Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Boutros Boutros-Ghali (/ˈbuːtrɒs ˈɡɑːli/; Coptic: Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ-Ⲅⲁⲗⲓ, Arabic: بطرس بطرس غاليBuṭrus Buṭrus Ghālī, Egyptian Arabic: [ˈbotɾos ˈɣæːli]; 14 November 1922 – 16 February 2016) was an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from January 1992 to December 1996. An academic and former Vice Foreign Minister of Egypt, Boutros-Ghali oversaw the UN at a time when it dealt with several world crises, including the breakup of Yugoslavia and the Rwandan genocide. He was then the first Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie from 16 November 1997 to 31 December 2002.

Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Naelachohanboutrosghali-2
Boutros-Ghali in 2002
6th Secretary-General of the United Nations
In office
1 January 1992 – 31 December 1996
Preceded byJavier Pérez de Cuéllar
Succeeded byKofi Annan
1st Secretary-General of La Francophonie
In office
16 November 1997 – 31 December 2002
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byAbdou Diouf
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Acting
In office
17 September 1978 – 17 February 1979
Prime MinisterMamdouh Salem
Mustafa Khalil
Preceded byMuhammad Ibrahim Kamel
Succeeded byMustafa Khalil
In office
17 November 1977 – 15 December 1977
Prime MinisterMamdouh Salem
Preceded byIsmail Fahmi
Succeeded byMuhammad Ibrahim Kamel
Personal details
Born14 November 1922
Cairo, Egypt
Died16 February 2016 (aged 93)
Cairo, Egypt
Political partyArab Socialist (Before 1978)
National Democratic (1978–2011)
Independent (2011–2016)
Spouse(s)Leia Maria Boutros-Ghali
Alma materCairo University
University of Paris
Institute of Political Studies, Paris
Signature
Boutros Boutros-Ghali's signature

Early life and education

Boutros Boutros-Ghali was born in Cairo, Egypt, on 14 November 1922 into a Coptic Christian family.[1] His father Yusuf Butros Ghali was the son of Boutros Ghali Bey then Pasha (also his namesake), who was Prime Minister of Egypt from 1908 until he was assassinated in 1910.[2][3] His mother Safela Mikhail Sharubim was daughter of Mikhail Sharubim (1861–1920), a prominent public servant and historian.[4]

Boutros-Ghali graduated from Cairo University in 1946.[5] He received a PhD in international law from the University of Paris and diploma in international relations from the Sciences Po in 1949. During 1949–1979, he was appointed Professor of International Law and International Relations at Cairo University. He became President of the Centre of Political and Strategic Studies in 1975 and President of the African Society of Political Studies in 1980. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar at Columbia University from 1954 to 1955, Director of the Centre of Research of the Hague Academy of International Law from 1963 to 1964, and Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Law at Paris University from 1967 to 1968. In 1986 he received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Law at Uppsala University, Sweden.[6] He was also the Honorary Rector of the Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, a branch of Kyunghee University Seoul.

Political career

Boutros Boutros-Ghali et Moshe Dayan Strasbourg 10 octobre 1979
Boutros Boutros-Ghali and Moshe Dayan at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg (October 1979)

Boutros Boutros-Ghali's political career developed during the presidency of Anwar El Sadat. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union from 1974 to 1977. He served as Egypt's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs from 1977 until early 1991. He then became Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs for several months before moving to the UN. As Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, he played a part in the peace agreements between President Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin.[7]

According to investigative journalist Linda Melvern, Boutros-Ghali approved a secret $26 million arms sale to the government of Rwanda in 1990 when he was Foreign Minister, the weapons stockpiled by the Hutu regime as part of the fairly public, long-term preparations for the subsequent genocide. He was serving as UN Secretary-General when the killings occurred four years later.[8]

Secretary-General of the United Nations (1992–1996)

1991 selection

Boutros-Ghali ran for Secretary-General of the United Nations in the 1991 selection. The top post in the UN was opening up as Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru reached the end of his second term, and Africa was next in the rotation. Boutros-Ghali tied Bernard Chidzero of Zimbabwe in the first two rounds of polling, edged ahead by one vote in round 3, and fell behind by one vote in round 4. After several countries withdrew their support for Chidzero, fed by fears that the United States was trying to eliminate both of the leading candidates, Boutros-Ghali won a clear victory in round 5.[9]

First term

Boutros-Ghali's term in office remains controversial. In 1992, he submitted An Agenda for Peace, a suggestion for how the UN could respond to violent conflict. However, he was criticised for the UN's failure to act during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, which officially left over one million people dead, and he appeared unable to muster support in the UN for intervention in the continuing Angolan Civil War. One of the hardest tasks during his term was dealing with the crisis of the Yugoslav Wars after the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia. His reputation became entangled in the larger controversies over the effectiveness of the UN and the role of the United States in the UN.

