Bow and arrow

The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).

Archery is the art, practice, or skill of using bows to shoot arrows.[1] A person who shoots arrows with a bow is called a bowman or an archer. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer,[2] one who makes arrows is a fletcher,[3] and one who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith.[4]

The use of bows and arrows by humans for hunting predates recorded history and was common to many prehistoric cultures. They were important weapons of war from ancient history until the early modern period, where they were rendered increasingly obsolete by the development of the more powerful and accurate firearms, and were eventually dropped from warfare. Today, bows and arrows are mostly used for hunting and sports.

Yumi-p1000624
Edo period's bow and arrow(Japanese bow)
Hun bow
A modern reconstruction, in fiberglass and wood, of a historical composite bow

Basic design and use

19th century knowledge archery drawing the bow
Drawing a bow, from a 1908 archery manual

A bow consists of a semi-rigid but elastic arc with a high-tensile bowstring joining the ends of the two limbs of the bow. An arrow is a projectile with a pointed tip and a long shaft with stabilizer fins (fletching) towards the back, with a narrow notch (nock) at the very end to contact the bowstring.

To load an arrow for shooting (nocking an arrow), the archer places an arrow across the middle of the bow with the bowstring in the arrow's nock. To shoot, the archer pulls back (draws) the arrow and the bowstring, which in turn flexes the bow limbs, storing elastic energy. Typically while maintaining the draw, the archer sights along the arrow to aim it. Finally the archer releases (looses) the arrow, allowing the limbs' stored potential energy to convert into kinetic energy, which is transmitted via the bowstring to the arrow, propelling it to fly forward with high velocity.[5]

A container or bag for additional arrows for quick reloading is called a quiver.

When not in use, bows are generally kept unstrung, meaning one or both ends of the bowstring are detached from the bow. This removes all residual tension on the bow, and can help prevent it from losing strength or elasticity over time. For many bow designs, this also lets it straighten out more completely, reducing the space needed to store the bow. Returning the bowstring to its ready-to-use position is called stringing the bow.

History

Scythians shooting with bows Kertch antique Panticapeum Ukrainia 4th century BCE
Scythians shooting with bows, Panticapeum (modern Kertch), 4th century BCE.

The bow and arrow appears around the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited region, except for Australasia and most of Oceania.[6]

The earliest definite remains of bow and arrow are from Europe. Possible fragments from Germany were found at Mannheim-Vogelstang dated 17,500-18,000 years ago, and at Stellmoor dated 11,000 years ago. Azilian points found in Grotte du Bichon, Switzerland, alongside the remains of both a bear and a hunter, with flint fragments found in the bear's third vertebra, suggest the use of arrows at 13,500 years ago.[7] At the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, Kenya, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons about 10,000 years ago.[8] Microliths discovered on the south coast of Africa suggest that projectile weapons of some sort may be at least 71,000 years old; however, these may have been used to tip atlatl darts, rather than arrowheads.[9]

The oldest extant bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. Several bows from Holmegaard, Denmark, date 8,000 years ago.[10] High-performance wooden bows are currently made following the Holmegaard design. The Stellmoor bow fragments from northern Germany were dated to about 8,000 BCE, but they were destroyed in Hamburg during the Second World War, before carbon 14 dating was available; their age is attributed by archaeological association.[11]

The bow was an important weapon for both hunting and warfare from prehistoric times until the widespread use of gunpowder in the 16th century. Organised warfare with bows ended in the mid 17th century in Europe, but it persisted into the early 19th century in Eastern cultures and in hunting and tribal warfare in the New World. In the Canadian Arctic bows were made until the end of the 20th century for hunting caribou, for instance at Igloolik.[12] The bow has more recently been used as a weapon of tribal warfare in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa; an example was documented in 2009 in Kenya when Kisii people and Kalenjin people clashed, resulting in four deaths.[13][14]

The British upper class led a revival of archery from the late 18th century.[15] Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, under the patronage of George, then Prince of Wales.

