Bort, boart, or boort is an umbrella term used in the diamond industry to refer to shards of non-gem-grade/quality diamonds. In the manufacturing and heavy industries, "bort" is used to describe dark, imperfectly formed or crystallized diamonds of varying levels of opacity. The lowest grade, "crushing bort," is crushed by steel mortars and used to make industrial-grade abrasive grits. Small bort crystals are used in drill bits. The Democratic Republic of the Congo provides 75% of the world supply of crushing bort.[1][2][3]

(also boort or boart)
mixed clump of both gem and non-gem grade (bort) particles
A mixture of bort and gem diamonds (larger inclusions) from the Crater of Diamonds State Park
CategoryMineral variety
(repeating unit)
Colorvaries (white to yellowish in powder form, yellow to brownish in larger shards)
Major varieties
Similar occurances
Bort-like heavily twinned diamond from Congo

Use and application

Apart from the use of bort in the diamond gem industry, where the material is used as an abrasive —with a hardness close to or the same as that of diamond itself— to scour and polish the various facets of gem stones, in smaller flakes and particles it is also used as an additive for scouring or polishing pastes and agents. Larger particles find their use as a protective and cutting edge to drill bits, saws and other (cutting) tools and machinery to for longer lasting (physical and economical) lifespan and substantially increase their efficiently (for instance, for tools that drill or saw through (reinforced) concretecement, stone (pebbles) and steel (rebar) alike— or other hard materials, both metal and non-metal).[4]

When bort particles varying from one to two nanometers[5] are added to lubricants such as paraffin oil, these particles will embed themselves into minute irregularities and imperfections of moving-part surfaces, whereas particles that remain suspended in the lubricant oil act as both a polishing agent further smoothening the surfaces, as well as ball bearings between the surfaces that move relative to or revolve within or around one another. Such nanotechnology applications with paraffin oil containing approximately 1% of these nano-size bort particles may decrease the friction up to half of that without the nano-particles.[6][7]

See also


  1. ^ Spear, K.E; Dismukes, J.P. (1994). Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. WileyIEEE. p. 628. ISBN 0-471-53589-3. Archived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  2. ^ Industrial diamond. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. ^ Bort. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  4. ^ MINES BUREAU (2010). Minerals Yearbook Metals and Minerals 2010 Volume I . Government Printing Office via Google Books. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-1411334496. Archived from the original on December 30, 2018. Retrieved December 30, 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Scientific notation in SI unit(s): 1–2 × 10−9 m.
  6. ^ Ballengee, Jason (2016). "Nanodiamond and Lubrication Applications" (PDF). SP3 NANOTECH, LLC. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  7. ^ GEORGE, BEEKMAN (January 6, 1997). "Betere smering met behulp van zeer fijn diamantpoeder (Better lubrication using diamond powder of very small particles)". (in Dutch). NRC Handelsblad. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
1930–31 French Rugby Union Championship

The 1930-31 French Rugby Union Championship of first division was won by le Toulon that defeated Lyon OU in the final.

The Championship was contested by 40 clubs divided in 8 pools.

This seasonwas particular because 12 team (most of the more prestigious) were excluded from the tournament by Championship, and found the (Union française de rugby amateur) that arrange their championship

They were:

Bayonne, Biarritz, SBUC, Carcassone (demi-finaliste 1930), Grenoble, Limoges, FC Lyon, Stade Nantais, Pau, US Perpignan, Stade Français and Toulouse.

In January 1931 another new club join the UFRA, the US Narbonne.

Instead the Stadoceste, didnn't participated at any championship.

The clubs Libourne, Pamiers (pourtant qualifié l’année précédente pour la seconde phase, les pools of 3) and Saint-Girons SC, left the scene, so were 15 the team promoted in the championship:

FC Auch, Bordeaux EC, AS Bort (champion Honneur 1930), US Bressanne (Bourg-en-Bresse), Brive, Dax, Stade Illibérien (Elne), Montauban, Stade Nay, FC Oloron, Stade Pézenas, Racing Paris, Thuir, Tyrosse and Valence

Atmospheric sciences

Atmospheric sciences are the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system.

Experimental instruments used in atmospheric sciences include satellites, rocketsondes, radiosondes, weather balloons, and lasers.

The term aerology (from Greek ἀήρ, aēr, "air"; and -λογία, -logia) is sometimes used as an alternative term for the study of Earth's atmosphere; in other definitions, aerology is restricted to the free atmosphere, the region above the planetary boundary layer.Early pioneers in the field include Léon Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Assmann.

Auvergnat Cola

Auvergnat Cola is a French soft drink brand founded in 2009 in Auvergne by the societé Julhes, based in Saint-Flour, Cantal, to market an alternative cola drink. In March 2011 it was acquired by Audebert Boissons, based in Bort-les-Orgues.


Bort-l'Étang is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France.


Bort-les-Orgues (Bòrt in Occitan) is a commune in the Corrèze department in central France.