Some Somalis believed he was responsible for an escalation of the Somalia crisis by undertaking a personal vendetta against Mohamed Farrah Aidid and his Habr Gidr clan, favouring their rivals, the Darod the clan of the former dictator Mohamed Siad Barre. It was believed that he demanded the 12 July 1993 US helicopter attack on a meeting of Habr Gidr clan leaders, who were meeting to discuss a peace initiative put forward by the leader of the UN Mission in Mogadishu, retired U.S. Admiral Jonathan Howe. It is generally believed that the majority of the clan elders were eager to arrange a peace and to rein in the provocative activities of their clan leader, Mohamed Farrah Aidid, but, after this attack on a peaceful meeting, the clan was resolved on fighting the Americans and the UN, leading to the Battle of Mogadishu on 3–4 October 1993.[10]

Second term vetoed

Boutros-Ghali ran unopposed for the customary second term in 1996, despite efforts by the United States to unseat him. U.S. ambassador Madeleine Albright asked Boutros-Ghali to resign and offered to establish a foundation for him to run, an offer that other Western diplomats called "ludicrous."[11] American diplomatic pressure also had no effect, as other members of the Security Council remained unwavering in their support for Boutros-Ghali. He won 14 of the 15 votes in the Security Council, but the sole negative vote was a U.S. veto.[12][13] After four deadlocked meetings of the Security Council, France offered a compromise in which Boutros-Ghali would be appointed to a short term of two years, but the United States rejected the French offer. Finally, Boutros-Ghali suspended his candidacy, becoming the only Secretary-General ever to be denied a second term by a veto.

Later life

Boutros Boutros-Ghali's wife, Leia Maria Boutros-Ghali, née Leia Nadler, was raised in an Egyptian Jewish family in Alexandria and converted to Catholicism as a young woman.[5][14]

From 1997 to 2002, Boutros-Ghali was Secretary-General of La Francophonie, an organisation of French-speaking nations. From 2003 to 2006, he served as the chairman of the board of the South Centre,[15] an intergovernmental research organisation of developing countries. Boutros-Ghali played a "significant role"[16] in creating Egypt's National Council for Human Rights, and served as its president until 2012.[17][18]

Boutros-Ghali supported the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly and was one of the initial signatories of the Campaign's appeal in 2007. In a message to the Campaign, he stressed the necessity to establish democratic participation of citizens at the global level.[19] From 2009–2015 he also participated as jury member for the Conflict Prevention Prize, awarded every year by the Fondation Chirac.[20]

Death

Boutros-Ghali died aged 93 in a hospital in Cairo, after having been admitted for a broken pelvis or leg, on 16 February 2016.[21][22][23][24] A military funeral was held for him with prayers led by Coptic Pope Tawadros II. He is buried at Petrine Church in Abbassia, Cairo.[25]

Honorary degrees

Awards and recognition

Honours

Egyptian national honours

Ribbon bar Honour
EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR Grand Collar of the Order of the Nile
EGY Order of the Republic - Grand Cordon BAR Grand Cordon of the Order of the Arab Republic of Egypt
EGY Order of Merit - Grand Cross BAR Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Egypt)

