Boroughs of New York City

New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. All boroughs are part of New York City, and each of the boroughs is coextensive with a respective county, the primary administrative subdivision within New York state. Queens and the Bronx are concurrent with the counties of the same name, while Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Staten Island correspond to New York, Kings, and Richmond counties respectively.

Boroughs have existed since the consolidation of the city in 1898, when the city and each borough assumed their current boundaries. However, the boroughs have not always been coextensive with their respective counties. The borough of the Bronx had earlier been in the southern part of Westchester County—which had then been annexed to New York County in two stages in 1874 and 1895—and in 1914, the county was created to match the borough. Before 1899, the county of Queens included an eastern part, which was split-off during the consolidation to become Nassau County.

5 Boroughs Labels New York City Map
  1. Manhattan
  2. Brooklyn
  3. Queens
  4. The Bronx


The term borough was adopted to describe a form of governmental administration for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city in 1898. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, a "borough" is a municipal corporation that is created when a county is merged with populated areas within it.[1] The limited powers of the borough governments are inferior to the authority of the Government of New York City, contrasting significantly with other borough administrations of government used in Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, where a borough is an independent level of government, as well as borough forms used in other states and in Greater London.[2]


New York City's five boroughs
Jurisdiction Population Gross Domestic Product Land area Density
Borough County Estimate
per capita
persons /
sq. mi
persons /
sq. km
1,471,160 28.787 19,570 42.10 109.04 34,653 13,231
2,648,771 63.303 23,900 70.82 183.42 37,137 14,649
New York
1,664,727 629.682 378,250 22.83 59.13 72,033 27,826
2,358,582 73.842 31,310 108.53 281.09 21,460 8,354
479,458 11.249 23,460 58.37 151.18 8,112 3,132
8,622,698 806.863 93,574 302.64 783.83 28,188 10,947
19,849,399 1,547.116 78,354 47,214 122,284 416.4 159
Sources:[5] and see individual borough articles
Above Gotham
The borough of Manhattan is the economic, cultural, and administrative center of New York City.

New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs; the term is used to refer to New York City as a whole unambiguously, avoiding confusion with any particular borough or with the Greater New York metropolitan area. The term is also used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the term outer boroughs refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan, even though the geographic center of the city is along the Brooklyn–Queens border. All five boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the city's current boundaries were established.

Changes after 1898

The Bronx originally included parts of New York County outside of Manhattan that had previously been ceded by neighboring Westchester County in two stages; in 1874 and then following a referendum in 1894. Ultimately in 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York.

The borough of Queens consists of what formerly was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. In 1899, the three eastern towns of Queens County that had not joined the city the year before—the towns of Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Oyster Bay—formally seceded from Queens County to form the new Nassau County.[6]

The borough of Staten Island, concurrent with Richmond County, was officially the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, while leaving the name of the county unchanged.[7]

Description of the boroughs

Chinatown manhattan 2009
Chinatown in Manhattan, the most densely populated borough of New York City, with a higher density than any individual American city.
Greenpoint Houses
Landmark 19th-century brownstones in the Greenpoint Historic District of Brooklyn, New York City's most populous borough.
Unisphere in summer
The Unisphere in Queens, the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[8][9]
The Bronx, the northernmost borough of New York City and the only borough situated on the United States mainland.
Staten Island Borough Hall sign
Borough Hall in the St. George neighborhood of Staten Island, the most suburban borough of New York City.

There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own.


New York City Demographics 01 500px Julius Schorzman-yellowbrooklyn
The percentage of New York City population residing in each borough (from bottom to top): 1. Manhattan, 2. Brooklyn, 3. Queens, 4. The Bronx, and 5. Staten Island. Populations before 1898 are for the areas now enclosed in the present boroughs.

Since 1914, each of New York City's five boroughs has been coextensive with a county of New York State – unlike most U.S. cities, which lie within a single county or extend partially into another county, constitute a county in themselves, or are completely separate and independent of any county.

Each borough is represented by a borough president. Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island each have a Borough Hall with limited administrative functions. The Manhattan Borough President's office is situated in the Manhattan Municipal Building. The Bronx Borough President's office used to be in its own Bronx Borough Hall but has been in the Bronx County Courthouse for decades. Since the abolition of the Board of Estimate in 1990 (due to a 1989 ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court[28]), the borough presidents have minimal executive powers, and there is no legislative function within a borough. Executive functions in New York City are the responsibility of the Mayor of New York City, while legislative functions reside with the New York City Council. The borough presidents primarily act as spokesmen, advocates, and ceremonial leaders for their boroughs, have budgets from which they can allocate relatively modest sums of money to community organizations and projects, and appoint the members of the 59 largely advisory community boards in the city's various neighborhoods. The Brooklyn and Queens borough presidents also appoint trustees to the local public library systems in those boroughs.

