|Borough High Street|
Borough High Street with Tower 42 in the background (2007)
|Former name(s)||The Borough|
St. Margaret's Hill
|Length||0.8 mi (1.3 km)|
|northeast end||London Bridge|
|southwest end||Newington Causeway|
Borough High Street continues southwest as Newington Causeway, here co-inciding with ancient Stane Street, the Roman road between London and Chichester. Another important connection is with the Dover Road (the modern A2 route) which diverges in a south-east direction from Borough High Street at a junction of five roads adjacent to Borough Underground station as Great Dover Street. The Dover Road mostly follows the alignment of Roman Watling Street, though, here, the original Roman route was along Tabard Street closely parallel with Great Dover Street to the north.
The stretch of Borough High Street south of the junction with Long Lane, Marshalsea Road, and Tabard Street, where stands the ancient church of St. George the Martyr, was formerly called Blackman Street after a long resident family there.
Borough Market was once held on the street, but has been moved to the west with its main entrance on Southwark Street. Southwark Cathedral, prominent on the west side of the street near London Bridge, can be reached by a small pedestrian bridge and stairs, though its postal address is actually Montague Close.
The earliest recorded name for the street is simply 'The Borough' which was the part between the fork of the street and London Bridge. South of the fork it was called 'St. Margaret's Hill'. These names were subsumed in the Tudor period as 'Longe Southwark' (differentiated from 'Short Southwark' now Tooley Street) and by the late Georgian era as simply 'High Street' and the northern section from the junction with Duke Street Hill was renamed 'Wellington Street' to commemorate the Duke of Wellington. From the 1890s the London County Council started to rationalise all metropolitan street names and 'Borough High Street' became the name for the current route.
Before the building of Westminster Bridge, Borough High Street was the only connection from the south bank of the Thames to London, which lay on the north bank. As a major communications node for traffic between London and Portsmouth, Dover, south-east England generally and also travellers from Europe, Borough High Street had many coaching inns. These were of considerable size, with courtyard and surrounding multi-tier galleries. There were twenty-three in total, including the Bear, the Queen's Head, the King's Head, the Catherine Wheel, the Tabard, the White Hart, and the George. Many of them dated back originally to the mediæval period, and were in use as coaching inns up to the mid nineteenth century, when this mode of transport was superseded by the railway. These inns were very famous and receive mention in the work of such literary giants as Chaucer, Shakespeare and Charles Dickens, though are now all gone - apart from the George.
On the west side of the street, the modern office block called Brandon House at 180 Borough High Street (opposite Borough Underground station) marks the site of a mansion called Suffolk Place, demolished in 1557. It is depicted by Anthony van den Wyngaerde's sixteenth century Panorama of London, which features Borough High Street prominently in the foreground of the picture. After demolition the site of the mansion and the area to the west of Borough High Street here became notorious as the criminal enclave of The Mint.
The present numbering of the buildings on the street is confusing because of piecemeal alteration over the past 150 years:- The street was widened and realigned to the west in the 1820s for the Rennie London Bridge. The 'fork' at the junction with Southwark Street was created when that street was inserted, in 1864, to connect the London Bridge, Southwark Bridge, and Blackfriars Bridge routes together. This new route cut across Stoney Street and isolated its southern end, which section was subsequently renumbered as part of Borough High Street although it actually lies behind numbers 28–32 to their west-side. The small alleyway connecting the two branches of the 'fork' is named 'Counter Court' (see Borough Compter) but is not an address for any premises.
The railway viaduct across the street was also erected in 1864 and this cut across a quadrant of both the main streets. This led to the numbering on the west-side of the street ceasing at the junction with Bedale Street (No 6), at which the Southwark Street numbers begin. However, these appear continuous with Borough High Street which only becomes apparent at the junction with Stoney Street further along to the west. The main street's numbers continue at No 28, the HSBC Bank branch, which also seems to be on the south-side of Southwark Street, but that street's south-side numbers do not start until after the junction with the 'fork' going west. On the approach to the Bridge, Borough High Street northeast-side numbering stops at No 7 which is a vault shop within the railway viaduct, the lower numbers' disappearance was caused by the 1990s developments on the river side north of Duke Street Hill, the main office block north of this is actually 'No 1 London Bridge' and the pedestrian only 'London Bridge Walk' leading to Colechurch House and the mainline Station concourse is also numbered from this point.