Foreign honors

Ribbon bar Country Honour
ARG Order of the Liberator San Martin - Grand Cross BAR  Argentina Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín
Grand Crest Ordre de Leopold  Belgium Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold
BRA Order of the Southern Cross - Grand Cross BAR  Brazil Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross
CAN Order of Canada Companion ribbon  Canada Companion of the Order of Canada
Order of Merit - Grand Cross (Central African Republic)  Central African Republic Grand Cross of the Order of Central African Merit
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR  Chile Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit
Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar  Colombia Grand Cross of the Order of Boyaca
Orderelefant ribbon  Denmark Knight of the Order of the Elephant
Ribbon bar of Orden Nacional de San Lorenzo  Ecuador Grand Cross of the National Order of San Lorenzo
Legion Honneur GC ribbon  France Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 6 GrVK Stern Band  Germany Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
GRE Order Redeemer 1Class  Greece Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR  Italy Knight Grand Cross with Collar Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
Cote d'Ivoire Ordre national GC ribbon  Ivory Coast Grand Cross of the National Order of the Ivory Coast
JPN Daikun'i kikkasho BAR  Japan Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
LUX Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Grand Cross BAR  Luxembourg Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Mali Ordre national du Mali GC ribbon  Mali Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali
OPMM-gc  Malta Grand Cross of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 2Class BAR  Mexico Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
Most Refulgent Order of the Star of Nepal    Nepal Grand Commender of the Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Nepal
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Cross BAR  Peru Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
ROM Order of the Star of Romania 1932 GCross BAR  Romania Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR  Portugal Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry
Grand Order of Mugunghwa (South Korea) - ribbon bar  South Korea Grand Cross of the Grand Order of Mugunghwa
Order of the Polar Star (after 1975) - Commander Grand Cross  Sweden Grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star

Published works

As Secretary-General, Boutros-Ghali wrote An Agenda for Peace. He has also published other memoirs:

  • The Arab League, 1954–1955 : Ten years of struggle, ed. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York, 1954
  • New Dimensions of Arms Regulations and Disarmament in the Post Cold War, ed. United Nations, New York, 1992
  • An Agenda for Development, ed. United Nations, New York, 1995
  • Confronting New Challenges, ed. United Nations, New York, 1995
  • Fifty Years of the United Nations, ed. William Morrow, New York, 1995
  • The 50th anniversary : Annual report on the work of the Organization, ed. United Nations, New York, 1996
  • An Agenda for Democratization, ed. United Nations, New York, 1997
  • Egypt's Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat's Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East, ed. Random House, New York, 1998
  • Essays on Leadership, (with George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Desmond Tutu), ed. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Washington, 1998
  • Unvanquished: A US-UN Saga, ed. I.B.Tauris, New York, 1999
  • The Arab League, 1945–1955: International Conciliation,, ed. Literary Licensing Publisher, London, 2013

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Boutros Boutros-Ghali Biography, Encyclopedia of World Biography
  2. ^ Reid, Donald M. (1982). "Political Assassination in Egypt, 1910–1954". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 15 (4): 625–651. doi:10.2307/217848. JSTOR 217848.
  3. ^ Goldschmidt 1993, pp.183,188
  4. ^ Goldschmidt 1993 p.183
  5. ^ a b Goshko, John M. (16 February 2016). "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, U.N. secretary general who clashed with U.S., dies at 93". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Honorary doctorates – Uppsala University, Sweden". www.uu.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali: The world is his oyster". Weekly Ahram. 18 January 2006. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  8. ^ Melvern, Linda (2000). A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. London: Zed. ISBN 1-85649-830-1.Washington Monthly Review
  9. ^ Lewis, Paul (23 November 1991). "How U.N. Nominee Won: 4 Switched". The New York Times.
  10. ^ Bowden, Mark (1999). Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: New American Library. pp. 83–84. ISBN 0-451-20514-6.
  11. ^ Crossette, Barbara (5 December 1996). "U.N. Leader Halts Bid for New Term but Does Not Quit". The New York Times.
  12. ^ Goshko, John M. (19 November 1996). "U.S. Sides Against Second Term for U.N. Chief in Informal Vote". The Washington Post.
  13. ^ Crossette, Barbara (20 November 1996). "Round One in the U.N. Fight: A U.S. Veto of Boutros-Ghali". The New York Times.
  14. ^ "At Home With: Boutros Boutros-Ghali".
  15. ^ "South Centre website". Southcentre.org. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  16. ^ "Egypt: NCHR Mourns Death of Boutros Ghali". allAfrica.
  17. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali: Make diplomacy, not war". Al Jazeera.
  18. ^ "Who's who in Egypt's reshuffled Human Rights Council". Ahram Online.
  19. ^ "MESSAGE FROM DR. BOUTROS BOUTROS GHALI" (PDF). International campaign for the establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly.
  20. ^ "The jury for the Conflict Prevention Prize awarded by the Fondation Chirac". Fondationchirac.eu. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  21. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, former UN head, dies at 93". BBC News. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  22. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali: Make diplomacy, not war". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  23. ^ "Former U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali dies - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  24. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Former U.N. Secretary General, Dies at 93". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  25. ^ "Boutros-Ghali to be buried at family's Italian-style church – Egypt Independent". Egypt Independent. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2018.

