Bouyei people

The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix [puʔjai], or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; Vietnamese: người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China. Numbering 2.5 million, they are the 11th largest of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Some Bouyei also live in Vietnam, where they are one of that nation's 54 officially recognized ethnic groups. Despite the Chinese considering them a separate group, they consider themselves Zhuang (Tai peoples).

The Bouyei live in semi-tropical, high-altitude forests of Guizhou province, as well as in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and speak a Tai language.

Bouyei
buxQyaix
Bouyei
Geographic distribution of Bouyei people
Total population
2,971,460 (2000)
Regions with significant populations
 China
 Vietnam 2,273 (2009)[1]
Languages
Bouyei language, Mandarin Chinese
Religion
Shigongism (Moism), Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Zhuang
Shitoucun,Longtanzhen,Guizhou,China
Bouyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou
Ethnie buyi 0274a
A Bouyei woman in front of her house

Names

The Bouyei consist of various subgroups. Below are their autonyms written in the International Phonetic Alphabet with numerical Chao tones.[2]

  • pu˦˨ ʔjɐi˦˨ 濮越
  • pu˦˨ ʔji˨ 濮夷
  • pu˦˨ noŋ˧˩ 布侬
  • pu˦˨ loŋ˧˩ 补笼
  • pu˦˨ na˧˩ 布那
  • pu˦˨ tu˦˨ 布土、布都
  • pu˦˨ ʔjaŋ˧ 布央
  • pu˦˨ zoŋ˧˩xa˧˥ 布笼哈

Some clans within the Bouyei groups include:

  • pu˦˨ wu˦˨ 布武
  • pu˦˨ wei˧˩ 布韦
  • pu˦˨ lo˨˦ 布鲁

In Congjiang County, Guizhou, there is a group that refer to themselves as "Buyeyi 布也益", but are officially classified by the Chinese government as ethnic Zhuang.[3]

Distribution

In China by county

County-level distribution of the Bouyei, from the 2000 Chinese census

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.1% of China's Bouyei population.)