Construction

Aphaia pediment polychrome model W-XI Glyptothek Munich
Polychrome small-scale model of the archer XI of the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaea, c. 505–500 BCE.

Parts of the bow

The basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs, traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a string known as the bow string.[5] By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the string-facing section, or belly, of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back, under tension. While the string is held, this stores the energy later released in putting the arrow to flight. The force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is often used to express the power of a bow, and is known as its draw weight, or weight.[16][17] Other things being equal, a higher draw weight means a more powerful bow, which is able to project heavier arrows at the same velocity or the same arrow at a greater velocity.

The various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections. The topmost limb is known as the upper limb, while the bottom limb is the lower limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, which is used to attach the bowstring to the limbs. The riser is usually divided into the grip, which is held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window. The arrow rest is a small ledge or extension above the grip which the arrow rests upon while being aimed. The bow window is that part of the riser above the grip, which contains the arrow rest.[5]

In bows drawn and held by hand, the maximum draw weight is determined by the strength of the archer.[17] The maximum distance the string could be displaced and thus the longest arrow that could be loosed from it, a bow's draw length, is determined by the size of the archer.[18]

A composite bow uses a combination of materials to create the limbs, allowing the use of materials specialized for the different functions of a bow limb. The classic composite bow uses wood for lightness and dimensional stability in the core, horn to store energy in compression, and sinew for its ability to store energy in tension. Such bows, typically Asian, would often use a stiff end on the limb end, having the effect of a recurve.[19] In this type of bow, this is known by the Arabic name 'siyah'.[20]

Modern construction materials for bows include laminated wood, fiberglass, metals,[21] and carbon fiber components.

Arrows

Arrow
Schematic of an arrow showing its parts.

An arrow usually consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other.[22] Modern arrows are usually made from carbon fibre, aluminum, fiberglass, and wood shafts. Carbon shafts have the advantage that they do not bend or warp, but they can often be too light weight to shoot from some bows and are expensive. Aluminum shafts are less expensive than carbon shafts, but they can bend and warp from use. Wood shafts are the least expensive option but often will not be identical in weight and size to each other and break more often than the other types of shafts.[23] Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures and range from very short ones that require the use of special equipment to be shot to ones in use in the Amazon River jungles that are 8.5 feet (2.6 metres) long. Most modern arrows are 22 inches (56 cm) to 30 inches (76 cm) in length.[22]

Arrows come in many types, among which are breasted, bob-tailed, barreled, clout, and target.[22] A breasted arrow is thickest at the area right behind the fletchings, and tapers towards the (nock) and head.[24] A bob-tailed arrow is thickest right behind the head, and tapers to the nock.[25] A barrelled arrow is thickest in the centre of the arrow.[26] Target arrows are those arrows used for target shooting rather than warfare or hunting, and usually have simple arrowheads.[27]

For safety reasons, a bow should never be shot without an arrow nocked; without an arrow, the energy that is normally transferred into the projectile is instead directed back into the bow itself, which will cause damage to the bow's limbs.

Arrowheads

The end of the arrow that is designed to hit the target is called the arrowhead. Usually, these are separate items that are attached to the arrow shaft by either tangs or sockets. Materials used in the past for arrowheads include flint, bone, horn, or metal. Most modern arrowheads are made of steel, but wood and other traditional materials are still used occasionally. A number of different types of arrowheads are known, with the most common being bodkins, broadheads, and piles.[28] Bodkin heads are simple spikes made of metal of various shapes, designed to pierce armour.[25] A broadhead arrowhead is usually triangular or leaf-shaped and has a sharpened edge or edges. Broadheads are commonly used for hunting.[29] A pile arrowhead is a simple metal cone, either sharpened to a point or somewhat blunt, that is used mainly for target shooting. A pile head is the same diameter as the arrow shaft and is usually just fitted over the tip of the arrow.[30] Other heads are known, including the blunt head, which is flat at the end and is used for hunting small game or birds, and is designed to not pierce the target nor embed itself in trees or other objects and make recovery difficult.[25] Another type of arrowhead is a barbed head, usually used in warfare or hunting.[22]

