The Bougainville Civil War, also known as the Bougainville conflict, was a multi-layered armed conflict fought from 1988 to 1998 in the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) between PNG and the secessionist forces of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), and between the BRA and other armed groups on Bougainville. The conflict was described by John Momis as the largest conflict in Oceania since the end of World War II in 1945, with an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 Bougainvilleans dead.
Hostilities concluded under the Bougainville Peace Agreement in 1998. The national (PNG) government agreed to the founding of the Autonomous Bougainville Government and to certain rights and authorities which the autonomous government would have over what became known as Bougainville Province, which includes outlying small islands in addition to Bougainville Island itself.
|Bougainville Civil War|
District map of Bougainville (North Solomons) (Note: The international boundary is incorrectly placed southeast of Shortland and Ovau and Fauro islands)
Bougainville Interim Government (BIG)
|Commanders and leaders|
Jerry Singirok (WIA)
Theodore Miriung †
Several thousand resistance fighters
4 UH-1 Iroquois helicopters
4 Pacific-class patrol boats
|Casualties and losses|
300+ PNGDF soldiers killed|
Several thousand wounded
|1,000–2,000 fighters killed|
|Approx. 15,000 to 20,000 Bougainvilleans dead|
Lode gold was first discovered on Bougainville in 1930. The discovery of vast copper ore deposits in the Crown Prince Range on Bougainville Island during the 1960s led to the establishment of the huge Bougainville Copper Mine by the Australian company Conzinc Rio Tinto. The Panguna mine began production in 1972 under the management of Bougainville Copper Ltd, with the government of Papua New Guinea as a 20% shareholder. At the time, the Panguna mine was the largest open cut mine in the world. It produced more than 45% of Papua New Guinea's national export revenue, and was, as such, vitally important to the economy.
The mine recruited thousands of workers to the island, mostly Papua New Guineans, whom the Bougainvilleans referred to as "red-skins" because of their skin colour. By contrast, most native people of the island identify as black. Many "white-skins", mostly Australian nationals, also came to work at the mine. The Bougainvilleans wanted neither the migrants nor immigrants on their land; they especially resented the "red-skins," because of cultural differences between the groups.
Conflict began to emerge from the start of mining operations at Panguna. Many of the local landowners were opposed to the mine because it attracted an influx of workers from other parts of PNG. In addition, they were concerned about adverse environmental effects, while seeing most of the mine profits leaving the island. Prior to Papua New Guinea's independence in 1975, Bougainville Island had attempted to secede and become independent. Its representatives reached an agreement with the national government for further decentralization, which satisfied concerns at the time.
By late 1988 tensions over the mine had led to local violence. The government deployed the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary (RPNGC) Mobile Squads and elements of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF). Although initially restricted to the area around the mine site, the conflict subsequently intensified. Both sides reported abuses against the native population during fighting between government forces and the rebels of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) and the conflict developed into a general separatist insurgency. The mine company closed the mine, and many non-Bouganvilleans left the island. Fighting continued for a year, during which widespread human rights violations were alleged to have occurred, including the burning of many villages. However, in early 1990 Papua New Guinea withdrew, leaving Bougainville in the control of the BRA. Despite agreeing to disarm and negotiate, Francis Ona, the leader of the BRA, unilaterally declared independence in May 1990.
The PNG government subsequently imposed a blockade on Bougainville. It was enforced using UH-1 Iroquois helicopters and Pacific-class patrol boats that had been supplied to PNG as aid by the Australian government in the late-1980s as part of a defence co-operation program underway since independence. Other Australian support, as part of its capacity-building effort, included funding for the PNGDF, provision of arms and ammunition, logistics, training, and some specialist and technical advisors and personnel. Similar assistance was also provided to the police.[Note 1] The helicopters had been provided by Australia without weapons and on the provision that they would not be used for combat; however, the PNGDF subsequently fitted machine-guns in contravention of the agreement and later used them as gunships.[Note 2] The blockade would remain in effect until the ceasefire in 1994 (although it was informally continued for some parts of Bougainville until 1997).
Ona subsequently set up the Bougainville Interim Government (BIG), appointing himself president. The former premier of the provincial government, Joseph Kabui, was appointed Vice-President. The military commander of the BRA was Sam Kauona, a former PNGDF officer. Yet the BIG had little power, and the island began to descend into disarray. The command structure set up by the BRA seldom had any real control over the various groups throughout the island that claimed to be part of the BRA. A number of raskol (criminal) gangs that were affiliated with the BRA, equipped largely with weapons salvaged from the fighting in World War II, terrorized villages, engaging in murder, rape and pillage. Bougainville split into several factions, as the conflict took on ethnic and separatist characteristics.
