Bottom quark

The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of −1/3 e.

All quarks are described in a similar way by electroweak and quantum chromodynamics, but the bottom quark has exceptionally low rates of transition to lower-mass quarks. The bottom quark is also notable because it is a product in almost all top quark decays, and is a frequent decay product of the Higgs boson.

Bottom quark
CompositionElementary particle
StatisticsFermionic
GenerationThird
InteractionsStrong, Weak, Electromagnetic force, Gravity
Symbol
b
AntiparticleBottom antiquark (
b
)
TheorizedMakoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa (1973)[1]
DiscoveredLeon M. Lederman et al. (1977)[2]
Mass4.18+0.04
−0.03
 GeV/c2
(MS scheme)[3]
4.65+0.03
−0.03
 GeV/c2
(1S scheme)[4]
Decays intoCharm quark, or up quark
Electric charge1/3 e
Color chargeYes
Spin1/2
Weak isospinLH: −1/2, RH: 0
Weak hyperchargeLH: 1/3, RH: −2/3

Name and history

The bottom quark was first described theoretically in 1973 by physicists Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa to explain CP violation.[1] The name "bottom" was introduced in 1975 by Haim Harari.[5][6]

The bottom quark was discovered in 1977 by the Fermilab E288 experiment team led by Leon M. Lederman, when collisions produced bottomonium.[2][7][8] Kobayashi and Maskawa won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for their explanation of CP-violation.[9][10]

On its discovery, there were efforts to name the bottom quark "beauty", but "bottom" became the predominant usage, by analogy of "top" and "bottom" to "up" and "down".

Distinct character

The bottom quark's "bare" mass is around 4.18 GeV/c2[3] – a bit more than four times the mass of a proton, and many orders of magnitude larger than common "light" quarks.

Although it almost-exclusively transitions from or to a top quark, the bottom quark can decay into either an up quark or charm quark via the weak interaction. CKM matrix elements Vub and Vcb specify the rates, where both these decays are suppressed, making lifetimes of most bottom particles (~10−12 s) somewhat higher than those of charmed particles (~10−13 s), but lower than those of strange particles (from ~10−10 to ~10−8 s).[11]

The combination of high mass and low transition-rate gives experimental collision byproducts containing a bottom quark a distinctive signature that makes them relatively easy to identify using a technique called "B-tagging". For that reason, mesons containing the bottom quark are exceptionally long-lived for their mass, and are the easiest particles to use to investigate CP violation. Such experiments are being performed at the BaBar, Belle and LHCb experiments.

Hadrons containing bottom quarks

Some of the hadrons containing bottom quarks include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b M. Kobayashi; T. Maskawa (1973). "CP-Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction". Progress of Theoretical Physics. 49 (2): 652–657. Bibcode:1973PThPh..49..652K. doi:10.1143/PTP.49.652.
  2. ^ a b "Discoveries at Fermilab – Discovery of the Bottom Quark" (Press release). Fermilab. 7 August 1977. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  3. ^ a b M. Tanabashi et al. (Particle Data Group) (2018). "Review of Particle Physics". Physical Review D. 98 (3): 030001. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.98.030001.
  4. ^ J. Beringer (Particle Data Group); et al. (2012). "PDGLive Particle Summary 'Quarks (u, d, s, c, b, t, b′, t′, Free)'" (PDF). Particle Data Group. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  5. ^ H. Harari (1975). "A new quark model for hadrons". Physics Letters B. 57 (3): 265–269. Bibcode:1975PhLB...57..265H. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(75)90072-6.
  6. ^ K.W. Staley (2004). The Evidence for the Top Quark. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-0-521-82710-2.
  7. ^ L.M. Lederman (2005). "Logbook: Bottom Quark". Symmetry Magazine. 2 (8). Archived from the original on 4 October 2006.
  8. ^ S.W. Herb; Hom, D.; Lederman, L.; Sens, J.; Snyder, H.; Yoh, J.; Appel, J.; Brown, B.; Brown, C.; Innes, W.; Ueno, K.; Yamanouchi, T.; Ito, A.; Jöstlein, H.; Kaplan, D.; Kephart, R.; et al. (1977). "Observation of a Dimuon Resonance at 9.5 GeV in 400-GeV Proton-Nucleus Collisions". Physical Review Letters. 39 (5): 252. Bibcode:1977PhRvL..39..252H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.39.252.
  9. ^ 2008 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Makoto Kobayashi
  10. ^ 2008 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Toshihide Maskawa
  11. ^ Nave, C. R. "Transformation of Quark Flavors by the Weak Interaction". HyperPhylsics.