Province Prefecture County Bouyei Population % of China's Bouyei Population
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Dushan (独山县) 194,468 6.54%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Duyun (都匀市) 190,347 6.41%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Wangmo (望谟县) 174,806 5.88%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Luodian (罗甸县) 158,494 5.33%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Ceheng (册亨县) 158,019 5.32%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Anlong (安龙县) 139,930 4.71%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Huishui (惠水县) 135,943 4.58%
Guizhou Anshun Zhenning Buyei and Miao (镇宁布依族苗族自治县) 131,962 4.44%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Zhenfeng (贞丰县) 125,058 4.21%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Xingyi (兴义市) 124,901 4.2%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Pingtang (平塘县) 107,473 3.62%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Libo (荔波县) 93,681 3.15%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Guiding (贵定县) 92,607 3.12%
Guizhou Anshun Ziyun Miao and Buyei (紫云苗族布依族自治县) 86,513 2.91%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Changshun (长顺县) 81,022 2.73%
Guizhou Anshun Guanling Buyei and Miao (关岭布依族苗族自治县) 68,967 2.32%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Qinglong (晴隆县) 64,001 2.15%
Guizhou Anshun Xixiu (西秀区) 62,497 2.1%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Xingren (兴仁县) 50,210 1.69%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Sandu Shui (三都水族自治县) 49,877 1.68%
Guizhou Guiyang Huaxi (花溪区) 41,446 1.4%
Guizhou Liupanshui Shuicheng (水城县) 41,255 1.39%
Guizhou Liupanshui Liuzhi (六枝特区) 35,772 1.2%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Longli (龙里县) 34,259 1.15%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Majiang (麻江县) 33,958 1.14%
Guizhou Anshun Pingba (平坝县) 29,452 0.99%
Yunnan Qujing Luoping (罗平县) 25,152 0.85%
Guizhou Guiyang Qingzhen (清镇市) 25,017 0.84%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Pu'an (普安县) 23,639 0.8%
Guizhou Guiyang Wudang (乌当区) 23,597 0.79%
Guizhou Guiyang Kaiyang (开阳县) 22,611 0.76%
Guizhou Guiyang Nanming (南明区) 20,608 0.69%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Fuquan (福泉市) 19,520 0.66%
Guizhou Bijie Qianxi (黔西县) 17,447 0.59%
Guizhou Liupanshui Pan (盘县) 16,072 0.54%
Guizhou Guiyang Baiyun (白云区) 15,116 0.51%
Guizhou Anshun Puding (普定县) 15,083 0.51%
Guizhou Bijie Zhijin (织金县) 14,512 0.49%
Guizhou Guiyang Yunyan (云岩区) 14,293 0.48%
Guizhou Guiyang Xiaohe (小河区) 12,138 0.41%
Guizhou Bijie Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao (威宁彝族回族苗族自治县) 7,484 0.25%
Guizhou Bijie Nayong (纳雍县) 7,222 0.24%
Guangxi Hechi Nandan (南丹县) 6,822 0.23%
Guizhou Guiyang Xiuwen (修文县) 6,397 0.22%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Maguan (马关县) 6,085 0.21%
Guangdong Dongguan none 5,584 0.19%
Guizhou Bijie Dafang (大方县) 5,294 0.18%
Guizhou Liupanshui Zhongshan (钟山区) 4,075 0.14%
Guizhou Bijie Jinsha (金沙县) 3,804 0.13%
Yunnan Kunming Guandu (官渡区) 3,582 0.12%
Yunnan Zhaotong Qiaojia (巧家县) 3,063 0.1%
Guizhou Bijie Hezhang (赫章县) 2,773 0.09%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Kaili (凯里市) 2,573 0.09%
Sichuan Liangshan Yi Ningnan (宁南县) 2,353 0.08%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi Hekou Yao (河口瑶族自治县) 2,190 0.07%
Zhejiang Ningbo Cixi (慈溪市) 2,155 0.07%
Guizhou Guiyang Xifeng (息烽县) 1,846 0.06%
Guangxi Hechi Huanjiang Maonan (环江毛南族自治县) 1,833 0.06%
Guangdong Foshan Shunde (顺德区) 1,796 0.06%
Guangdong Shenzhen Bao'an (宝安区) 1,777 0.06%
Guangdong Shenzhen Longgang (龙岗区) 1,745 0.06%
Yunnan Kunming Xishan (西山区) 1,668 0.06%
Sichuan Liangshan Yi Huidong County, Sichuan (会东县) 1,534 0.05%
Zhejiang Jinhua Yongkang (永康市) 1,363 0.05%
Guizhou Zunyi Honghuagang (红花岗区) 1,323 0.05%
Guangdong Huizhou Huiyang (惠阳区) 1,227 0.04%
Zhejiang Jinhua Dongyang (东阳市) 1,222 0.04%
Yunnan Kunming Dongchuan (东川区) 1,150 0.04%
Yunnan Qujing Fuyuan (富源县) 1,097 0.04%
Zhejiang Ningbo Yuyao (余姚市) 1,059 0.04%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Weng'an (瓮安县) 1,019 0.03%
Guangxi Hechi Tian'e (天峨县) 1,017 0.03%
Sichuan Liangshan Yi Mili Tibetan (木里藏族自治县) 988 0.03%
Guangdong Huizhou Boluo (博罗县) 983 0.03%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Rongjiang (榕江县) 981 0.03%
Zhejiang Quzhou Jiangshan (江山市) 854 0.03%
Zhejiang Jinhua Yiwu (义乌市) 846 0.03%
Jiangsu Wuxi Yixing (宜兴市) 820 0.03%
Zhejiang Huzhou Changxing (长兴县) 797 0.03%
Yunnan Yuxi Hongta (红塔区) 790 0.03%
Guizhou Bijie Qixingguan (七星关区) 789 0.03%
Zhejiang Shaoxing Shangyu (上虞市) 785 0.03%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Danzhai (丹寨县) 778 0.03%
Zhejiang Taizhou Wenling (温岭市) 760 0.03%
Guangdong Foshan Nanhai (南海区) 737 0.03%
Guangdong Guangzhou Baiyun (白云区) 641 0.02%
Guangdong Guangzhou Panyu (番禺区) 638 0.02%
Zhejiang Hangzhou Fuyang (富阳市) 632 0.02%
Fujian Quanzhou Jinjiang (晋江市) 596 0.02%
Yunnan Xishuangbanna Dai Mengla (勐腊县) 596 0.02%
Zhejiang Wenzhou Rui'an (瑞安市) 594 0.02%
Yunnan Qujing Qilin (麒麟区) 589 0.02%
Guangdong Zhongshan none 585 0.02%
Guizhou Zunyi Renhuai (仁怀市) 575 0.02%
Zhejiang Jinhua Pujiang (浦江县) 548 0.02%
Guangxi Bose Tianlin (田林县) 538 0.02%
Zhejiang Wenzhou Ouhai (瓯海区) 506 0.02%
Guangxi Yulin Rong (容县) 506 0.02%
Guangxi Hechi Jinchengjiang (金城江区) 501 0.02%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi Gejiu (个旧市) 501 0.02%
Zhejiang Shaoxing Shaoxing (绍兴县) 498 0.02%
Yunnan Kunming Wuhua (五华区) 483 0.02%
Guizhou Zunyi Zunyi (遵义县) 465 0.02%
Zhejiang Wenzhou Yueqing (乐清市) 453 0.02%
Jiangsu Changzhou Liyang (溧阳市) 440 0.02%
Guangxi Bose Leye (乐业县) 439 0.01%
Guangxi Yulin Xingye (兴业县) 423 0.01%
Hebei Tangshan Luannan (滦南县) 416 0.01%
Guangxi Bose Xilin (西林县) 410 0.01%
Guangxi Yulin Yuzhou (玉州区) 400 0.01%
Guangdong Chaozhou Xiangqiao (湘桥区) 398 0.01%
Guangdong Maoming Gaozhou (高州市) 397 0.01%
Zhejiang Ningbo Yinzhou (鄞州区) 395 0.01%
Yunnan Kunming Anning (安宁市) 391 0.01%
Guangxi Liuzhou Liunan (柳南区) 389 0.01%
Zhejiang Hangzhou Xiaoshan (萧山区) 388 0.01%
Fujian Zhangzhou Longhai (龙海市) 382 0.01%
Guangdong Maoming Dianbai (电白县) 381 0.01%
Guizhou Tongren Shiqian (石阡县) 376 0.01%
Zhejiang Shaoxing Zhuji (诸暨市) 373 0.01%
Hebei Tangshan Qian'an (迁安市) 351 0.01%
Beijing none Haidian (海淀区) 348 0.01%
Yunnan Kunming Panlong (盘龙区) 347 0.01%
Guizhou Tongren Bijiang (碧江区) 338 0.01%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Liping (黎平县) 337 0.01%
Zhejiang Hangzhou Yuhang (余杭区) 336 0.01%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Congjiang (从江县) 336 0.01%
Hebei Baoding Yi (易县) 334 0.01%
Guangxi Guigang Gangbei (港北区) 331 0.01%
Zhejiang Jinhua Lanxi (兰溪市) 330 0.01%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Huangping (黄平县) 329 0.01%
Jiangsu Wuxi Jiangyin (江阴市) 312 0.01%
Guangxi Bose Longlin (隆林各族自治县) 305 0.01%
Guangdong Shenzhen Nanshan (南山区) 301 0.01%
Other 73,219 2.46%