Bowstrings

Bowstrings may have a nocking point marked on them, which serves to mark where the arrow is fitted to the bowstring before shooting.[31] The area around the nocking point is usually bound with thread to protect the area around the nocking point from wear by the archer's hands. This section is called the serving.[32] At one end of the bowstring a loop is formed, which is permanent. The other end of the bowstring also has a loop, but this is not permanently formed into the bowstring but is constructed by tying a knot into the string to form a loop. Traditionally this knot is known as the archer's knot, but is a form of the timber hitch. The knot can be adjusted to lengthen or shorten the bowstring. The adjustable loop is known as the "tail".[33] The string is often twisted (this being called the "flemish twist").

Bowstrings have been constructed of many materials throughout history, including fibres such as flax, silk, and hemp.[34] Other materials used were animal guts, animal sinews, and rawhide. Modern fibres such as Dacron or Kevlar are now used in commercial bowstring construction, as well as steel wires in some compound bows.[35] Compound bows have a mechanical system of pulley cams over which the bowstring is wound.[32] Nylon is useful only in emergency situations, as it stretches too much.[36]

Types of bow

Norra Savolax vapen
Bow and arrow in heraldry, as depicted in the coat of arms of Northern Savonia (Pohjois-Savo), Finland.

There is no one accepted system of classification of bows.[37] Bows may be described by various characteristics including the materials used, the length of the draw that they permit, the shape of the bow in sideways view, and the shape of the limb in cross-section.[38]

Commonly-used descriptors for bows include:

By side profile

  • Recurve bow: a bow with the tips curving away from the archer. The curves straighten out as the bow is drawn and the return of the tip to its curved state after release of the arrow adds extra velocity to the arrow.[39]
  • Reflex bow: a bow whose entire limbs curve away from the archer when unstrung. The curves are opposite to the direction in which the bow flexes while drawn.[39]

By material

By cross-section of limb

  • Longbow: a self bow with limbs rounded in cross-section, about the same height as the archer so as to allow a full draw, usually over 5 feet (1.5 metres) long. The traditional English longbow was usually made of yew wood, but other woods are also used.[40]
  • Flatbow: the limbs are approximately rectangular in cross-section. This was traditional in many Native American societies and was found to be the most efficient shape for bow limbs by American engineers in the 20th century.

Other characteristics

  • Takedown bow: a bow that can be demounted for transportation, usually consisting of 3 parts: 2 limbs and a Riser.
  • Compound bow: a bow with mechanical aids to help with drawing the bowstring. Usually, these aids are pulleys at the tips of the limbs.[41]
  • Crossbow: A bow mounted horizontally on a frame similar to the stock which has a mechanism for holding the string at full draw.[42] A crossbow shoots a "bolt" or "quarrel", rather than an arrow.[43]

Citations

  • Collins, Desmond (1973). Background to archaeology: Britain in its European setting (Revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20155-1.
  • Elmer, R.P. (1946). Target Archery: With a History of the Sport in America. New York: A.A. Knopf. OCLC 1482628.
  • Heath, E.G. (1978). Archery: The Modern Approach. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-04957-8.
  • Paterson, W.F. (1984). Encyclopaedia of Archery. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-24585-6.
  • Sorrells, Brian J. (2004). Beginner's Guide to Traditional Archery. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3133-1.
  • Stone, George Cameron (1999) [1934]. A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration, and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times (Reprint ed.). Mineola: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-40726-5.