Further reading

External links

B-factory

In particle physics, a B-factory, or sometimes a beauty factory, is a particle collider experiment designed to produce and detect a large number of B mesons so that their properties and behaviour can be measured with small statistical uncertainty. Tauons and D mesons are also copiously produced at B-factories.

A sort of "prototype" or "precursor" B-factory was the HERA-B experiment at DESY that studied B-meson physics in the 1990s-2000s before the actual B-factories were constructed/operational. However, uually HERA-B is not considered a B-factory.

Two B-factories were designed and built in the 1990s, and they operated from late 1999 onwards. They are both based on electron-positron colliders with the centre of mass energy tuned to the ϒ(4S) resonance peak, which is just above the threshold for decay into two B mesons (both experiments took smaller data samples at different centre of mass energies). The Belle experiment at the KEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, and the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II collider at SLAC laboratory in California, United States, completed data collection in 2010 and 2008, respectively.The B-factories yielded a rich harvest of results, including the first observation of CP violation outside of the kaon system, measurements of the CKM parameters |Vub| and |Vcb|, measurements of purely leptonic B meson decays and searches for new Physics.

Next-generation B-factories, to be built in the 2010s and 2020s, are the subsequently canceled SuperB that was designed to be built in Frascati near Rome in Italy, and Belle II, an upgrade to Belle, which began operations in 2018. In addition to these there is the LHCb-experiment at the LHC, which started operations in 2010 and is active as of 2019 and studies primarily the physics of bottom-quark containing hadrons, and thus could be understood to be a B-factory of this "next generation" (generation of 2010s and 2020s). But LHCb is not usually referred to as a B-factory as the experiment and (perhaps more importantly) the corresponding collider (that is, the LHC) are not used solely for the study of b-quark particles but have other purposes beside b-quark physics.

B-tagging

b-tagging is a method of jet flavor tagging used in modern particle physics experiments. It is the identification (or "tagging") of jets originating from bottom quarks (or b quarks, hence the name).

B meson

In particle physics, B mesons are mesons composed of a bottom antiquark and either an up (B+), down (B0), strange (B0s) or charm quark (B+c). The combination of a bottom antiquark and a top quark is not thought to be possible because of the top quark's short lifetime. The combination of a bottom antiquark and a bottom quark is not a B meson, but rather bottomonium which is something else entirely.

Each B meson has an antiparticle that is composed of a bottom quark and an up (B−), down (B0), strange (B0s) or charm antiquark (B−c) respectively.

Batavia, Illinois

Batavia () is a city in DuPage and Kane Counties in the U.S. state of Illinois. A suburb of Chicago, it was founded in 1833 and is the oldest city in Kane County. During the latter part of the 19th century, Batavia, home to six American-style windmill manufacturing companies, became known as "The Windmill City." Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, a federal government-sponsored high-energy physics laboratory, where both the bottom quark and the top quark were first detected, is located in the city.

Batavia is part of a vernacular region known as the Tri-City area, along with St. Charles and Geneva, all western suburbs of similar size and relative socioeconomic condition.As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 26,045, which was estimated to have increased to 26,391 by July 2016.

Belle II experiment

The Belle II experiment is a particle physics experiment designed to study the properties of B mesons (heavy particles containing a bottom quark). Belle II is the successor to the Belle experiment, and is currently being commissioned at the SuperKEKB accelerator complex at KEK in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The Belle II detector was "rolled in" (moved into the collision point of SuperKEKB) in April 2017. Belle II started taking data in early 2018. Over its running period, Belle II is expected to collect around 50 times more data than its predecessor due mostly to a factor 40 increase in instantaneous luminosity provided by SuperKEKB over the original KEKB accelerator.

Bottom eta meson

The bottom eta meson (ηb) or eta-b meson is a flavourless meson formed from a bottom quark and its antiparticle. It was first observed by the BaBar experiment at SLAC in 2008, and is the lightest particle containing a bottom and anti-bottom quark.