Sources

  • Goldschmidt, Arthur (1993). "The Butrus Ghali Family". Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 30: 183–188. doi:10.2307/40000236. ISSN 0065-9991. JSTOR 40000236. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Ismail Fahmi
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Acting

1977
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ibrahim Kamel
Preceded by
Muhammad Ibrahim Kamel
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Acting

1978–1979
Succeeded by
Mustafa Khalil
Positions in intergovernmental organisations
Preceded by
Peru Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
United NationsSecretary General of the United Nations
1992–1996
Succeeded by
Ghana Kofi Annan
Preceded by
Jean-Louis Roy
as Secretary General of the Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique
Secretary General of La Francophonie
1997–2002
Succeeded by
Abdou Diouf
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1081

United Nations Security Council resolution 1081, adopted unanimously on 27 November 1996, after considering a report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali regarding the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), the Council noted its efforts to establish a durable and just peace in the Middle East.

The resolution called upon the parties concerned to immediately implement Resolution 338 (1973). It renewed the mandate of the Observer Force for another six months until 31 May 1997 and requested that the Secretary-General submit a report on the situation at the end of that period.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1090

United Nations Security Council resolution 1090, adopted without a vote at a closed meeting on 13 December 1996, having considered the question of the recommendation for the appointment of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Mr. Kofi Annan be appointed for a term of office from 1 January 1997, to 31 December 2001.Kofi Annan, a Ghanaian diplomat, was the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations. The United States had vetoed another term for his predecessor, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, due to lack of reform.It was the first time that a Security Council resolution had been adopted by acclamation.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1091

United Nations Security Council resolution 1091, adopted without a vote at a closed meeting on 13 December 1996, the Council acknowledged the contributions of the outgoing Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, whose term would expire on 31 December 1996.

The Security Council recognised the role that Boutros-Ghali played in guiding the United Nations in the discharge of its responsibilities under the United Nations Charter. It also noted his efforts to find lasting solutions to conflicts around the world and commended the reforms he made in restructuring and strengthening the United Nations system.

The resolution acknowledge the contribution Boutros-Ghali had made to international peace and security, efforts to solve international problems, endeavours to meet humanitarian needs and his promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people. It concluded by expressing appreciation for his dedication to the provisions of the United Nations Charter and the development of friendly relations among countries.

It was the second time that a Security Council resolution had been adopted by acclamation.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 804

United Nations Security Council resolution 804, adopted unanimously on 29 January 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 696 (1991), 747 (1992), 785 (1992) and 793 (1992), and expressing its concern at lack of implementation of the "Acordos de Paz para Angola" in Angola, the Council approved a recommendation by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to extend the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) for a further three months until 30 April 1993.

The resolution condemned the violation of the "Acordos de Paz para Angola" peace agreement, including the resumption of hostilities during the 55 Day War, the initial rejection by UNITA of the election results, its withdrawal from the new Angolan armed forces and its seizure by force of provincial capitals and municipalities. It demanded that all parties cease fire, return to negotiations and agree to the full implementation of the peace agreement. The Council also supported the efforts of the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and the Special Representative for their continuing efforts in this respect. It was the first time that resolutions on Angola had criticised UNITA.The resolution went on to consider the effect of Member States on the peace process. It urged them to provide economic and technical assistance to the Government of Angola and to support the implementation of the peace accords, and to prevent any direct or indirect interference from military or paramilitary forces. The Security Council also condemned the violations of international humanitarian law, seizure of foreign hostages and attacks on UNAVEM II, demanding that the Angolan government ensure its safety.