To compound the eccentric numbering, the building that appears first at the northwest side of Borough High Street (Hibernia Chambers/Glaziers Hall No 9 Montague Close at its ground floor) had its first floor level connected to the Bridge level pavement in 2000 and was given the address 'No 2 London Bridge'. On the northwest side, the street numbers of the High Street start after the small bridge crossing over Tooley Street as No 4 Borough High Street.
With the extension of the railway viaduct in 2010 the buildings between it and the junction with Bedale Street an attempt was made to simplify the numbering system. The Victorian buildings were replaced in 2013 but this is a glazed 'foyer' facility of Borough Market and is not actually numbered as premises but the section which is a store has been provided with the number '16' which means that the foyer could be numbered 18 and 20. This means the numbering is now 4, 6 - 8, 10 actually accessed as a side stairway of 6-8 (gap stairs down to Cathedral and Borough Market) 14 (vault unit within the viaduct) 16 and (Southwark Street junction) 28.
Continuing along the 'east side' of the 'fork' along the main part of the street is numbered 30, 32, 34. Then returning to the 'west side' of the 'fork', is numbered 36 (this is north of 34 and adjacent to 28) continuing south as 38 to 42. The building immediately next to 28 (i.e. south of Counter Court), north of the side door of 34, opposite 36 and behind 30 (to its west) is numbered '1b Southwark Street', presumably the side door of 28 is taken as '1 Southwark Street' although not numbered as such. Southwark Street continues properly at the junction with the 'west side' of the 'fork' as No 3.
Borough is a cosmopolitan area of London, with many restaurants, bars and Borough Market. The street also has many cafés and food shops including Sainsbury's Local. Public Houses include: North to south -
The Post Office (dated 1913) opposite Borough tube station closed in 2008. The main Post Office at the northern end of the street originated as the Women's Ward of the 1852 development of St Thomas's Hospital. When London Bridge Station services were extended by a viaduct to Charing Cross Station in 1868 the Hospital relocated and was partly demolished. This building remains as having been used as a goods office for the railway company.
David Bomberg House is a hall of residence at 282–302 Borough High Street for London South Bank University students. The building comprises 289 single en-suite bedrooms, divided into five blocks. It is close to the Borough Underground station and the main campus of London South Bank University on Borough Road north of Elephant and Castle.
The building is named after the English painter David Bomberg (1890–1957), who was a teacher at London South Bank University when it was known as Borough Polytechnic. He was the leading artist of the Borough Group during the 1940s and 1950s. A portrait of him hangs in the reception area. David Bomberg is considered to be London South Bank University's most famous teacher. In 2009, it was announced that the University had received a gift of a collection of works by Bomberg.
In 2009, a late night licence was granted for premises on the ground floor (Costcutter), despite a significant number of objections from residents. In February 2011, the Chaze bar and restaurant on the ground floor of the building in the former Costcutter space, opposite Southwark Police Station, obtained planning permission after a four-month deferral, despite opposition by the building's owner, London South Bank University.
From South to North on east-side:
From North to South on west-side:-
Borough Road is in Southwark, London SE1. It runs east-west between St George's Circus and Borough High Street.Borough tube station
Borough is a London Underground station in the Borough area of the London Borough of Southwark in central London. It is on the Bank branch of the Northern line between Elephant & Castle and London Bridge stations. It is in Travelcard Zone 1.
The station entrance is in Borough High Street (part of the A3), on the corner of Marshalsea Road. The A2 terminates opposite it.Holborn College
Kaplan Holborn College was a college of higher education in London, England specialising in accounting, finance, law and business.
Holborn Law College, as it had been initially known, was established in 1969 to prepare young lawyers from overseas for the University of London International Programme - and then Wolverhampton University External - LLB exams and received the Queen's Award for Export Achievement in 1982 for its role in international education. For a short time it was based at 200, Greyhound Road in Fulham, where it offered part-time courses for England & Wales Solicitors' Finals as well as certificated courses in individual degree-level law subjects. The best-known course with the largest proportion nationwide of successful students, was the old-style English Bar Examination (also known as Bar Finals) for British Commonwealth and US exemptions-seeking Bar students (approx. 70% of the intake) as well as for UK Intending Non-Practitioners (approx. 30% of the cohort) until the exam was phased out in 2000. The loss of the well-subscribed part- and full-time courses deprived the college of a vital source of revenue. The College thereafter received no Bar Council validation to run the new, unified Practitioners' Bar Vocational Course (BVC), which required audio-recording studio-facilities for training in practical advocacy, conference and negotiation skills.