B–Bbar oscillation

Neutral B meson oscillations (or B–B oscillations) is one of the manifestations of the neutral particle oscillation, a fundamental prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the phenomenon of B mesons changing (or oscillating) between their matter and antimatter forms before their decay. The Bs meson can exist as either a bound state of a strange antiquark and a bottom quark, or a strange quark and bottom antiquark. The oscillations in the neutral B sector are analogous to the phenomena that produces long and short-lived neutral kaons.

Bs–Bs mixing was observed by the CDF experiment at Fermilab in 2006 and by LHCb at CERN in 2011.

Georgi–Jarlskog mass relation

In grand unified theories of the SU(5) or SO(10) type, there is a mass relation predicted between the electron and the down quark, the muon and the strange quark and the tau lepton and the bottom quark called the Georgi–Jarlskog mass relations. The relations were formulated by Howard Georgi and Cecilia Jarlskog.

At GUT scale, these are sometimes quoted as:

In the same paper it is written that:

Meaning that:

LHCb experiment

The LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. LHCb is a specialized b-physics experiment, designed primarily to measure the parameters of CP violation in the interactions of b-hadrons (heavy particles containing a bottom quark). Such studies can help to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. The detector is also able to perform measurements of production cross sections, exotic hadron spectroscopy, charm physics and electroweak physics in the forward region. The LHCb collaboration, who built, operate and analyse data from the experiment, is composed of approximately 1260 people from 74 scientific institutes, representing 16 countries. As of 2017, the spokesperson for the collaboration is Giovanni Passaleva. The experiment is located at point 8 on the LHC tunnel close to Ferney-Voltaire, France just over the border from Geneva. The (small) MoEDAL experiment shares the same cavern.

Lambda baryon

The Lambda baryons are a family of subatomic hadron particles containing one up quark, one down quark, and a third quark from a higher flavour generation, in a combination where the quantum wave function changes sign upon the flavour of any two quarks being swapped (thus differing from a Sigma baryon). They are thus baryons, with total isospin of 0, and have either neutral electric charge or the elementary charge +1.

Lambda baryons are usually represented by the symbols Λ0, Λ+c, Λ0b, and Λ+t. In this notation, the superscript character indicates whether the particle is electrically neutral (0) or carries a positive charge (+). The subscript character, or its absence, indicates whether the third quark is a strange quark (Λ0) (no subscript), a charm quark (Λ+c), a bottom quark (Λ0b), or a top quark (Λ+t). Physicists do not expect to observe a Lambda baryon with a top quark because the Standard Model of particle physics predicts that the mean lifetime of top quarks is roughly 5×10−25 seconds; that is about 1/20 of the mean timescale for strong interactions, which indicates that the top quark would decay before a Lambda baryon could form a hadron.

List of mesons

This list is of all known and predicted scalar, pseudoscalar and vector mesons. See list of particles for a more detailed list of particles found in particle physics.This article contains a list of mesons, unstable subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark. They are part of the hadron particle family – particles made of quarks. The other members of the hadron family are the baryons – subatomic particles composed of three quarks. The main difference between mesons and baryons is that mesons have integer spin (thus are bosons) while baryons are fermions (half-integer spin). Because mesons are bosons, the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply to them. Because of this, they can act as force mediating particles on short distances, and thus play a part in processes such as the nuclear interaction.

Since mesons are composed of quarks, they participate in both the weak and strong interactions. Mesons with net electric charge also participate in the electromagnetic interaction. They are classified according to their quark content, total angular momentum, parity, and various other properties such as C-parity and G-parity. While no meson is stable, those of lower mass are nonetheless more stable than the most massive mesons, and are easier to observe and study in particle accelerators or in cosmic ray experiments. They are also typically less massive than baryons, meaning that they are more easily produced in experiments, and will exhibit higher-energy phenomena sooner than baryons would. For example, the charm quark was first seen in the J/Psi meson (J/ψ) in 1974, and the bottom quark in the upsilon meson (ϒ) in 1977.Each meson has a corresponding antiparticle (antimeson) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks and vice versa. For example, a positive pion (π+) is made of one up quark and one down antiquark; and its corresponding antiparticle, the negative pion (π−), is made of one up antiquark and one down quark. Some experiments show the evidence of tetraquarks – "exotic" mesons made of two quarks and two antiquarks, but the particle physics community as a whole does not view their existence as likely, although still possible.The symbols encountered in these lists are: I (isospin), J (total angular momentum), P (parity), C (C-parity), G (G-parity), u (up quark), d (down quark), s (strange quark), c (charm quark), b (bottom quark), Q (charge), B (baryon number), S (strangeness), C (charm), and B′ (bottomness), as well as a wide array of subatomic particles (hover for name).