The divisions in the conflict were largely drawn along clan lines. There were 70–80 minor tribal conflicts for BIG to deal with in addition to the blockade. As the BIG/BRA was dominated by the Nasioi clan, other islanders were suspicious of its goals, especially in north Bougainville. On the island of Buka, north of Bougainville, a local militia was formed which succeeded in driving out the BRA in September, with the help of Papuan troops.  By the end of 1990, the PNGDF national forces controlled Buka, while the BRA controlled the remainder of Bougainville. Early attempts at resolving the conflict resulted in agreements being signed in 1990 and 1991; however, neither side honoured their terms. Meanwhile, the BRA leadership of Ona and Kauona fell out with some of the political leaders, such as Kabui. Several other pro-government village militias, which together became known as the resistance and were armed by the PNGDF, forced the BRA out of their areas. During 1991–92, the PNGDF gradually returned to Bougainville, taking control of the north and southwest of the main island.
Papua New Guinea's policy towards Bougainville hardened after the defeat of the incumbent government at the 1992 elections. New Prime Minister Paias Wingti took a considerably more hardline stance. In 1992–93, the PNGDF launched a number of unauthorised cross-border raids into the Solomon Islands in pursuit of supporters of the BRA. Relations with the Solomon Islands deteriorated, and on one occasion PNG forces clashed with Solomon Island police, exchanging fire. On another the PNGDF troops landed on the island of Oema. The PNGDF, in alliance with the resistance, reoccupied Arawa, the provincial capital, in February 1993. Papuan Foreign Minister Sir Julius Chan attempted to gather a peacekeeping force from the nations of the Pacific, but Wingti quashed the idea. He subsequently ordered the army to retake the Panguna mine, and was initially successful. However, his government was short-lived, and in August 1994 was replaced as Prime Minister by Julius Chan. The assault on Panguna subsequently failed. The PNGDF increasingly sustained losses at the hands of the insurgents in the interior of the island, where the jungle limited the visibility and effectiveness of its patrols.
Chan announced his intention to find a peaceful solution to the conflict, arranging a ceasefire at a meeting with Kauona in the Solomon Islands in September. They agreed to hold a peace conference in Arawa that October, with security provided by an Australian-led South Pacific Peacekeeping Force. However, the BIG leaders boycotted the conference, claiming that their safety could not be guaranteed. In the absence of Ona, Kabui and Kauona emerged as more moderate BRA leaders. Chan's government subsequently entered into negotiations with a group of chiefs from the Nasioi clan, headed by Theodore Miriung, a former lawyer for the Panguna Landowners Association. This resulted in the establishment of a Bougainville Transitional Government in April 1995, with its capital in Buka. Miriung was named as the Premier of a compromise government but ultimately was "unable to bridge the gap between hardliners on both sides".
Meanwhile, Chan was beginning to get frustrated at the lack of progress. Following a round of negotiations in Cairns, Australia, in September and December 1995, between the BRA, BTG and the PNG government, in January 1996 the BRA/BIG representatives, including Kabui, were fired on by PNGDF forces after returning to Bougainville. Later, the home of the BIG's representative in the Solomon Islands, Martin Mirori, was firebombed. The BRA subsequently undertook retaliatory action in northern Bougainville and on Buka. Chan decided to abandon attempts at peace, and on 21 March 1996, approved the lifting of the ceasefire on Bougainville. In an address to the nation, he subsequently resolved to achieve a military solution.
With the government of Australia declining to provide direct military support and advocating a political solution to the conflict, Chan began to look elsewhere. The Sandline affair began in March 1996, when the government of Papua New Guinea attempted to hire mercenaries from Sandline International, a London-based private military company, that in turn employed the South African military contractor Executive Outcomes. As negotiations with Sandline continued, in July the PNGDF launched a new offensive on Bougainville. However, the attack failed, suffering from poor logistical planning, a lack of intelligence on BRA locations and mounting casualties.
In September, BRA militants attacked a PNG army camp at Kangu Beach with the help of members of a local militia group, killing twelve PNGDF soldiers and taking five hostage. The incident was the largest single loss in an operation for the PNGDF during the conflict. The following month, Theodore Miriung was assassinated. A subsequent independent investigation implicated members of the PNGDF and the resistance militias. Discipline and morale was rapidly deteriorating within the ranks of the PNG military, and they were withdrawn in August after the offensive ended in a stalemate. By this time the PNGDF, with assistance of the Bougainville Resistance Forces, was in "reasonable" control of approximately 40 percent of the island, yet they remained vulnerable to guerilla attacks with the BRA establishing an ascendency over government forces.
