanning out of the bowtie). These architectures thus manage a wide range of inputs through a core (knot) constituted by a limited number of elements. In such structures, inputs are conveyed into a sort of funnel, towards a "synthesis" core, where they can be duly organized, processed and managed by means of protocols [1], and from where, in turn, a variety of outputs, or responses, is propagated.

According to Csete and Doyle, bow ties are able to optimally organize fluxes of mass, energy, signals in an overall structure that forcedly deals with a highly fluctuating and "sloppy" environment. In a biological perspective, a bow tie manages a large fan in of stimuli (input), it accounts for a "compressed" core, and it expresses again a large fan out of possible phenotypes, metabolite products, or –more generally – reusable modules. Bow tie architectures have been observed in the structural organization at different scales of living and evolving organisms (e.g. bacterial metabolism network) as well as in technological and dynamical systems (e.g. the Internet). Bow ties seem to be able to mediate trade-offs among robustness and efficiency, at the same time assuring to the system the capability to evolve.

Conversely, the same efficient architecture may be prone and vulnerable to fragilities due to specific changes, perturbations, and focused attacks directed against the core set of modules and protocols.

The bow tie architecture is one of several different structures and functioning principles that living matter employs to achieve self-organization and efficient exploitation of available resources.

Chevrolet Light Six

The Chevrolet Light Six Series L was an American car produced by Chevrolet in 1914 and 1915. The famous Chevrolet 'Bow Tie' emblem made its grand debut in 1914, and has been used on all Chevrolet cars and trucks since then.

When the Classic Six ceased production at the end of the 1914 model year the Light Six replaced it in 1915 as Chevrolet's top-of-the-line car.

Donald Tsang

Donald Tsang Yam-kuen, GBM (Chinese: 曾蔭權; born 7 October 1944) is a former Hong Kong civil servant and the second Chief Executive of Hong Kong from 2005 to 2012.

Tsang joined the colonial civil service as an Executive Officer in 1967, occupying various positions in local administration, finance and trade before he was appointed Financial Secretary of Hong Kong in 1995, becoming the first ethnic Chinese to hold the position under British administration. He continued to serve in the Hong Kong SAR government after 1997 and gained his reputation internationally for his intervention in Hong Kong's stock market in defending the Hong Kong dollar's peg to the US dollar during the 1997 financial crisis.

Tsang became the Chief Secretary for Administration in 2001 and ran for the Chief Executive in 2005 after incumbent Tung Chee-hwa resigned. He served the remaining term of Tung and was re-elected in 2007. He served a full five-year term until he stepped down in 2012. In his seven years of term, he proposed two constitutional reform proposals in 2005 and 2010 and saw the second ones passed after he reached a compromise with the pro-democracy legislators, making it the first and only political reform proposals to be passed in the SAR history. He carried out a five-year policy blueprint and ten large-scale infrastructure projects during his term. His popularity began to decline after the introduction of the Political Appointments System which was marked by controversies and scandals.

In the last months of his term, Tsang was embroiled by various corruption allegations. He was subsequently charged by the Independent Commission Against Corruption and was found guilty of one count of misconduct in public office in February 2017 and was sentenced to a 20-month imprisonment, becoming the highest officeholder in Hong Kong history to be convicted and imprisoned.


Farfalle (Italian: [farˈfalle]) are a type of pasta/noodle commonly known as bow-tie pasta or butterfly pasta. The name is derived from the Italian word farfalle (butterflies). In the Italian city of Modena, farfalle are known as strichetti. A larger variation of farfalle is known as farfalloni, while the miniature version is called farfalline. Farfalle date back to the 16th century in the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions of Northern Italy.Note that farfalle are not related to the similar-sounding farfel, an egg-barley pasta used in Jewish cuisine.

Ken Rosenthal

Kenneth H. "Ken" Rosenthal (born September 19, 1962) is an American sportswriter and reporter. He serves as a field reporter for Fox Major League Baseball and in-studio reporter for MLB Network. Since August 2017, he is a senior baseball writer for The Athletic.

Rosenthal grew up in Oyster Bay, New York and attended Oyster Bay High School. After serving as an intern covering sports for Newsday on Long Island, he began his career in 1984 at the York Daily Record. He moved on to the Courier-Post in Cherry Hill, New Jersey for two years before landing a full-time job with The Baltimore Sun, where he was named Maryland Sportswriter of the Year five times by the National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association during his tenure from 1987 to 2000. Rosenthal simultaneously contributed to Sports Illustrated from 1990 to 2000, providing weekly notes during baseball season. He then spent five years at The Sporting News before joining Fox Sports in 2005. He regularly wears a bow tie when appearing on Fox Sports telecasts in support of various charitable organizations. In 2015 and 2016, Rosenthal won the Sports Emmy Award for Outstanding Sports Reporter for his work with Fox Sports and MLB Network.In June 2017, eliminated its writing staff to focus only on video, leaving Rosenthal without an editorial home. He began posting stories on his Facebook page, before joining The Athletic in August 2017 as a senior baseball writer.

List of bow tie wearers

This is a list of notable bow tie wearers, real and fictional; notable people for whom the wearing of a bow tie (when not in formal dress) is also a notable characteristic.

A list of bow tie devotees reads like a Who's Who of rugged individualists.

Bow tie wearing can be a notable characteristic for an individual. Men's clothier Jack Freedman told The New York Times that wearing a bow tie "is a statement maker" that identifies a person as an individual because "it's not generally in fashion". Numerous writers and bow tie sellers have observed that the popularity of this type of neckwear can rise and fall with the fortunes of the well-known people who wear them.In 1996, The Wall Street Journal quoted statistics from the Neckwear Association of America showing that bow ties represent 3 percent of the 100 million ties sold each year in the United States, most of them part of formal wear, such as a tuxedo.