Picosecond

A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 (one trillionth) of a second. That is one trillionth, or one millionth of one millionth of a second, or 0.000 000 000 001 seconds. A picosecond is to one second as one second is to approximately 31,689 years. Multiple technical approaches achieve imaging within single-digit picoseconds: for example, the streak camera or intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras are able to picture the motion of light.The name is formed by the SI prefix pico and the SI unit second. It is abbreviated as ps.

One picosecond is equal to 1000 femtoseconds, or 1/1000 nanoseconds. Because the next SI unit is 1000 times larger, measurements of 10−11 and 10−10 second are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of picoseconds. Some notable measurements in this range include:

1.0 picoseconds (1.0 ps) – cycle time for electromagnetic frequency 1 terahertz (THz) (1 x 1012 hertz), an inverse unit. This corresponds to a wavelength of 0.3 mm, as can be calculated by multiplying 1 ps by the speed of light (approximately 3 x 108 m/s) to determine the distance traveled. 1 THz is in the Far infrared.

1 picosecond – time taken by light in a vacuum to travel approximately 0.30 mm

1 picosecond – half-life of a bottom quark

~1 picosecond – lifetime of a single H3O+ (hydronium) ion in water at 20 °C

picoseconds to nanoseconds – phenomena observable by dielectric spectroscopy

1.2 picoseconds – switching time of the world's fastest transistor (845 GHz, as of 2006)

1.7 picoseconds - rotational correlation time of water

3.3 picoseconds (approximately) – time taken for light to travel 1 millimeter

10 picoseconds after the Big Bang – electromagnetism separates from the other fundamental forces

10–150 picoseconds – rotational correlation times of a molecule (184 g/mol) from hot to frozen water

108.7827757 picoseconds – transition time between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom at absolute zero

330 picoseconds (approximately) – the time it takes a common 3.0 GHz computer CPU to complete a processing cycle

R (cross section ratio)

R is the ratio of the hadronic cross section to the muon cross section in electron–positron collisions:

where the superscript (0) indicates that the cross section has been corrected for initial state radiation. R is an important input in the calculation of the anomalous magnetic dipole moment. Experimental values have been measured for center-of-mass energies from 400 MeV to 150 GeV.

R also provides experimental confirmation of the electric charge of quarks, in particular the charm quark and bottom quark, and the existence of three quark colors. A simplified calculation of R yields

where the sum is over all quark flavors with mass less than the beam energy. eq is the electric charge of the quark, and the factor of 3 accounts for the three colors of the quarks. QCD corrections to this formula have been calculated.

Soft-collinear effective theory

In quantum field theory, soft-collinear effective theory (or SCET) is a theoretical framework for doing calculations that involve interacting particles carrying widely different energies.

The motivation for developing SCET was to control the infrared divergences that occur in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations that involve particles that are soft—carrying much lower energy or momentum than other particles in the process—or collinear—traveling in the same direction as another particle in the process. SCET is an effective theory for highly energetic quarks interacting with collinear and/or soft gluons. It has been used for calculations of the decays of B mesons (quark-antiquark bound states involving a bottom quark) and the properties of jets (sprays of hadrons that emerge from particle collisions when a quark or gluon is produced). SCET has also been used to calculate electroweak interactions in Higgs boson production.The new feature of SCET is its ability to handle more than one soft energy scale. For example, processes involving quarks carrying a high energy Q interacting with gluons have two soft scales: the transverse momentum pT of the collinear particles, plus the even softer scale pT2/Q. SCET provides a power-counting formalism for doing perturbation theory in the small parameter ΛQCD/Q.