The school then moved to a site along the A206 (Woolwich Road), close to the Thames Barrier, in Charlton Riverside in South-East London. The building of 1894-96 had been previously used by Maryon Park School and had been extended twice, first in 1909–10, then in 1914-15.In 2005 the college became part of Kaplan Inc., one of the largest international private education providers. Kaplan every year provided education and training to a million students across 30 countries. In March 2013, the college rebranded from "Holborn College" to "Kaplan Holborn College". Kaplan Holborn College specialised in law and business, offering foundation, undergraduate, top-up and postgraduate courses in association with leading UK universities such as Anglia Ruskin University and the University of the West of England.
The college had a diverse mix of students from the UK and the rest of the world, in particular from Africa, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Caribbean and Eastern Europe. There was no on-site accommodation provision for students under 18; most students stayed in two nearby
hostels or with host families. Three- and four-year undergraduate degrees last cost £5,995 per annum. Two-year degrees were charged at £9,000. In 2012 the Woolwich Road premises were acquired by Greenwich Council and turned into a primary school. The college continued at Borough High Street. Kaplan Holborn College had received a commendable outcome from the QAA in June 2013. However, in September 2015 Kaplan Holborn College closed its Borough High Street campus.The old school building building at Woolwich Road is now used by Windrush Primary School. On the adjacent former playgrounds of this school new buildings were constructed for the short-lived Royal Greenwich University Technical College, which opened in 2013. In 2016 this became Royal Greenwich Trust School.John Harvard Library
John Harvard Library is a public lending library on Borough High Street in Southwark, London. The library is home to the Local History Library, as well as a Mouse Tail Coffee Stories cafe.Kaplan Law School
Kaplan Law School was a for-profit educational institution offering post-graduate legal training in London for those wishing to become a solicitor in England and Wales. As of April 2016, it announced the closure of all programmes to new applicants, effectively ending the schools activities.Liberty of the Mint
The Mint was a district in Southwark, south London, England, on the west side of Borough High Street, around where Marshalsea Road is now located. It was so named because a mint authorised by King Henry VIII was set up in Suffolk Place, a mansion house, in about 1543. The mint ceased to operate in the reign of Mary I and Suffolk Place was demolished in 1557. In the late-17th and early-18th centuries, the area was known for offering protection against prosecution for debtors due to its legal status as a "liberty", or a jurisdictional interzone.Long Lane (Southwark)
Long Lane is a major road in Southwark, south London, England. At the northwest end is a complicated junction with Borough High Street, Marshalsea Road, Tabard Street, and Great Dover Street. The historic St George the Martyr church, with Dickensian connections, is at this junction, now standing on an island surrounded by roads and cut off from its original churchyard. In this church the eponymous Dickens character Little Dorrit was baptised and married. Charles Dickens himself lodged close by as a child in Lant Street when his father was in the Marshalsea debtors' prison during 1824. It was a traumatic period of his life. Also at this junction is the Borough Underground station.
The road is designated the A2198. At the southeast end, there is a junction with Tower Bridge Road (the A100). Near this junction, it crosses Bermondsey Street (the A2205).Marshalsea Road
Marshalsea Road (classified A3201) is a major street in Southwark, south London, England. At the northwest end is the Southwark Bridge Road. At the southeast end is Borough tube station on Borough High Street. Continuing across the street are Long Lane and Great Dover Street. At the northeast corner is the historic St George the Martyr church, where the Charles Dickens character Little Dorrit was married in Dickens' book of the same name. The area around Marshalsea Road has many Dickens associations.
Opposite Borough tube station, on the corner of Marshalsea Road and Borough High Street, is Brandon House. This is now the headquarters of Acas (the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service), an independent non-departmental public body of the UK Government for resolving industrial relations disputes.The Christian Medical Fellowship (CMF) is located at 6 Marshalsea Street and the Tara Bryan Gallery is at No 10.BCH Architects, specialists in church restoration projects and ecclesiastical architecture, are located at 16–18 Marshalsea Road.Newington Causeway
Newington Causeway is a road in Southwark, London, between the Elephant and Castle and Borough High Street. Elephant & Castle Underground station is at the southern end. It follows the route of the old Roman road Stane Street.In 1912, an outpatients' department of the South London Hospital for Women and Children was opened in Newington Causeway, using money raised by Harriet Shaw Weaver, publisher of The Freewoman, and other feminists.Metro Central Heights (originally known as Alexander Fleming House) -- an early 1960s series of multi-storey blocks designed by Ernő Goldfinger as office buildings subsequently converted into flats—stands at the southern end of the road. The Ministry of Sound, a famous nightclub, is in Gaunt Street just off Newington Causeway. This is also where the Inner London Sessions House, a Crown Court, and the Newington Court Business Centre are located.