Chan decided that his best chance to recapture the Panguna mine was with the Sandline mercenaries, and a contract was signed in January 1997. However, news of his intention to hire mercenaries was leaked to the Australian press, and international condemnation followed. Although initially supportive, the commander of the PNGDF, Jerry Singirok, then opposed the plan, and ordered all the mercenaries to be detained on arrival. In the resulting saga Papua New Guinea came close to a military coup, with the parliament surrounded by demonstrators and many military personnel. The Australian government placed pressure on PNG to terminate the contract with Sandline, and intercepted the heavy equipment that was being flown-in for the mercenaries. Chan resigned and the mercenaries were removed from Papua New Guinean territory.
Meanwhile, the conflict continued until 1997. There were approximately 800 PNGDF and 150 "riot squad" personnel deployed on the island by this time, while the BRF probably numbered around 1,500 men. These men were armed by the PNGDF and operated mostly in a "home guard" role, with only a small number involved in patrolling with the PNGDF or in directly involved in the fighting. BRA strength was estimated at around 2,000 men armed with around 500 modern weapons (mostly captured or bought from PNGDF or "riot squad" personnel) and several thousand World War II vintage or homemade weapons.
The impetus for peace was the election of Prime Minister Bill Skate, who had previously opposed a military solution. In mid-1997, talks were held in Honiara and Burnham in New Zealand resulting in a truce, as well as agreement to de-militarize the island. An unarmed Truce Monitoring Group (TMG) led by New Zealand and supported by Australia, Fiji and Vanuatu was subsequently deployed. Since then a ceasefire has largely held on the island. Breaking with Ona, Kauona and Kabui entered into peace talks with the Skate government in Christchurch, New Zealand, which culminated in the signing of the Lincoln Agreement in January 1998. Under the terms of the agreement, PNG began to withdraw its soldiers from the island, and steps were taken to disarm the BRA and BRF, while a multinational Peace Monitoring Group (PMG) under Australian leadership was deployed, replacing the TMG. Legislation to establish a Bougainville Reconciliation Government failed to win approval in the PNG Parliament in December 1998.
A Bougainville provincial government of the same status as the other eighteen provinces of Papua New Guinea, with John Momis as Governor, was established in January 1999. However, this government was suspended after facing opposition from both the BIA/BRA and BTG. Arrangements were made for the creation of a modified government, to be established in two phases: the first being the Bougainville Constituent Assembly and the second being the elections for the Bougainville People's Congress. Elections were held in May, and Kabui was named president. However, the legality of this was contested by Momis, with the support of a number of tribal chiefs and Resistance leaders. In November, a new body, the Bougainville Interim Provincial Government, was established, headed by Momis. Rapprochment between Kauona and Momis led to an agreement through which the two bodies would act in consultation. An organised reconciliation process began at the tribal level in the early 2000s.
A peace agreement was reached in 2001, leading to a roadmap to the creation of an Autonomous Bougainville Government (ABG). Yet Ona refused to play any part in the peace process, and, with a small minority of fighters, broke away from the BRA. Throughout the decade, he continued to resist overtures to participate in the new government, occupying an area around the mine which remained a no-go zone and declaring himself 'king' of Bougainville before dying of malaria in 2005. Elections for the first ABG were held in May and June 2005 with Joseph Kabui elected president.
In March 2006, Dr Shaista Shameem of the United Nations working group on mercenaries asked Fiji and Papua New Guinea for permission to send a team to investigate allegations about the presence of former Fijian soldiers in Bougainville. In 2011 it was reported that former PNG Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare had alleged that Rio Tinto played a role in the civil war by helping finance the actions of the PNG government in Bougainville during the conflict in an attempt to allow the mine to be reopened. The Bougainville government was given control of mining on the island following the passage of the Bougainville Mining Act in March 2015; however, the Panguna mine remains closed. As part of the current peace settlement, a referendum on independence will be held sometime between 2015 and 2020.
The war has been described by John Momis, President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, as the largest conflict in Oceania since the end of World War II. PNGDF casualties during the fighting were believed to include more than 300 killed. Meanwhile, the Australian government estimated that anywhere between 15,000–20,000 people could have died in the Bougainville conflict. However, more conservative estimates put the number of combat deaths as 1,000–2,000. Other sources estimated that around 10,000 Bougainvilleans died of violence or disease during this period, while over 60,000 Bougainvilleans were living in internally displaced persons' camps by the mid-1990s and thousands more had fled to the nearby Solomon Islands.