Being coextensive with an individual county, each borough also elects a district attorney, as does every other county of New York State. While the district attorneys of Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Staten Island are popularly referred to as such by the media (e.g., "Manhattan D.A. Cyrus Vance, Jr.", or "Brooklyn D.A. Kenneth P. Thompson"), they are technically and legally the district attorneys of New York County, Kings County and Richmond County, respectively. There is no such distinction made for the district attorneys of the other two counties, Queens and the Bronx, since these boroughs share the respective counties' names. Because the five district attorneys are, technically speaking, state officials (since the counties are considered to be arms of the state government), rather than officials of the city government, they are not subject to the term limitations that govern other New York City officials such as the mayor, the New York City Public Advocate, members of the city council, or the borough presidents. Some civil court judges also are elected on a borough-wide basis, although they generally are eligible to serve throughout the city.

Sixth borough

The term sixth borough is used to describe any of a number of places that have been metaphorically called a part of New York City because of their geographic location, demographics (they include large numbers of former New Yorkers), special affiliation, or cosmopolitan character. They have included adjacent cities and counties in the New York metropolitan area as well as in other states, U.S. territories, and foreign countries.[29][30][31] In 2011, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg referred to the city's waterfront and waterways as a composite sixth borough during presentations of planned rehabilitation projects along the city's shoreline,[32][33][34][35][36][37] including Governor's Island in the Upper New York Bay.[38] The Hudson Waterfront in the U.S. state of New Jersey lies opposite Manhattan on the Hudson River, and during the Dutch colonial era, was under the jurisdiction of New Amsterdam and known as Bergen. Jersey City and Hoboken in Hudson County, New Jersey, are sometimes referred to as the sixth borough, given their proximity and connections by rapid transit PATH trains.[39][40][41][42] Fort Lee, New Jersey, in Bergen County, opposite Upper Manhattan and connected by the George Washington Bridge, has also been called the sixth borough.[43][44][45] Miami and nearby areas in Florida,[46][47] Philadelphia[48] and China[49] are locales entirely outside the city's metropolitan area which have been called New York City's sixth borough.