The Institute of Optometry, formerly the London Refraction Hospital, is at 56–62 Newington Causeway.
The Salvation Army UK and Republic of Ireland headquarters occupy a large building at 101 Newington Causeway.The road forms part of the A3.Resonance FM
Resonance 104.4 FM is a London based non-profit community radio station specialising in the arts run by the London Musicians' Collective (LMC). The station is staffed by four permanent staff members, including programme controller Ed Baxter and over 300 volunteer technical and production staff.
Until September 2007, its studios were located on Denmark Street before moving to its present location at 144 Borough High Street, Southwark. The station broadcasts to a three-mile (4.8 km) radius on 104.4 MHz FM from a transmitter on the roof of Guy's Hospital at London Bridge. Its schedule includes nearly 100 shows catering to many sub-communities of the London area on a wide variety of subjects including a multitude of musical genres, local and foreign current affairs and subjects of local interest. Noted for its policy of giving broadcasters free rein of their creative outlet, it has been described by Time Out as "brilliantly eccentric". The station receives funding grants from Arts Council England.Richard Yarward
Richard Yarward or Yearwood (1580–1632) was an English grocer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1629.
Yarward was a grocer of Southwark. He was elected Member of Parliament for Southwark in 1614, and was re-elected in 1621, 1624, 1625, 1626 and 1628, sitting until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years.Yarwood is identified in the Dictionary of National Biography, under the name Yarwood or Yearwood as the stepfather of John Harvard who gave his name to Harvard College. He married Katherine (née Rogers), who was the widow of Robert Harvard and then John Elletson, at Wandsworth on 28 May 1627. She had come into possession of the "Queen's Head" in Borough High Street from her second husband.Southwark St George the Martyr
Southwark St George the Martyr was a civil parish in the metropolitan area of London, England and part of the ancient Borough of Southwark. In 1855 the parish vestry became a local authority within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works. It comprised 284 acres (1.15 km2) and had a population in 1881 of 59,712.The bulk of the parish was centred on St George's Circus, with Newington Causeway and Borough High Street forming the eastern boundary. The area was essentially the same as the King's Manor, Southwark, In the north east it included the church of St George the Martyr Southwark and then formed a long, narrow panhandle along the Old Kent Road, terminating at what is now Burgess Park and surrounding the triangular parish of Newington on two sides.
It became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark in 1900 and was abolished as a civil parish in 1930.Southwark Street
Southwark Street is a major street in Bankside in the London Borough of Southwark, in London England, just south of the River Thames. It runs between Blackfriars Road to the west and Borough High Street to the east. It also connects the access routes for London Bridge, Southwark Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge. At the eastern end to the north is Borough Market.
The road forms part of the A3200, which continues with Stamford Street to the west.Southwark War Memorial
The St Saviours Southwark War Memorial is a war memorial on Borough High Street, in the former parish of Southwark St Saviour, to south of the River Thames in London. It became a Grade II listed building in 1998, upgraded to Grade II* in 2018.
The memorial includes a bronze sculpture designed by Philip Lindsey Clark. He had enlisted as a private in the Artists' Rifles in 1914, and was commissioned in the 11th (Service) (1st South Down) Battalion of the Royal Sussex Regiment in 1916, ending the war as a captain with a DSO. The bronze figure is similar to one of three included in his Cameronians War Memorial in Glasgow, unveiled in 1924: an infantryman in battledress advancing, carrying a rifle with attached bayonet slung over his shoulder. In the Cameronians Memorial, the figure advances with the rifle held in the right hand. The bronzes for both memorials were cast by the Maneti foundry in London.
The statue stands on a high Portland stone pedestal with rounded ends. On its long sides are bronze reliefs: one with biplanes to the west and another with battleships to the east. On one side below the biplanes plaque is the inscription "Give honour to the men of St. Saviours Southwark who gave their lives for the empire 1914–1918. Their names are inscribed within the parish church. May their memory live for ever in the minds of men." and on the other side below the battleships plaque is the inscription "This memorial was erected by the parishioners of Saint Saviour's Southwark in the year 1922." A model of the main figure was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1923.