A condition of the peace agreement was that a referendum on Bougainville's political status would be held within twenty years. In January 2016 the Autonomous Bougainville Government and Government of Papua New Guinea agreed to establish the Bougainville Referendum Commission. The Commission is responsible for making preparations for a vote on Bougainville's future political status, with a draft date of 15 June 2019 set for the referendum.
Aide Ganasi (died 8 November 2016) was a Papua New Guinean politician. He was a People's National Congress member of the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea from July 2012 to March 2013 and from September 2013 until November 2016, representing the electorate of South Fly Open.
Ganasi served in the Papua New Guinea Defence Force for 23 years prior to entering politics, rising to the rank of major and serving as an officer in the Bougainville Civil War. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the People's Action Party at the 2002 election and for the Pangu Party at the 2007 election. Ganasi listed his last role prior to entering politics as having been a border administration officer at Daru.He was elected to the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea at the 2012 election, representing the governing People's National Congress. He was immediately elected Deputy Speaker of parliament. However, Sali Subam, the MP Ganasi had defeated at the election, challenged the result in the National Court alleging that Ganasi had committed bribery, and in March 2013 the court ruled in Subam's favour, unseated Ganasi, and ordered a by-election. Ganasi appealed the result to the Supreme Court, which in September 2013 ruled in his favour and reinstated him after seven months out of office. He was frequently acting speaker from mid-2015 until his death due to Speaker Theo Zurenuoc serving as Acting Governor-General, during which time Ganasi was responsible for dealing with several attempted no-confidence motions in the O'Neill government.He died on 8 November 2016 at a Port Moresby hospital following a heart attack. A state funeral was held on 30 November.Arawa, Papua New Guinea
Arawa was the capital and largest town in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. It was largely destroyed during the Bougainville Civil War, resulting in the relocation of the capital to Buka, though there are plans to rebuild Arawa and make it the capital again. The land where Arawa is now situated was previously a large expatriate plantation.Autonomous Bougainville Government
The Autonomous Bougainville Government (ABG) is the government of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea.
The government was established in 2000 following a peace agreement between the Government of Papua New Guinea and the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) a guerrilla movement.
The Constitution of Bougainville specifies that the Autonomous Bougainville Government shall consist of three branches:
Executive - the President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville who chairs the Bougainville Executive Council
Legislative - the Bougainville House of Representatives (39 elected members and 2 ex officio members).
Judicial - the Bougainville Courts including a Supreme Court and High Court.Elections for the first Autonomous Government were held in May and June 2005; Joseph Kabui was elected President, with Joseph Watawi selected by the House of Representatives as Vice-President.Bougainville People's Congress
The Bougainville People's Congress was a pro-independence organisation and later political party in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea.
It was established in the late 1990s as a representative body during the Bougainville Civil War, and was led by former Premier Joseph Kabui. In the leadup to autonomy for Bougainville, Kabui opposed the introduction of political parties into the province, stating "the people of Bougainville regard political parties as divisive and given the hate, killings, ill-feelings and divisions that existed during the 10-year-old violent crisis on the island, the leaders of Bougainville do not want political parties to come in and divide the people once again". In February 2005, it was recognised as a "consultative and advisory body" to the Interim Bougainville Provincial Government ahead of the first elections later that year.Although Kabui had a stated dislike for political parties, the BPC was registered as a party for the inaugural 2005 election. Kabui ran for the new position of President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville and won, while party members performed well in the Bougainville House of Representatives. Kabui served as the first President of Bougainville from June 2005 until his death on June 7, 2008.The party did not contest the 2015 election.Bougainville – Our Island Our Fight
Bougainville – Our Island Our Fight is a 1998 Australian documentary film. It was produced and directed by Wayne Coles-Janess.
The film focuses on the guerrillas of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army in Papua New Guinea as they fight against the Bougainville Copper company and Papuan government forces. The guerrillas believe they are fighting to defend their independence and the local environment on the island of Bougainville. This film is notable for its unique subject matter, as most Western media was not reporting the Bougainville Civil War.Buka, Papua New Guinea
Buka is located on the southern coast of Buka Island, in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, in eastern Papua New Guinea (country).It is the capital of the North Bougainville District, and the interim provincial capital of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville.