In Vietnam

Province-level distribution of the Bố Y, from the 2009 Census
Province Bố Y Population % of Vietnam's Bố Y Population
Lào Cai 1,398 61.5%
Hà Giang 808 35.5%
Other 67 2.9%

Language

The Bouyei speak the Bouyei language, which is very close to Standard Zhuang language. There is a dialect continuum between these two. The Bouyei language has its own written form which was created by linguists in the 1950s based on the Latin alphabet and with spelling conventions similar for the Pinyin system that had been devised to romanise Mandarin Chinese.

History

The Bouyei are the native Tai peoples of the plains of Guizhou. They are one of the oldest peoples of China, living in the area for more than 2,000 years. Prior to the establishment of the Tang dynasty, the Bouyei and Zhuang were linked together; the differences between both ethnic groups grew greater and from year 900 already they were two different groups. The Qing dynasty abolished the system of local heads and commanded in its place to officials of the army which caused a change in the local economy; from then on, the land was in the hands of a few landowners, which caused the population to revolt. During the Nanlong Rebellion of 1797, the Bouyei underwent a strong repression that caused many of them to emigrate to faraway Vietnam.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 135. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  3. ^ 贵州"六山六水"民族调查资料选编. 回族, 白族, 瑤族, 壮族, 畲族, 毛南族, 仫佬族, 满族, 羌族卷 (2008:291). 贵州民族出版社.
  • Yù Cuìróng 喻翠容: Bùyīyǔ jiǎnzhì 布依语简志 (Introduction to the Buyi language; Beijing, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 1980).
  • Wú Qǐlù 吴启禄: Bùyī-Hàn cídiǎn 布依汉词典 (Bouyei–Chinese dictionary; Beijing, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 2002), ISBN 7-105-04965-0.

External links

Baiyue

The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous non-Chinese peoples who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to southeast China, and as far west as the Sichuan Basin between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD. Meacham (1996:93) notes that, during the Zhou and Han dynasties, the Yue lived in a vast territory from Jiangsu to Yunnan, while Barlow (1997:2) indicates that the Luoyue occupied the southwest Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The Han shu (漢書) describes the lands of Yue as stretching from the regions of Kuaiji (會稽) to Jiaozhi (交趾). In the Warring States period, the word "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in Zhejiang. The later kingdoms of Minyue in Fujian and Nanyue in Guangdong were both considered Yue states.