References

  1. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 17
  2. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 31
  3. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 56
  4. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 20
  5. ^ a b c Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 27–28
  6. ^ M. H. Monroe, Aboriginal Weapons and Tools "The favoured weapon of the Aborigines was the spear and spear thrower. The fact that they never adopted the bow and arrow has been debated for a long time. During post-glacial times the bow and arrow were being used in every inhabited part of the world except Australia. A number of reasons for this have been put forward [...] Captain Cook saw the bow and arrow being used on an island close to the mainland at Cape York, as it was in the Torres Strait islands and New Guinea. But the Aborigines preferred the spear. "
  7. ^ « La grotte du Bichon, un site préhistorique des montagnes neuchâteloises », Archéologie neuchâteloise 42, 2009.
  8. ^ Lahr, M. Mirazón; Rivera, F.; Power, R.K.; Mounier, A.; Copsey, B.; Crivellaro, F.; Edung, J.E.; Fernandez, J.M. Maillo; Kiarie, C. (2016). "Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya". Nature. 529 (7586): 394–398. doi:10.1038/nature16477. PMID 26791728.
  9. ^ Brown, Kyle S.; Marean, Curtis W.; et al. (2012). "An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa". Nature. 491 (7425): 590–93. doi:10.1038/nature11660. PMID 23135405.
  10. ^ O'Driscoll, Corey A; Thompson, Jessica C (2018). "The origins and early elaboration of projectile technology". Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews. 27 (1): 30–45. doi:10.1002/evan.21560. PMID 29446556.
  11. ^ Collins Background to Archaeology
  12. ^ "Bow made by Noah Piagguttuq 1994".
  13. ^ "History of Bows". 2016-12-16. Archived from the original on 2017-08-02.
  14. ^ "Kenyan Tribes Wage a War With Bows and Arrows – Photo Essays". Time.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  15. ^ Johnes, Martin. "Archery—Romance-and-Elite-Culture-in-England-and-Wales—c-1780-1840 Martin Johnes. Archery, Romance and Elite Culture in England and Wales, c. 1780–1840". History. 89: 193–208. Archived from the original on 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  16. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 111
  17. ^ a b Sorrells Beginner's Guide pp. 20–21
  18. ^ Sorrells Beginner's Guide pp. 19–20
  19. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 38
  20. ^ Elmer Target Archery
  21. ^ Heath Archery pp. 15–18
  22. ^ a b c d Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 18–19
  23. ^ Sorrells Beginner's Guide pp. 21–22
  24. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 32
  25. ^ a b c Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 25–26
  26. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 24
  27. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 103
  28. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 19
  29. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 33
  30. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 85
  31. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 80
  32. ^ a b c Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 93–94
  33. ^ Heath Archery pp. 27–28
  34. ^ "Grow Your Own Bowstring". www.primitiveways.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  35. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 28–29
  36. ^ "DIY Bow Weapons Making Series DIY Projects Craft Ideas & How To's for Home Decor with Videos". diyready.com. 15 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  37. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 37
  38. ^ a b Heath Archery pp. 14–16
  39. ^ a b Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 90–91
  40. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 73–75
  41. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery pp. 38–40
  42. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 41
  43. ^ Paterson Encyclopaedia of Archery p. 26

Further reading

  • The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 1. 1992 The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-085-3
  • The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 2. 1992 The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-086-1
  • The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 3. 1994 The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-087-X
  • The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 4. 2008 The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-0-9645741-6-8
  • Gray, David, Bows of the World. The Lyons Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58574-478-6.

External links

Akarna Dhanurasana

Akarna Dhanurasana (Sanskrit: आकर्ण धनुरासन; IAST: Ākarṇa Dhanurāsana), also called the Archer pose, Bow and Arrow pose, or Shooting Bow pose is an asana in hatha yoga and modern yoga. The posture resembles an archer about to release an arrow.

Artemis Chasma

The Artemis Chasma is the nearly circular fracture in Venus's surface which almost encloses Artemis Corona. The chasma and its associating corona can be found on the Aphrodite Terra continent, at Latitude 35° South, Longitude 135° East.

It is named after the Artemis, the Greek virgin goddess of the hunt and the Moon, the hills, the forest, birth, virginity, and fertility, who carries a bow and arrow.