See also


  1. ^ The Charter for the Greater New York, and Acts Supplementary Thereto, as Adopted by the State Legislature, p. 10. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1898. Accessed September 21, 2016.
  2. ^ Bacharach, Jacqueline; and Barrales, Ruben. Growth Within Bounds, p. 197. California Commission on Local Governance for the 21st Century, DIANE Publishing, 2000. ISBN 9780756706319. Accessed September 21, 2016.
  3. ^ "Current Population Estimates: NYC". Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  4. ^
  5. ^ QuickFacts New York city, New York; Bronx County (Bronx Borough), New York; Kings County (Brooklyn Borough), New York; New York County (Manhattan Borough), New York; Queens County (Queens Borough), New York; Richmond County (Staten Island Borough), New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 11, 2018.
  6. ^ Williams, Keith. "How Queens Became New York City's Largest Borough", Curbed, October 20, 2015. Accessed September 21, 2016. "Williams, Keith. "How Queens Became New York City's Largest Borough", Curbed, October 20, 2015. Accessed September 21, 2016. "On April 28, 1898, the state Legislature approved the creation of a new county, which some in the eastern half of the former Queens County had wanted for nearly 60 years."
  7. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. "Council Weighs Making 'Staten Island' Official", The New York Times, August 28, 1974. Accessed September 21, 2016. "Yesterday a committee of the City Council sought to right matters with a resolution that, if adopted by the full Council and approved by the Mayor, would have the borough's name officially changed to Staten Island.... The resolution only affects the name of the borough. The county would remain Richmond, in the way that the borough of Manhattan is the county of New York, and Brooklyn is the county of Kings."
  8. ^ a b Christine Kim, Demand Media. "Queens, New York, Sightseeing". USA TODAY. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  9. ^ a b Andrew Weber (April 30, 2013). "Queens". Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  10. ^ Jen Carlson (May 21, 2012). "Do You Refer To Manhattan As "The City"?". Gothamist. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  11. ^ Purdum, Todd S. "Political memo; An Embattled City Hall Moves to Brooklyn", The New York Times, February 22, 1992. Accessed August 23, 2017. ""Leaders in all of them fear that recent changes in the City Charter that shifted power from the borough presidents to the City Council have diminished government's recognition of the sense of identity that leads people to say they live in the Bronx, and to describe visiting Manhattan as 'going to the city.'"
  12. ^ Mann, Camille; Valera, Stephanie. "10 Most Crowded Islands in the World". The Weather Channel. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  13. ^ Barry, Dan. "A Nation challenged: in New York; New York Carries On, but Test of Its Grit Has Just Begun", The New York Times, October 11, 2001. Accessed November 20, 2016. "A roaring void has been created in the financial center of the world."
  14. ^ Sorrentino, Christopher (September 16, 2007). "When He Was Seventeen". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2007. "In 1980 there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world."
  15. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (October 8, 1995). "The Pope's visit: the cardinal; As Pope's Important Ally, Cardinal Shines High in Hierarchy". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2007. "As the Archbishop of the media and cultural center of the United States, Cardinal O'Connor has extraordinary power among Catholic prelates."
  16. ^ Michael P. Ventura (April 6, 2010). "Manhattan May Be the Media Capital of the World, But Not For iPad Users". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  17. ^ Dawn Ennis (May 24, 2017). "ABC will broadcast New York's pride parade live for the first time". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  18. ^ Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: The People's Playground. Rutgers University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8135-3138-1.
  19. ^ a b Joe Dorish. "10 Largest Parks in New York City". ZipfWorks, Inc. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  20. ^ "19 Reasons Why Brooklyn Is New York's New Startup Hotspot". CB Insights. October 19, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  21. ^ a b Vanessa Friedman (April 30, 2016). "Brooklyn's Wearable Revolution". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  22. ^ Alexandria Symonds (April 29, 2016). "One Celebrated Brooklyn Artist's Futuristic New Practice". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  23. ^ O'Donnell, Michelle (July 4, 2006). "In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th ..." New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  24. ^ Frazier, Ian (June 26, 2006). "Utopia, the Bronx". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  25. ^ "Bronx Zoo Animals & Exhibits". Wildlife Conservation Society. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  26. ^ Ward, Candace (2000). New York City Museum Guide. Dover Publications. p. 72. ISBN 0-486-41000-5.
  27. ^ "Staten Island Greenbelt | New York-New Jersey Trail Conference". Retrieved October 28, 2010.
  28. ^ Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, 489 U.S. 688 (1989).
  29. ^ Popik, Barry (January 24, 2006). "Sixth Borough (Yonkers, Scarsdale, Fort Lee, Jersey City, Hoboken, Nassau County, Rockland County)". Big Apple. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  30. ^ Walker, Ken (May 10, 2007). "That Mythical Sixth Borough". Daily Newarker. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  31. ^ Carlsen, Jen (December 10, 2010). "Poll: Where is New York's 6th Borough?". Gothamist. Archived from the original on September 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  32. ^ "Mayor Bloomberg and Speaker Quinn Unveil Comprehensive Plan for New York city's Waterfront and Waterways" (Press release). NYCEDC. March 14, 2011. Archived from the original on March 14, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  33. ^ Rovzar, Chris. "Mayor Bloomberg Attempts to Rebrand the 'Sixth Borough'". New York Magazine. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  34. ^ Mainland, Alex (February 18, 2011). "A Blog for the 'Sixth Borough'". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  35. ^ Yeh, Richard (March 14, 2011). "City Reclaims Waterfront as 'Sixth Borough'". WNYC. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  36. ^ "Sixth Borough Stories from New York's Waterfront". Columbia School of Journalism. 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2013. The sixth borough. That's what Mayor Bloomberg calls the 578 miles of shore land that encircle the five boroughs of New York City.
  37. ^ Cunningham, Ryan A. (January 22, 2012). "Will NYC have a 6th Borough?". Metropolis Magazine. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  38. ^ "Studio Report The Speculation Studio: Governors Island, The Sixth Borough?". Urban Omnibus. January 11, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  39. ^ Strunsky, Steve (December 9, 2001). "CITIES; Bright Lights, Big Retail". The New York Times.
  40. ^ Holusha, John. "Commercial Property / The Jersey Riverfront; On the Hudson's West Bank, Optimistic Developers", The New York Times, October 11, 1998. Accessed May 25, 2007. "'That simply is out of the question in midtown,' he said, adding that some formerly fringe areas in Midtown South that had previously been available were filled up as well. Given that the buildings on the New Jersey waterfront are new and equipped with the latest technology and just a few stops on the PATH trains from Manhattan, they become an attractive alternative. 'It's the sixth borough', he said."
  41. ^ Belson, Ken (May 21, 2007). "In Stamford, a Plan to Rebuild an Area and Build an Advantage". The New York Times.
  42. ^ Olear, Greg (December 2002). "The Sixth Borough A good look at Hoboken". The Copperator. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  43. ^ Lefkowitz, Melanie. "Bergen County's Fort Lee: Town With a View". The Wall Street Journal. April 30, 2011. Accessed September 16, 2012.
  44. ^ Linh Tat (June 12, 2012). "Fort Lee grapples with questions on future development". North Jersey Media Group Inc. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
  45. ^ Vera Haller (September 7, 2012). "Living In Fort Lee, N.J. Close to the City, but With a Life of Its Own". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
  46. ^ "Do You Suffer From New York Envy? - Miami Beach 411".
  47. ^ "New York City mayor's race: South Florida's Sixth Borough".
  48. ^ "More New Yorkers relocating to Philly". The Morning Call. March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  49. ^ Andrew J. Hawkins (April 30, 2015). "Brooklyn businesses head for the sixth borough: China". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
AIA Guide to New York City