The Yue tribes were gradually displaced or assimilated into Chinese culture as the Han empire expanded into what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the first half of the first millennium AD. Many modern southern Chinese dialects bear traces of substrate languages originally spoken by the ancient Yue. Variations of the name are still used for the name of modern Vietnam, in Zhejiang-related names including Yue opera, the Yue Chinese language, and in the abbreviation for Guangdong.

Bouyei

Bouyei can refer to:

Bouyei language

Bouyei people

Bouyei language

The Bouyei language (autonym: Haausqyaix also spelled Buyi, Buyei, or Puyi; Chinese: 布依语; pinyin: bùyī yǔ, Vietnamese: tiếng Bố Y or tiếng Giáy) is a language spoken by the Bouyei ethnic group of southern Guizhou Province in mainland China. Classified as a member of the Northern Tai group in the Tai languages branch of the Tai–Kadai language family, the language has over 2.5 million native speakers and is also used by the Giay people (Vietnamese: Giáy) in some parts of Vietnam. There are native speakers living in France or the United States as well, which emigrated from China or Vietnam. About 98% of the native speakers are in China.Bouyei's characteristics are similar to the other members of its language branch. It is generally monosyllabic, and word order and particles are the main forms of grammar. Bouyei's syllable initials match up closely to the other Northern Tai languages, with relatively fast simplification and merging. Bouyei sentences can be shown to contain many different levels of phrasing.

The contemporary Bouyei script was developed after the abandonment of the Bouyei-Zhuang Script Alliance Policy in 1981, and was designed from 1981 to 1985. It is focused and phonologically representative, and takes the Wangmo County dialect as its foundation.

Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese

Some historical Chinese characters for non-Chinese peoples were graphically pejorative ethnic slurs, where the racial insult derived not from the Chinese word but from the character used to write it. For instance, written Chinese first transcribed the name Yáo "the Yao people (in southwest China and Vietnam)" with the character for yáo 猺 "jackal", but 20th-century language reforms replaced this graphic pejorative with yáo 瑤 "precious jade".

In alphabetically written languages like English, orthography does not change ethnic slurs — but in logographically written languages like Chinese, it makes a difference whether one writes Yáo as 猺 "jackal" or 瑤 "jade". Over 80% of Chinese characters are phono-semantic compounds, consisting of a radical or determinative giving the logographic character a semantic meaning and a "rebus" or phonetic component guiding the pronunciation. Thus, most such slurs in written Chinese derived from the semantic component of a character. In the Yáo example above, the phonetic component of the characters (䍃) is the same, and they are homophones, but the pejorative character "猺" has the dog radical, suggesting an association with dogs (leading to the meaning "jackal"), whereas the revised character "瑤" has the jade radical, suggesting the association with the precious gem.

Haplogroup N-M231

Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker M231.It is most commonly found in males originating from northern Eurasia. It also has been observed at lower frequencies in populations native to other regions, including the Balkans, East Asia, Central Asia and the Pacific.

Mid-Autumn Festival

The Mid-Autumn Festival is a harvest festival celebrated notably by the Chinese and Vietnamese people. The festival is held on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar with full moon at night, corresponding to late September to early October of the Gregorian calendar with a full moon at night.Mooncakes, a rich pastry typically filled with sweet bean paste or lotus seed paste are traditionally eaten during the festival.

Puyi (disambiguation)

Puyi (1906–1967) was the last emperor of China; a child emperor of the Qing dynasty and a puppet emperor of Manchukuo.

Puyi may also refer to:

Bouyei people, an ethnic group in southeastern China and northern Vietnam, also spelled Puyi

Bouyei language, a Tai language

Puyi Township, Guangxi (普益乡), a township in Yangshuo County, Guangxi, China

Puyi Township, Yunnan (普义乡), a township in Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County, Yunnan, China

Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture

Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 黔西南布依族苗族自治州; pinyin: Qiánxīnán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu; Buyei: Qianfxiynanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz Ziqziqzouy; Hmu: Qeef Xib Naif Dol Yat Dol Hmub Zid Zid Zeb), is an autonomous prefecture of Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, bordering Guangxi to the south and Yunnan to the west. The name, "黔西南" derives from the prefecture's southwest location in the province; "黔" is the official abbreviation for Guizhou, while "西南" means "southwest".

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