Attack on Titan

Attack on Titan (Japanese: 進撃の巨人, Hepburn: Shingeki no Kyojin, lit. "Attacking/Charging Giant") is a Japanese manga series both written and illustrated by Hajime Isayama. The series first began in Kodansha's Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine on September 9, 2009, and it has been collected into 28 tankōbon volumes as of April 2019. It is set in a world where humanity lives in cities surrounded by enormous walls that protect the humans from gigantic man-eating humanoids referred to as titans.

Attack on Titan has become a critical and commercial success. As of April 2019, the manga has 90 million tankōbon copies in print worldwide (80 million in Japan and 10 million outside of Japan), making it one of the best-selling manga series. The anime adaptation has been well received by critics with the first three seasons being met with critical acclaim with praise for its story, animation, music, and voice acting. The anime has proved to be extremely successful in both the U.S. and Japan, thus boosting the series' popularity. Although it also gained fame in neighboring Asian countries, political interpretations of the series caused controversies in China and South Korea.

Bow

Bow may refer to:

Bow and arrow, a weapon

Bowing, bending the upper body as a social gesture

Bow and arrow sign

The bow and arrow sign is an endoscopic sign for determining the location of the ileocecal valve during colonoscopy. Identifying the ileocecal valve in a colonoscopy is important, as it indicates that the entire colon has been visualized.

The identifiable landmarks in the cecum are the appendiceal orifice—which is a curvilinear indent indicating the location of the appendix from the lumen of the bowel, and the ileocecal valve, which appears as a puckering in the most distal fold of the cecum.

The bow and arrow sign uses the curve of the appendiceal orifice to point toward the direction of the ileocecal valve, as if it were a bow guiding an arrow. The colonoscope can be passed in this direction in order to enter the terminal ileum. This is used as one of two identifiable landmarks of the colon (the other being the anus), and signifies that the entire colon has been visualized.

Comondú complex

The Comondú Complex is an archaeological pattern dating from the late prehistoric period in northern Baja California Sur and southern Baja California. It is associated with the historic Cochimí people of the peninsula.

The complex was defined on the basis of investigations at rock shelters near the town of San Jose de Comondú by archaeologist William C. Massey, beginning in the late 1940s. It has been recognized at sites extending from the Sierra de la Giganta (west of Loreto) in the south to Bahía de los Ángeles in the north.

A key characteristic of the Comondú Complex is the presence of small Comondú Triangular and Comondú Serrated projectile points. These points reflect the introduction of the bow and arrow into the peninsula, perhaps around 500-1000 CE, largely supplanting the earlier atlatl and dart. Other traits include grinding basins and slicks, manos, tubular stone pipes, coiled basketry, and square-knot netting. The region's Great Mural rock art may also be associated with the Comondú Complex.

Fernando Rodney

Fernando Rodney (born March 18, 1977) is a Dominican–American professional baseball pitcher for the Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played for the Detroit Tigers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, Tampa Bay Rays, Seattle Mariners, Chicago Cubs, San Diego Padres, Miami Marlins, Arizona Diamondbacks, and Minnesota Twins. He debuted in MLB in 2002, and joined the 300 save club in 2017. In the 2019 season, following Ichiro Suzukui's retirement, Rodney became the oldest active player in Major League Baseball.

Rodney is a three-time MLB All-Star. He won the MLB Delivery Man of the Year Award and American League Comeback Player of the Year Award in 2012. He throws a fastball between 96-99 mph (topping out at 100 mph), and a palmball in the low 80s. Rodney is the cousin of Alfredo Fígaro.

Hawaiian sling

The Hawaiian sling is a device used in spearfishing. The sling operates much like a bow and arrow does on land, but energy is stored in rubber tubing rather than a wooden or fiberglass bow.

History of archery

The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic, and for at least 10,000 years archery was an important military and hunting skill, and features prominently in the mythologies of many cultures.

Archers, whether on foot, in chariots or on horseback were a major part of most militaries until about 1500 when they began to be replaced by firearms, first in Europe, and then progressively elsewhere.

Archery continues to be a popular sport; most commonly in the form of target archery, but in some places also for hunting.