Resolution 804 concluded by deploying UNAVEM II primarily in the capital Luanda, partly due to demands by African nations for a greater United Nations presence, requesting the Secretary-General to review developments and report back to the Council before 30 April 1993.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 827

United Nations Security Council resolution 827, adopted unanimously on 25 May 1993, after reaffirming Resolution 713 (1991) and all subsequent resolutions on the topic of the former Yugoslavia, approved report S/25704 of Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, with the Statute of the International Tribunal as an annex, establishing the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).Still alarmed at violations of international humanitarian law in former Yugoslavia and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including mass killings, systematic detention and rape of women and ethnic cleansing, the resolution determined that the situation continued to pose a threat to international peace and security, further announcing its intention to bring an end to such crimes and bring justice to the victims. The Council decided that the establishment of a tribunal and the prosecution of persons responsible would address such violations, reaffirming its decision in Resolution 808 (1993).

Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for crimes committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia between 1 January 1991 and a date to be determined by the Council upon the restoration of peace in the region. Until the appointment of a Prosecutor, evidence would continue to be gathered by the Commission of Experts established in Resolution 780 (1992).

The Council then requested the Secretary-General to submit suggestions received from countries regarding the rules of procedure and evidence called for in Article 15 of the Statute of the International Tribunal to judges at the tribunal. It also decided that all Member States would co-operate with the ICTY and its organs in accordance with the Statute of the International Tribunal. At the same time, contributions from states, intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations to the Tribunal was urged.

The resolution decided that the determination of the seat of the International Tribunal is subject to the conclusion of appropriate arrangements between the United Nations and the Netherlands, noting that it may sit elsewhere if considered necessary, and that the work of the Tribunal will not affect the right of victims to compensation. Finally it asked that Boutros Boutros-Ghali immediately implement the current resolution and make arrangements for the effective functioning of the Tribunal.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 877

United Nations Security Council resolution 877, adopted unanimously on 21 October 1993, after recalling 808 (1993) and 827 (1993), the Council appointed the nomination by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Mr. Ramón Escovar Salom for the position of Prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 878

United Nations Security Council resolution 878, adopted unanimously on 29 October 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 733 (1992), 746 (1992), 751 (1992), 767 (1992), 775 (1992), 794 (1992), 814 (1993), 837 (1993) and 865 (1993) on Somalia, the Council expressed its commitment to a future concerted strategy for the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) and extended its mandate for an interim period until 18 November 1993.The Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was requested to report on recent developments in Somalia and on a further extension of UNOSOM II's mandate before 18 November 1993.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 887

United Nations Security Council resolution 887, adopted unanimously on 29 November 1993, after considering a report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali regarding the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), the Council noted its efforts to establish a durable and just peace in the Middle East.

The resolution decided to call upon the parties concerned to immediately implement Resolution 338 (1973), it renewed the mandate of the Observer Force for another six months until 31 May 1994 and requested that the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali submit a report on the situation at the end of that period.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 893

United Nations Security Council resolution 893, adopted unanimously on 6 January 1994, after reaffirming resolutions 812 (1993), 846 (1993), 872 (1993) and 891 (1993) on Rwanda, the Council noted that the situation in Rwanda could have implications for neighbouring Burundi and authorised the deployment of a second military battalion of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to the demilitarised zone.The Council urged both parties to co-operate with the peace process, comply with the Arusha Accords and in particular to establish a broad-based transitional government as soon as possible. It was stressed that continued support for UNAMIR will depend upon the implementation of the Arusha Accords. Attempts to improve dialogue among the parties by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and his Special Representative were welcomed.

The efforts of Member States, United Nations agencies, the Organisation of African Unity and non-governmental organisations which had provided humanitarian aid were welcomed. Finally, the Secretary-General was requested to continue to monitor the size and cost of UNAMIR.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 895

United Nations Security Council resolution 895, adopted unanimously on 28 January 1994, after recalling previous resolutions on Israel and Lebanon including 501 (1982), 508 (1982), 509 (1982) and 520 (1982) as well as studying the report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) approved in 426 (1978), the Council decided to extend the mandate of UNIFIL for a further six months until 31 July 1994.The Council then reemphasised the mandate of the Force and requested the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to report back on the progress made with regard to the implementation of resolutions 425 (1978) and 426 (1978).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 899

United Nations Security Council resolution 899, adopted unanimously on 4 March 1994, after recalling Resolution 833 (1993) and considering a letter by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali concerning the matter of the Iraqi private citizens and their assets which remained on Kuwaiti territory following the demarcation of the international boundary between Iraq and Kuwait, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, decided that compensation payments may be remitted to the private citizens concerned in Iraq, notwithstanding the provisions of Resolution 661 (1991).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 915

United Nations Security Council resolution 915, adopted unanimously on 4 May 1994, after reaffirming Resolution 910 (1994), the Council, acting on a recommendation by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, established the United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) to supervise the withdrawal of Libyan forces from the Aouzou Strip following an International Court of Justice opinion that the strip formed part of the territory of Chad.The Council noted that an agreement signed in Sirte, Libya, between the two countries provided for a presence of the United Nations to monitor the withdrawal by Libya, while announcing its intention to promote peaceful relations between both parties.