The ends of the pedestal are decorated with stone carvings of St George and the Dragon to the front (south), and a carving of a mourning woman with child and dove to the rear (north).
The memorial was funded by public subscription, and the design was chosen by a competition. The £4,000 raised also allowed a bronze memorial plaque by Sir John Ninian Comper to be erected in Southwark Cathedral naming 344 war dead from the parish, also cast by Maneti. Both memorials were unveiled on 16 November 1922 by General Henry Horne, 1st Baron Horne, and dedicated on the same day by the Suffragan Bishop of Woolwich William Hough. A similar sculpture of an infantryman with rifle was used by Albert Toft for the Royal Fusiliers War Memorial in Holborn.
It was dismantled, restored and rebuilt in 2013, and rededicated in 2014 by the Dean of Southwark Andrew Nunn.St George the Martyr, Southwark
Not to be confused with St. George's Cathedral, Southwark.St George the Martyr is a church in the historic Borough district of south London. It lies within the modern-day London Borough of Southwark, on Borough High Street at the junction with Long Lane, Marshalsea Road, and Tabard Street. St George the Martyr is named after Saint George. The church is a Grade II* listed building.The church has strong associations with Charles Dickens, whose father was imprisoned for debt in the Marshalsea prison. The surviving wall of the prison adjoins the north side of the churchyard. Dickens himself lived nearby, in Lant Street, lodging in a house that belonged to the Vestry Clerk of St George's. This was during the darkest period of his life when, as a teenager, with his father in prison, he had to work in the 'blacking factory', and his literary career must have seemed an impossible dream. Later, he was to set several scenes of the novel Little Dorrit in and around St George's Church. There is a small representation of Little Dorrit in the east window of the church.It is also a recognised church of the City of London Company of Parish Clerks and the guild church of the Guildable Manor. From 2008 the annual Southwark Quit Rents ceremony, before the Queen's Remembrancer has taken place there.Suffolk Place
Suffolk Place (or Suffolk House) was a mansion house located on the west side of Borough High Street in Southwark, Surrey, on the south bank of the River Thames opposite the City of London. It was the London town house of the Dukes of Suffolk, and was located near Winchester Palace, London seat of the Bishop of Winchester. The position was highly prominent as Borough High Street (or Southwark Street) was the principal thoroughfare leading from London Bridge and the City of London, to Canterbury and Dover, a route used by monarchs and others, including the pilgrims in Chaucer's Pilgrim's Progress. It was built in the fifteenth century and rebuilt in fine Renaissance style in 1522 by Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (c.1484-1545) a favourite of King Henry VIII. On 4 February 1536 it was taken over by King Henry VIII who exchanged it with Brandon for Norwich Place on the Strand, on the north side of the Thames, nearer to the Palace of Westminster.
King Henry VIII granted it to his wife Jane Seymour in June 1537, but when she died the following October, it reverted to the King. In 1545 the house was converted into a mint. It was occupied by Queen Mary I (1553-1558) and her new husband Philip II of Spain on the night before their state entry into London in 1554. This was possibly the time when it was depicted by Anthony van den Wyngaerde in his Panorama of London, to the left of Borough High Street in the foreground of the picture. It was demolished in 1557 and the area was built over with small tenements, which became known as The Mint, a notorious rookery.
A modern office block called Brandon House at 180 Borough High Street (opposite Borough tube station) now occupies the site of Suffolk Place. It is also memorialised by nearby Suffolk Street.The George Inn, Southwark
The George or George Inn is a public house established in the medieval period on Borough High Street in Southwark, London, owned and leased by the National Trust. It is located about 250 metres (820 ft) from the south side of the River Thames near London Bridge and is the only surviving galleried London coaching inn.The Tabard
The Tabard was a historic inn that stood on the east side of Borough High Street in Southwark. The hostelry was established in 1307 and stood on the ancient thoroughfare that led south from London Bridge to Canterbury and Dover. It was built for the Abbot of Hyde who purchased the land to construct a place to stay for himself and his ecclesiastical brethren when on business in London.
The Tabard was also famous for accommodating people who made the pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral, and Geoffrey Chaucer mentions it in his 14th Century work The Canterbury Tales.Union Street, London
Union Street is a major street in the London Borough of Southwark. It runs between Blackfriars Road to the west and Borough High Street to the east. Southwark Bridge Road crosses in the middle.