Lamoka projectile point

Lamoka projectile points are stone projectile points manufactured by Native Americans what is now the northeastern United States, generally in the time interval of 3500-2500 B.C. They predate the invention of the bow and arrow, and are therefore not true "arrowheads", but rather atlatl dart points. They derive their name from the specimens found at the Lamoka site in Schuyler County, New York.

Miss America 1960

Miss America 1960, the 33rd Miss America pageant, was held at the Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey on September 12, 1959 on CBS.

Pageant winner Lynda Lee Mead was the second Miss Mississippi in a row to wear the crown, succeeding actress Mary Ann Mobley.

Among the other contestants was Ann Penelope Marston of Michigan, an archery champion who had appeared on the cover of the Aug. 8, 1955 edition of Sports Illustrated. Her skill with a bow and arrow won Marston the talent portion of the 1960 pageant.

Dawn Wells, later to star on the television series Gilligan's Island, represented Nevada in the Miss America 1960 competition.

Oshosi

Oshosi (Yoruba: Ọ̀ṣọ́ọ̀sì, Portuguese: Oxóssi, is an Orisha of the Yoruba religion in West Africa and subsequently in Brazil.

Polespear

A polespear (hand spear or gidgee) is an underwater tool used in spearfishing, consisting of a pole, a spear tip, and a rubber loop. Polespears are often mistakenly called Hawaiian slings, but the tools differ. A Hawaiian sling is akin to a slingshot or an underwater bow and arrow, since the spear and the propelling device are separate, while a polespear has the sling (rubber loop) attached to the spear.

Rufus Castle

Rufus Castle, also known as Bow and Arrow Castle, is a partially ruined castle overlooking Church Ope Cove on Portland, England. Its name derives from King William II, known as William Rufus, after whom the original castle was built.

The existing structure dates largely from the late 15th century, making it Portland's oldest castle. Built on a pinnacle of rock, some of the original structure has been lost to erosion and collapse over the years.

The remaining castle appears to have been the keep of a stronghold, the foundation of which was much above the top of the church tower of St Andrews which lay in the valley below. The pentagonal tower of the castle has late Medieval gunholes, but rests on an earlier foundation to the north and stepped plinth to the west which may have been a 12th-century keep. Remains include parts of the keep, sections of wall with gun ports and a 19th-century round-arched bridge across Church Ope Road.

The castle, including its bridge, has been a Grade I listed building since January 1951. It is one of three buildings on Portland to be Grade I listed. In addition to this, the castle has become a scheduled monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.Rufus Castle looks out over the Shambles sandbank, approximately 3 miles (5 km) out to sea, one of the most feared navigational hazards in the area. It was here in 1805 that the East Indianman, the Earl of Abergavenny, foundered and eventually sank, killing 263. Among the dead was the captain of the ship, John Wordsworth, brother of the Romantic poet William Wordsworth. The poet immortalised the catastrophe and death of his brother in his poem: To the Daisy. It was beyond the Shambles that the Battle of Portland took place in 1653 between the English navy led by General at Sea Robert Blake fighting the Dutch Navy led by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.

There is no public access to the castle as it is privately owned, though it can be seen well from public footpaths along the coast.

Sagittarius (astrology)

Sagittarius (♐) (Greek: Τοξότης Toxotes, Latin: Sagittarius) is the ninth astrological sign, which is associated with the constellation Sagittarius and spans 240–270th degrees of the zodiac. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits this sign between approximately November 23 and December 21. Greek mythology associates Sagittarius with the centaur Chiron, who mentored Achilles, a Greek hero of the Trojan War, in archery.Sagittarius, the half human and half horse, is the centaur of mythology, the learned healer whose higher intelligence forms a bridge between Earth and Heaven. Also known as the Archer, Sagittarius is represented by the symbol of a bow and arrow.

Schütze

Schütze in German means "rifleman" or "shooter", or in older terms originally connoted "archer" before the advent of the rifle. It also occasionally occurs as a surname, or as Schütz, as in the opera Der Freischütz. The word itself is derived from the German word schützen, meaning to protect, or to guard. It was originally used for archers as they protected castle walls, and is the German equivalent to Sagittarius, the mythical form which held bow and arrow.