The AIA Guide to New York City by Norval White, Elliot Willensky, and Fran Leadon is an extensive catalogue with descriptions, critique and photographs of significant and noteworthy architecture throughout the five boroughs of New York City. Originally published in 1967, the fifth edition, with new co-author Fran Leadon, was published in 2010.

Area code 917

Area code 917 is an area code for all five boroughs of New York City (The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island). It was the first cellular/pager/voicemail area code for the city and is an overlay to Manhattan's 212/646/332 and the other four boroughs' 718/347/929. Occasionally, 917 is also assigned to landlines, most commonly in Manhattan, in large part because of the particularly severe shortage of numbers there.Introduced on February 4, 1992, area code 917 is the first overlay area code in the North American Numbering Plan. When it was established, all cellphones in New York City were switched to 917, freeing up telephone numbers for additional landlines.Shortly after its implementation, the Federal Communications Commission announced that any new area codes going forth must not be service-specific, but did grandfather 917 from that rule. It is the last area code added under the original X1X format whose last digit was not 0.In 1990, The New York Telephone Company wanted cellphones and pagers in Manhattan and all telephone lines in The Bronx to be assigned area code 917. The New York State Public Service Commission denied the request and chose the present configuration.

Castleton Corners, Staten Island

Castleton Corners (or Four Corners) is an upscale neighborhood of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City. It is in a region of the island often referred to as the North Shore, Staten Island.

City Parks Foundation

The City Parks Foundation is the only independent, nonprofit organization to offer programs in parks throughout the five boroughs of New York City. The organization works in over 750 parks citywide, presenting a broad range of free arts, sports, and education programs. Founded in 1989, it is one of the oldest and largest citywide parks organizations in the country.

Programs offered by City Parks Foundation include free performing arts festivals such as Central Park SummerStage and the Charlie Parker Jazz Festival, which take place annually each summer in parks across all five boroughs of New York City. Sports programs include free instruction for city youth with CityParks Tennis, CityParks Golf, CityParks Track & Field, and the first of its kind, Junior Golf Center located adjacent to the Dyker Beach Public Golf Course in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, and CityParks Seniors Fitness.

CityParks Education offers several educational programs turning parks into classrooms, reaching over 7,000 students and community members and 500 teachers each year. Programs include Coastal Classroom, Green Girls, CityParks Productions, Learning Gardens, and Seeds to Trees.

In addition, City Parks Foundation partners with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation to offer Partnerships for Parks, an organization that supports the activity of over 60,000 volunteers in parks each year.

Flags of New York City

The flags of New York City include the flag of New York City, the respective flags of the boroughs of The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island, and flags of certain city departments. The city flag is a vertical tricolor in blue, white, and orange and charged in the center bar with the Seal of New York City in blue. The tricolor design is derived from the flag of the Dutch Republic—the Prince's Flag—as used in New Amsterdam in 1625.

Graniteville, Staten Island

Graniteville is the name of a neighborhood in Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA.

Grasmere, Staten Island

Grasmere is the name of a neighborhood located on the East Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City.

Grasmere although crossed by major roads has retained its quiet suburban character. The area and adjoining Concord was dotted with lakes and ponds similar to the English Lake District village of Grasmere. The name is often attributed to Sir Roderick Cameron, an American resident of Canadian descent who was knighted by Queen Victoria. The neighborhood has always been one of the most prestigious communities on Staten Island, with the zone around Brady's Pond being particularly affluent.

Lemon Creek (Staten Island)

Lemon Creek is a stream located on the South Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City. It is one of the few remaining ground-level creeks in New York City.

List of Brooklyn neighborhoods

This is a list of neighborhoods in Brooklyn, one of the five boroughs of New York City.