Stop squark

In particle physics, a stop squark, symbol t͂, is the superpartner of the top quark as predicted by supersymmetry (SUSY). It is a sfermion, which means it is a spin-0 boson (scalar boson). While the top quark is the heaviest known quark, the stop squark is actually often the lightest squark in many supersymmetry models.The stop squark is a key ingredient of a wide range of SUSY models that address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM) in a natural way. A boson partner to the top quark would stabilize the Higgs boson mass against quadratically divergent quantum corrections, provided its mass is close to the electroweak symmetry breaking energy scale. If this was the case then the stop squark would be accessible at the Large Hadron Collider. In the generic R-parity conserving Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) the scalar partners of right-handed and left-handed top quarks mix to form two stop mass eigenstates. Depending on the specific details of the SUSY model and the mass hierarchy of the sparticles, the stop might decay into a bottom quark and a chargino, with a subsequent decay of the chargino into the lightest neutralino (which is often the lightest supersymmetric particle).

Many searches for evidence of the stop squark have been performed by both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC but so far no signal has been discovered. In January 2019, the CMS Collaboration published findings excluding stop squarks with masses as large as 1230 GeV at 95% confidence level.

Strange B meson

The Bs meson is a meson composed of a bottom antiquark and a strange quark. Its antiparticle is the Bs meson, composed of a bottom quark and a strange antiquark.

Top quark

The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles. Like all quarks, the top quark is a fermion with spin 1/2, and experiences all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. It has an electric charge of +2/3 e. It has a mass of 173.0 ± 0.4 GeV/c2, which is about the same mass as an atom of rhenium. The antiparticle of the top quark is the top antiquark (symbol: t, sometimes called antitop quark or simply antitop), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

The top quark interacts primarily by the strong interaction, but can only decay through the weak force. It decays to a W boson and either a bottom quark (most frequently), a strange quark, or, on the rarest of occasions, a down quark. The Standard Model predicts its mean lifetime to be roughly 5×10−25 s. This is about a twentieth of the timescale for strong interactions, and therefore it does not form hadrons, giving physicists a unique opportunity to study a "bare" quark (all other quarks hadronize, meaning that they combine with other quarks to form hadrons, and can only be observed as such). Because it is so massive, the properties of the top quark allow predictions to be made of the mass of the Higgs boson under certain extensions of the Standard Model (see Mass and coupling to the Higgs boson below). As such, it is extensively studied as a means to discriminate between competing theories.

Its existence (and that of the bottom quark) was postulated in 1973 by Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa to explain the observed CP violations in kaon decay, and was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and DØ experiments at Fermilab. Kobayashi and Maskawa won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for the prediction of the top and bottom quark, which together form the third generation of quarks.

UA1 experiment

The UA1 experiment (an abbreviation of Underground Area 1) was a high-energy physics experiment that ran at CERN's Proton-Antiproton Collider (SppS), a modification of the one-beam Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The data was recorded between 1981 and 1990. The joint discovery of the W and Z bosons by this experiment and the UA2 experiment in 1983 led to the Nobel Prize for physics being awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984. Peter Kalmus and John Dowell, from the UK groups working on the project, were jointly awarded the 1988 Rutherford Medal and Prize from the Institute of Physics for their outstanding roles in the discovery of the W and Z particles.

It was named as the first experiment in a CERN "Underground Area" (UA), i.e. located underground, outside of the two main CERN sites, at an interaction point on the SPS accelerator, which had been modified to operate as a collider.

The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton collisions. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of W and Z particles among billions of collisions.

After the discovery of the W and Z boson, the UA1 collaboration went on to search for the top quark. Physicists had anticipated its existence since 1977, when its partner — the bottom quark — was discovered. It was felt that the discovery of the top quark was imminent. In June 1984, Carlo Rubbia at the UA1 experiment expressed to the New York Times that evidence of the top quark "looks really good". Over the next months it became clear that UA1 had overlooked a significant source of background. The top quark was ultimately discovered in 1994–1995 by physicists at Fermilab with a mass near 175 GeV.

The UA1 was a huge and complex detector for its day. It was designed as a general-purpose detector.

The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.The UA1 detector was conceived and designed in 1978/9, with the proposal submitted in mid-1978.Since the end of running, the magnet used in the UA1 experiment has been used for other high energy physics experiments, notably the NOMAD and T2K neutrino experiments.

Upsilon meson

The Upsilon meson (ϒ) is a quarkonium state (i.e. flavourless meson) formed from a bottom quark and its antiparticle. It was discovered by the E288 experiment team, headed by Leon Lederman, at Fermilab in 1977, and was the first particle containing a bottom quark to be discovered because it is the lightest that can be produced without additional massive particles. It has a lifetime of 1.21×10−20 s and a mass about 9.46 GeV/c2 in the ground state.

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