Sinhala Hound

The Sinhala Hound or Sinhalese Hound is a breed of dog from Sri Lanka, and parts of India.

The skeletal remains of dogs from Nilgala cave and from Bellanbandi Palassa, dating from the Mesolithic era, about 4500 BC, suggest that Balangoda Man may have kept domestic dogs for driving game. The Sinhala Hound is similar in appearance to the Kadar Dog, the New Guinea singing dog and the Dingo. It has been suggested that these could all derive from a common domestic stock.The Vedda people used the breed for hunting, and it was prized after the bow and arrow, so much so that the dogs were given away with daughters on their marriage.

Vishwasrao

Vishwas Rao (March 7, 1741 – January 14, 1761) was the eldest son of Balaji Baji Rao, Peshwa of Pune of the Maratha Empire and also was the heir to the title of Peshwa of Maratha Empire. His head got hit by a stray canon fired by a baloch during the period of the most intense fighting (Approx. between 01pm and 02:30pm) at Third Battle of Panipat. He died fighting on the front lines. Marathas were winning the battle but some stood ahead of the canons creating a problem for Ibrahim Khan Gardi to fire canons. Upon hearing about Shrimant Vishwasrao's death Malharrao Holkar fled the field with at least 500 soldiers and sardars. This resulted in the outnumbering of Marathas and eventual defeat.

Shrimant Vishwasrao had received training in administration and warfare from the age of 8 years. He had impressed the Maratha infantry by his performance at Sindkheda and Udgir battle 1760. His speciality was Bow and Arrow or Dhanurvidya along with Sword fighting. During Udgir battle, he was unstoppable with the bow and arrow while mounted on the elephant.

http://ketkardnyankosh.com/index.php/2012-09-06-10-45-30/10573-2013-03-05-07-25-35

Although Vishwas Rao was first exposed to actual warfare at Sindkheda near Hyderabad, against Nizam in 1756, he was the nominal Commander of Maratha Forces and the Peshwa's representative during Third Battle of Panipat under guidance of his uncle Sadashivrao Bhau.

At the time of the battle, the Maratha Empire was in control of about 2/3rd of present India and some parts of Pakistan.

Zarzian culture

Zarzian culture is an archaeological culture of late Paleolithic and Mesolithic in Southwest Asia.

The period of the culture is estimated to have existed about 18,000–8,000 BCE. It was preceded by the Baradostian culture in the same region and was related to the Imereti culture of the Caucasus.

The culture was named and recognised of the cave of Zarzi in Iraqi Kurdistan.

Here were found plenty of microliths (up to 20% finds). Their forms are short and asymmetric trapezoids, and triangles with hollows.

Andy Burns states "The Zarzian of the Zagros region of Iran is contemporary with the Natufian but different from it. The only dates for the entire Zarzian come from Palegawra Cave, and date to 17,300-17,000BP, but it is clear that it is broadly contemporary with the Levantine Kebaran, with which it shares features. It seems to have evolved from the Upper Palaeolithic Baradostian."

There are only a few Zarzian sites and the area appears to have been quite sparsely populated during the Epipalaeolithic. Faunal remains from the Zarzian indicate that the temporary form of structures indicate a hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy, focused on onager, red deer and caprines. Better known sites include Palegawra Cave, Shanidar B2 and Zarzi." The Zarzian culture seems to have participated in the early stages of what Kent Flannery has called the broad spectrum revolution.

The Zarzian culture is found associated with remains of the domesticated dog and with the introduction of the bow and arrow. It seems to have extended north into the Gobustan (Kobystan, Qobustan) region and into Eastern Iran as a forerunner of the Hissar and related cultures.

Topics
Bows (Yumi)
Bow shape
Equipment
Activities
Competitions
Overviews
Forms
Woods
Tools
Geometry
Treatments
Organizations
Conversion
Techniques

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