It was decided that UNASOG would be established for a single period of up to forty days, beginning from the adoption of the present resolution. It would consist of nine United Nations observers and six support staff to observe the implementation of the agreement. Co-operation from both parties with the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was urged, and in particular to grant it freedom of movement.

The Council also recognised that UNASOG would need to travel to Libya by air and this would require an exemption from international sanctions placed on the country and in particular provisions of Resolution 748 (1992). Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council decided that the provisions would not apply to the UNASOG mission, requesting the Secretary-General to inform the Committee established in Resolution 748 of flights made, and to keep the Council updated on developments.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 921

United Nations Security Council resolution 921, adopted unanimously on 26 May 1994, after considering a report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali regarding the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), the Council noted its efforts to establish a durable and just peace in the Middle East.

The resolution decided to call upon the parties concerned to immediately implement Resolution 338 (1973), it renewed the mandate of the Observer Force for another six months until 30 November 1994 and requested that the Secretary-General submit a report on the situation at the end of that period.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 930

United Nations Security Council resolution 930, adopted unanimously on 27 June 1994, after recalling resolutions 772 (1992) and 894 (1994), the Council noted with satisfaction that a democratic and non-racial government had been established in South Africa, and terminated the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA).The efforts of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and UNOMSA, together with the Organisation of African Unity, Commonwealth of Nations and the European Union were commended. Finally, the Council decided to remove the item titled "The question of South Africa" from the matters of which it was seized. International sanctions on the country were lifted in Resolution 919.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 938

United Nations Security Council resolution 938, adopted on 28 July 1994, after recalling previous resolutions on Israel and Lebanon including 501 (1982), 508 (1982), 509 (1982) and 520 (1982) as well as studying the report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) approved in 426 (1978), the Council decided to extend the mandate of UNIFIL for a further six months until 31 January 1995.

The Council then reemphasised the mandate of the Force and requested the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to report back on the progress made with regard to the implementation of resolutions 425 (1978) and 426 (1978).

Resolution 938 was adopted by 14 votes to none; Rwanda was absent from the meeting.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 962

United Nations Security Council resolution 962, adopted unanimously on 29 November 1994, after considering a report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali regarding the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), the Council noted its efforts to establish a durable and just peace in the Middle East.

The resolution decided to call upon the parties concerned to immediately implement Resolution 338 (1973), it renewed the mandate of the Observer Force for another six months until 31 May 1995 and requested that the Secretary-General submit a report on the situation at the end of that period.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 968

United Nations Security Council resolution 968, adopted unanimously on 16 December 1994, after noting statements by the President of the Security Council and reports by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali on the situation in Tajikistan, the Council established the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) and addressed the process of national reconciliation in the country.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 974

United Nations Security Council resolution 974, adopted unanimously on 30 January 1995, after recalling previous resolutions on Israel and Lebanon including 501 (1982), 508 (1982), 509 (1982) and 520 (1982) as well as studying the report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) approved in 426 (1978), the Council decided to extend the mandate of UNIFIL for a further six months until 31 July 1995.

The Council then reemphasised the mandate of the Force and requested the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to continue negotiations with the Government of Lebanon and other parties concerned with regard to the implementation of resolutions 425 (1978) and 426 (1978) and report thereon. His intention to achieve economies in the maintenance and logistical support areas was welcomed.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 996

United Nations Security Council resolution 996, adopted unanimously on 30 May 1995, after considering a report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali regarding the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), the Council noted its efforts to establish a durable and just peace in the Middle East.

The resolution decided to call upon the parties concerned to immediately implement Resolution 338 (1973), it renewed the mandate of the Observer Force for another six months until 30 November 1995 and requested that the Secretary-General submit a report on the situation at the end of that period.

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