It contains Our Lady of the Assumption Cathedral.Chabai
Chabai is a Catholic mission run by the Sisters of Nazareth located in the northwestern coast of Bouganville. During World War II it was occupied by the Japanese armed forces.The Chabai mission operates the Nazareth Centre for Rehabilitation which was setup after the Bougainville Civil War. It has Safe houses and training rooms which are often used to hosts programs that promote social change through peacebuilding activities.John Bika
John Bika (died 11 September 1989) was a Bougainvillean politician.Bika was the North Solomons Provincial Assembly MP for Nasioi-Pirung and Minister for Commerce and Liquor Licensing in the provincial administration of North Solomons Premier Joseph Kabui in 1989, at the beginning of the Bougainville Civil War. He had chaired a provincial committee into the issue of Bougainvillean secession that had recommended that Bougainville remain within Papua New Guinea but with increased autonomy. He was assassinated at his home in Toboroi village by Bougainville Revolutionary Army militants on 11 September 1989. He had been due to fly to Port Moresby the following day as one of the signatories to a proposed "peace package" to end the conflict.Bika was shot dead in front of his wife, Helen Bika, and was survived by five children. In the aftermath of the assassination, the Papua New Guinean government announced a 200,000 kina reward for the capture of BRA leader Francis Ona.Bika's family have campaigned for compensation from the Autonomous Bougainville Government in recent years.Justin Kili
Justin Hansu Kili, often known as JK, OL MBE (c. 1953 – January 17, 2015) was a Papua New Guinean media personality, journalist, activist, and pioneer. His career, which began in the 1970s, spanned radio, television, and print media, including newspapers. Kili served on the boards of directors of numerous organizations, including the Media Council of Papua New Guinea and Transparency International Papua New Guinea (TIPNG).Justin Kili was originally from Lemanmanu village, Buka Island, located in the present-day Autonomous Region of Bougainville. He began his career in radio in the 1970s. In 1972, journalist Keith Jackson hired Kili at Radio Bougainville, his first job in media and broadcasting.Kili worked as a journalist 35 years, focusing much of his work on corruption in government. He was a member of the Community Coalition Against Corruption through his work with Media Council of PNG.In 1986, Juston Kili established CHM Supersound, a nationwide music program. He also created Papua New Guinea's first music countdown, The Weekly PNG Top 20, which also began airing on Kalang FM in 1986.Nicknamed "the voice of PNG," Justin Kili worked with Radio Australia and the BBC. Kili, who was popularly known as JK, also hosted Pepsi Fizz, a national PNG television and music show which aired on EMTV. In 2004, Kili founded the Yumi FM PNG Annual Music Awards.In 2008, he was named an Officer of the Order of Logohu "for services over 35 years to media work, promotion and publication of PNG music and providing and promoting International primary education to PNG children." He was severely injured in a car accident soon after receiving the award. He spent three months recovering from his injuries. Kili was the appointed head of the National Broadcasting Corporation in East New Britain Province in September 2008, just months after the accident.Kili joined the board of Transparency International Papua New Guinea (TIPNG) in June 2014. In December 2014, Kili served as master of ceremonies for the official reopening of Aropa Airport in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville. The airport had been closed for 24-years following the Bougainville Civil War. The re-opening ceremony, in which he appeared with Prime Minister Peter O'Neill and other officials, marked Kili's last public appearance.Kili, a resident of Kokopo, died from a short illness on January 17, 2015, at Saint Mary's Vunapope Hospital in Vunapope, East New Britain Province, at the age of 61. He was survived by eight children and eleven grandchildren.List of wars involving Papua New Guinea
This is a list of wars involving Papua New Guinea, German New Guinea or Territory of New Guinea.Mary-Louise O'Callaghan
Mary Louise O'Callaghan is an Australian journalist and author.She was The Guardian's stringer in China from 1983 to 1985. She was then the South Pacific correspondent for Fairfax Media from 1987 to 1995, and then for The Australian from 1995 to 2004. She later worked as the public affairs manager for the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). She was based in the Solomon Islands from 1989, remaining there for 25 years.In 1997, O'Callaghan won both the Gold Walkley award and a Walkley Award for International Reporting for her coverage of what would become known as the Sandline affair. In February 1997, O'Callaghan broke the story in the Weekend Australian that the Papua New Guinean government had secretly hired foreign mercenaries to fight in the Bougainville Civil War. The subsequent fallout brought down the government of Prime Minister Julius Chan. She subsequently wrote a book on the subject, Enemies Within: Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the Sandline Crisis: The Inside Story, in 1998. She later won a third Walkley Award for Best Radio Feature, along with three other journalists, for an ABC Radio National Late Night Live series on the Solomon Islands.She is currently the CEO Media Advisor at World Vision Australia.O'Callaghan is married to Solomon Islander politician and trade unionist Joses Tuhanuku. They have four children together.Panguna
Panguna is a town and a (now decommissioned) copper mine on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. It was owned and operated by Bougainville Copper Ltd, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto. Beginning operations in 1972, the company hired thousands of workers, most from other parts of the country.