Børt-Erik Thoresen

Børt-Erik Thoresen (5 May 1932 – 10 April 2011) was a Norwegian television host and folk singer.

He hosted musical programmes for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation from 1968 to the late 1980s. He also released several records.

Thoresen was born in Dombås. He was the brother of Åse Thoresen, and was married to classical music and opera singer Aase Nordmo Løvberg.


Habkern is a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The municipality includes the settlements of Bohlseiten, Bort, Schwendi and Mittelbäuert.

Jag rear ut min själ! Allt skall bort!!!

Jag rear ut min själ! Allt skall bort!!! (I'm selling off my soul! Everything must go!!!) is an album by bob hund, released in 1998. The album peaked at 17 in the Swedish charts.

Jamaica Farewell

"Jamaica Farewell" is a Jamaican-style folk song (mento) about the beauties of the West Indian Islands. The song first appeared on Harry Belafonte's album Calypso. It reached number fourteen on the Billboard Pop chart.

The lyrics for the song were written by Lord Burgess (Irving Burgie), an American-born, half-Barbadan songwriter.

Though many, including Belafonte himself, have said that the song was popular in the West Indies since long before Burgess, it is believed that Burgess compiled and modified the song from many folk pieces to make a new song. Burgess acknowledged his use of the tune of another mento, "Iron Bar".The Kingston Trio, who led the folk revival of the late 1950s, took their name from the mention of Kingston, Jamaica in the song, though they only recorded it many years later, in 2006.

The line "ackee, rice, saltfish is nice" refers to the Jamaican national dish "ackee and saltfish".

Joan Barreda

Joan Barreda Bort (born 11 August 1983 in Castellón de la Plana) is a Spanish rally raid motorcycle rider, best known for his participation in the Dakar Rally.

List of Foundation series characters

This is a list of characters in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series.

Léon Teisserenc de Bort

Léon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort (5 November 1855 in Paris, France – 2 January 1913 in Cannes, France) was a French meteorologist and a pioneer in the field of aerology. Together with Richard Assmann (1845-1918), he is credited as co-discoverer of the stratosphere, as both men announced their discovery during the same time period in 1902.

Teisserenc de Bort pioneered the use of unmanned instrumented balloons and was the first to identify the region in the atmosphere around 8-17 kilometers of height where the lapse rate reaches zero, known today as the tropopause.

Old Gutnish

Old Gutnish or Old Gotlandic was a North Scandinavian language spoken on the Baltic island of Gotland. It shows sufficient differences from the Old West Norse and Old East Norse dialects that it is considered to be a separate branch. While vastly divergent from Old Gutnish and closer to Modern Swedish, a modern version of Gutnish is still spoken in some parts of Gotland and the adjoining island of Fårö.

The root Gut is identical to Goth, and it is often remarked that the language has similarities with the Gothic language. These similarities have led scholars such as Elias Wessén and Dietrich Hofmann to suggest that it is most closely related to Gothic. The best known example of such a similarity is that Gothic and Gutnish called both adult and young sheep lamb.

The Old Norse diphthong au (e.g. auga "eye") remained in Old Gutnish and Old West Norse, while in Old East Norse – except for peripheral dialects – it evolved into the monophthong ǿ, i.e. a long version of ø. Likewise the diphthong ai in bain (bone) remained in Old Gutnish while it in Old West Norse became ei as in bein and in Old East Norse it became é (bén). Whereas Old West Norse had the ey diphthong and Old East Norse evolved the monophthong ǿ) Old Gutnish had oy.

Most of the corpus of Old Gutnish is found in the Gutasaga from the 13th century.

Play Framework

Play Framework is an open-source web application framework, written in Scala and also usable from other programming languages that are compiled to Bytecode, e.g. Java, which follows the model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern. It aims to optimize developer productivity by using convention over configuration, hot code reloading and display of errors in the browser.Support for the Scala programming language has been available since version 1.1 of the framework. In version 2.0, the framework core was rewritten in Scala. Build and deployment was migrated to SBT, and templates use Scala instead of Apache Groovy.

Resan bort

Resan bort is a 1945 Swedish drama film directed by Alf Sjöberg.


Saint-Bonnet-près-Bort (Auvergnat: Sent Bonet prep Baurt) is a commune in the Corrèze department in central France.

Sarroux-Saint Julien

Sarroux-Saint Julien is a commune in the department of Corrèze, south-central France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2017 by merger of the former communes of Sarroux (the seat) and Saint-Julien-près-Bort.

Teisserenc de Bort (crater)

Teisserenc de Bort is an impact crater on Mars, at 0.4° N and 45.1° E. Most of it is in the Syrtis Major quadrangle. in It measures 115 kilometers in diameter and was named after French meteorologist Léon Teisserenc de Bort (1855–1913). The name was adopted by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973. A picture below shows dark slope streaks. The darker the streak, the younger it is.

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