Lumina Media

Lumina Media, formerly Fancy Publications, BowTie Inc., and I-5 Publishing, is an American publisher of pet magazines and books.

Founder Norman Ridker sold the company to David Fry and Mark Harris in 2013.

Mess dress uniform

Mess dress uniform is the military term for the evening dress worn by commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers in their respective messes or on other more formal occasions. It is also known as mess uniform and, more informally, as mess kit. It frequently consists of a mess jacket and trousers worn with a white formal dress shirt and other formal accessories, though the exact form varies depending on the uniform regulations for each service.

Prior to World War II this style of military dress was largely restricted to the British, British Empire and United States armed forces; although the French, Imperial German, Swedish and other navies had adopted their own versions of mess dress during the late 19th century, influenced by the Royal Navy.At the present time mess dress is also sometimes worn by members of civilian uniformed services and members of a Royal Household. While predominantly a uniform worn by commissioned officers for whom it is mandatory, it may also be worn as an optional uniform by senior enlisted personnel in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Staff Non-Commissioned Officers in the U.S. Marine Corps, and by non-commissioned officers in the British Army and Royal Air Force.

Mr. Bow-tie

Mr. Bow-tie is an album by bassist Ron Carter recorded in 1995 and originally released on the Japanese Somethin' Else label with a US release on Blue Note Records.

NGC 40

NGC 40 (also known as the Bow-Tie Nebula and Caldwell 2) is a planetary nebula discovered by William Herschel on November 25, 1788, and is composed of hot gas around a dying star. The star has ejected its outer layer which has left behind a smaller, hot star with a temperature on the surface of about 50,000 degrees Celsius. Radiation from the star causes the shed outer layer to heat to about 10,000 degrees Celsius, and is about one light-year across. About 30,000 years from now, scientists theorize that NGC 40 will fade away, leaving only a white dwarf star approximately the size of Earth.

Philadelphia soul

Philadelphia soul, sometimes called Philly soul, the Philadelphia sound, or TSOP, is a genre of late 1960s–1970s soul music characterized by funk influences and lush instrumental arrangements, often featuring sweeping strings and piercing horns. The genre laid the groundwork for disco by fusing the R&B rhythm sections of the 1960s with the pop vocal tradition, and featuring a slightly more pronounced jazz influence in its melodic structures and arrangements. Fred Wesley, the trombonist of the James Brown band and Parliament-Funkadelic, described the signature deep but orchestrated sound as "putting the bow tie on funk."

White tie

White tie, also called full evening dress or a dress suit, is the most formal in traditional evening Western dress codes. For men, it consists of a black dress tailcoat worn over a white starched shirt, marcella waistcoat and the eponymous white bow tie worn around a standing wingtip collar. High-waisted black trousers and patent leather oxford or optionally court shoes complete the outfit. Orders insignia and medals can be worn. Acceptable accessories include a top hat, white gloves, a white scarf, a pocket watch and a boutonnière. Women wear full length ball or evening gowns and, optionally, jewellery, tiaras, a small handbag and evening gloves.

The dress code's origins can be traced back to the end of the 18th century, when high society men began abandoning breeches, lacy dress shirts and richly decorated justaucorps coats for more austere cutaway tailcoats in dark colours, a look inspired by the country gentleman and perhaps their frocks and riding coats. By early 19th century Regency era, fashionable dandies like Beau Brummell popularised this more minimalist style, favouring dark blue or black tailcoats with trousers, plain white dress shirts, cravats, and shorter waistcoats. By the 1840s the black and white had become the standard colours for evening wear for upper class men. Despite the emergence of the shorter dinner jacket (or tuxedo) in the 1880s as a less formal but more comfortable alternative, full evening dress tailcoats remained the staple. Around the turn of the 20th century, white bow ties and waistcoats became the standard for full evening dress, known as white tie, contrasting with black bow ties and waistcoats for the dinner jacket, an ensemble which became known as black tie.

From around mid-20th century onwards, white tie was increasingly replaced by black tie as default evening wear for more formal events. By the 21st century white tie had become rare. White tie nowadays tends to be reserved for special, traditional ceremonies, such as state dinners and audiences, in addition to balls and galas such as the Vienna Opera Ball in Austria, the Nobel Prize banquet in Stockholm, Mardi Gras balls in New Orleans, and the Al Smith Memorial Dinner in New York. White tie still also occurs at traditional weddings and church celebrations, at certain societies, as well as occasionally around some traditional European universities and colleges.

Wilton Mall

Wilton Mall at Saratoga (or simply The Wilton Mall) is a regional shopping center, located off Interstate 87 exit 15 in the town of Wilton, directly north of Saratoga Springs, New York. The mall has a gross leasable area of 763,270 square feet (70,910 m2). The mall is anchored by Dick's Sporting Goods (originally Steinbach), JCPenney, which its current location opened in 2008 on the site originally planned for Montgomery Ward, HomeGoods, Healthy Living Market and Café, Planet Fitness, both which were subdivided in the original location of JCPenney, and Sears; in addition, it features a food court and movie theater. It is currently owned by Macerich, having been purchased from Wilmorite Properties of Rochester, New York in 2004. The Bon-Ton, originally an Addis & Dey's, closed in August 2018.

On November 8, 2018, it was announced that Sears will be closing this location in early 2019 as part of a plan to close 40 stores.

World Wide Web topology

World Wide Web topology is the network topology of the World Wide Web, as seen as a network of web pages connected by hyperlinks.

The Jellyfish and Bow Tie models are two attempts at modeling the topology of hyperlinks between web pages.

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