By the end of its operations on May 15, 1989, when the mine was closed because of an armed uprising on the island, it was the largest open-cut mine in the world. It was accused of contaminating large areas due to its toxic waste, which affected land, water and air. Resentment against the environmental poisoning and the fact that most profits left the island, were major catalysts in the unrest in Bougainville in the 1970s and 1980s, leading to the Bougainville Civil War, which lasted from 1988 until 1998. In 2011 it was reported that former PNG Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare had alleged that Rio Tinto played a role in the civil war by helping finance the actions of the PNG government in Bougainville during the conflict in an attempt to allow the mine to be reopened .Pepetua Serero
Pepetua Serero (died June 14 1989) was a Bougainvillean activist.
Serero was raised in Guava village on Bougainville, and attended Catholic mission schools run by the Marist Order. She later worked as a broadcast officer for the Bougainville radio station of the Australian colonial administration.In August 1987, along with her cousin Francis Ona, she held a meeting of landowners surrounding the Panguna mine and formed a new, younger and more radical executive of the Panguna Landowners Association, with Serero as chairperson (chairlady) and Ona as general secretary. She was an outspoken advocate for the rights of local landowners and against the environmental damage caused by the mine.Serero had been ill from the beginning of the crisis that was to become the Bougainville Civil War, and died from an asthma attack in June 1989, only months after the conflict over the mine had turned into a fight over Bougainvillean secession. Her cousin and colleague in the Panguna Landowners' Association leadership, Ona, would go on to lead the Bougainville Revolutionary Army in the war.The Coconut Revolution
The Coconut Revolution is a 2001 multi-award winning documentary film about the struggle of the indigenous peoples of Bougainville Island during the Bougainville Civil War. The movement is described as the "world's first successful eco-revolution" and has drawn parallels with the conflict depicted in the 2009 film, Avatar.The Crisis (disambiguation)
The Crisis is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
The Crisis may also refer to:
The Crisis (newspaper), a newspaper published during the first half of the American Civil War by Samuel Medary
The Crisis (novel), a 1901 novel by the American novelist Winston Churchill
The Crisis (1916 film), a 1916 silent film historical drama
The Crisis (1913 film), an Australian melodrama film directed by W.J. Lincoln
The Crisis, a colloquial term for the Bougainville Civil War
The Crisis, a periodical published 1832-1834 by Robert Owen, and part of the early socialist and labour movements.The Independent (Papua New Guinea)
The Independent was a national weekly newspaper published in Papua New Guinea from 1995 to 5 June 2003.It was an English-language publication. It was published in the Port Moresby suburb of Boroko by Word Publishing, owners of the Tok Pisin-language Wantok Niuspepa. It replaced Word Publishing's previous, long-running weekly newspaper, The Times of PNG in 1995. It was originally known as the Saturday Independent, but later changed its publication date to Thursday and adopted the name of The Independent. In 2001, it absorbed another Word Publishing title, PNG Trade Monthly, which became a business liftout in the newspaper. By the time of its closure, it had opened bureaus in Mount Hagen, Lae, Rabaul, Madang and Bougainville.Joe R. Kanekane has described the newspaper as both "one of the pillars of investigative journalism" in PNG and "an advocate of good governance and transparency". He highlighted their role in covering many of PNG's "worst corruption scandals", including the affair leading to the Tos Barnett forestry inquiry and the Public Officers Superannuation Fund Board's controversial purchase of The Conservatory building in Cairns, Australia. Its former editor, Anna Solomon, noted the paper's independent coverage of scandals concerning the activities of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force in the Bougainville Civil War, while Colin Barron cited its coverage of environmental issues, including critical coverage of activities of logging companies, and willingness to run advertisements informing landowners of their rights.The Independent closed in June 2003, citing a challenging economic climate and the demands of competing against two national daily newspapers, the Papua New Guinea Post-Courier and The National. Together, The Times of PNG and The Independent had operated for 23 years.Ulbricht Doctrine
The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.
East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.
West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.Western Bloc
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".