List of Staten Island neighborhoods

This is a list of neighborhoods on Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City.


Arden Heights



Bay Terrace


Brighton Heights

Bulls Head

Castleton Corners





Dongan Hills


Elm Park


Emerson Hill

Fort Wadsworth


Grant City


Great Kills


Grymes Hill

Hamilton Park

Heartland Village


Lighthouse Hill


Manor Heights

Mariners Harbor

Meiers Corners

Midland Beach

New Brighton

New Dorp

New Springville


Old Place

Old Town

Pleasant Plains

Port Ivory

Port Richmond

Prince's Bay

Randall Manor

Richmond Valley




Saint George

Sandy Ground

Shore Acres

Silver Lake

South Beach


Stapleton Heights


Todt Hill



Tottenville Beach


Ward Hill


West New Brighton



List of cocktails named after New York City boroughs

There are five cocktails that are named after the five boroughs of New York City. In common lore, each has some connection to the borough after which it is eponymously styled.

Meiers Corners, Staten Island

Meiers Corners is a neighborhood on Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States.

NY1 Rail and Road

NY1 Rail and Road is a 24-hour cable news channel focusing exclusively on the vehicular traffic and mass transit conditions within the five boroughs of New York City. Owned by Charter Communications through its acquisition of Time Warner Cable in May 2016, the channel is a spin-off from its parent station NY1's popular report of the same name that is available to New York City Time Warner Cable subscribers on channel 214, and on channel 91 in New Jersey and Hudson Valley. NY1 Rail and Road updates every five minutes and has feeds for four different zones (Manhattan and Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and the Hudson Valley.) The station airs a constant floating digiital aerial map of New York City with a short anchor segment every half-hour, along with periodic cut aways indicating mass transit service changes.

The digital map (with data provided by INRIX) highlights major streets which are color-coded according to the speed of traffic with INRIX's common coding, with black, indicating a completely jammed or closed road, red indicating traffic flow of less than 25 miles per hour (dark red if around less than 15 mph), yellow 25-50 mph flow, and green little to no traffic.

Randall Manor, Staten Island

Randall Manor is a neighborhood on the North Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States.

The neighborhood is bound by Bard Avenue in the West, Henderson Avenue to the North, Forest Avenue to the South, and Lafayette Avenue in the East.

Named after Captain Robert Richard Randall, the founder of Sailors Snug Harbor, the neighborhood lies immediately to the south of the latter, between New Brighton and West Brighton.

Richmond Valley, Staten Island

Richmond Valley is the name of a neighborhood located on the South Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, the largest city in the United States. Richmond Valley is bordered on the north by Pleasant Plains, to the south by Tottenville, to the west by the Arthur Kill, and to the east by the Lower New York Bay.

Once considered part of Tottenville, Richmond Valley gained a separate identity when the Richmond Valley (Staten Island Railway station) was opened soon after the railroad was extended to Tottenville in 1860. Today the neighborhood is noted chiefly for being the site of the terminus, on the Staten Island side, of the Outerbridge Crossing, which connects the island to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, across the Arthur Kill, and its most identifiable point of interest besides the bridge is Church at the Gateway, an independent, non-denominational Christian church, built in 1993.

Shore Acres, Staten Island

Shore Acres is a neighborhood of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City. It is situated along the Upper New York Bay, just north of Fort Wadsworth and south of Rosebank.

Shore Acres is generally considered to be bounded by Bay Street on the west, the Upper New York Bay on the east, Nautilus Street on the north, and Arthur Von Briesen Park on the south

Sixth borough

The term sixth borough is used to describe any of a number of places that are not politically within the borders of any of the five boroughs of New York City that have instead been referred to as a metaphorical part of the city by virtue of their geographic location, demographic composition, special affiliation with New York City, or cosmopolitan character. They include adjacent cities and counties in the New York metropolitan area as well as in other states, U.S. territories, and foreign countries.

Todt Hill

Todt Hill ( TOHT) is a 401-foot-tall (122 m) hill formed of serpentine rock on Staten Island, New York. It is the highest natural point in the five boroughs of New York City and the highest elevation on the entire Atlantic coastal plain from Florida to Cape Cod. The summit of the ridge is largely covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt, although much of the surrounding area is developed and residential. It is considered one of the most exclusive and most expensive areas of Staten Island.

Willowbrook, Staten Island

Willowbrook is a neighborhood in Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City. It is located in the region of the island usually referred to as Mid-Island, immediately to the south of Port Richmond, to the west of Meiers Corners and Westerleigh, to the north of New Springville, and to the east of Bulls Head.

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