Boris Sheremetev

Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (Russian: Бори́с Петро́вич Шереме́тев; 5 May [O.S. 25 April] 1652 – 28 February [O.S. 17 February] 1719) was a Russian diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War. He became the first Russian count in 1706. His children included Pyotr Sheremetev and Natalia Sheremeteva.

Boris Petrovich Sheremetev
Boris Sheremetyev by I.Argunov (1768, Kuskovo)
Portrait by Ivan Argunov
Born5 May 1652
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Died28 February 1719 (aged 66)
Moscow, Tsardom of Russia
Allegiance Tsardom of Russia
Service/branchImperial Russian Army
Years of service1681–1719
RankField Marshal
Battles/warsRusso-Polish War
Russo-Turkish War
Crimean campaigns
Azov campaigns
Great Northern War
Bulavin Rebellion
Prut Campaign
AwardsTitles:
Boyar (1686)
Count (1706)
Orders:
Order of St. Andrew
Order of the White Eagle
Order of the Black Eagle

Early life

In his youth, Sheremetyev was a page to Tsar Alexis I before starting his military career. From 1671 he served at the imperial court. In 1681 he was a leader at Tambov, commanding the armies fighting the Crimean Khanate, and from 1682 he was a boyar. From 1685 to 1687 he participated in negotiations and the conclusion of the "Eternal Peace of 1686" with Poland and the allied treaty with Austria. From the end of 1687 he commanded the armies in Belgorod defending Russia's southern border, and participated in the Crimean campaigns. After Peter I gained power in 1689, he joined him as a fellow campaigner. He participated along with Mazepa in the war against Turkey during the 1690s. During the Azov campaigns in 1695–96 he commanded armies on the Dnieper River in actions against the Crimean Tatars. In 1697–99 he carried out diplomatic assignments in Poland, Austria, Italy and Malta. In 1698, czar Peter sent a delegation to Malta under Sheremetyev to observe the training and abilities of the Knights of Malta and their fleet. Sheremetyev also investigated the possibility of future joint ventures with the Knights, including action against the Turks and the possibility of a future Russian naval base.[1]

Great Northern War

Battle of Poltava 1709
Decisive Russian victory at Poltava 1709

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721) Sheremetev proved a capable but cautious and sluggish military leader. For much of the war he served as the commander-in-chief and most senior officer in the Russian army. Sheremetev was very cautious in his movements but proved more effective than the younger Prince Menshikov, the second-in-command, whose impulsiveness did not always lead to success.

In 1700 he joined the Russian army in its attack on Narva at the outbreak of the Great Northern War, but King Charles XII of Sweden drove him back from his position in Estonia. He then became commander of the Russian forces fighting the Swedish armies in the Baltic provinces. Colonel W. A. Schlippenbach defeated Sheremetev at Rauge in September 1701, but the Russians turned the tables on Schlippenbach (now a Major-General) at Erastfer in December 1701. This victory won Sheremetev the title of field marshal, and another Russian victory ensued at the battle of Hummelshof in July 1702. Sheremetev's army's attack on Marienburg (August 1702) led to Martha Skavronskaya coming to the tsar's court, where she eventually became Empress Catherine I[2] (reigned 1725-1727).

Sheremetev took the Swedish Ingrian fortresses of Nöteborg (October 1702) and Nyenskans (1 May 1703) (allowing the foundation of the city of Saint Petersburg later in May 1703)) and the important Baltic cities Dorpat and Narva in 1704. In 1705 Peter I sent him to Astrakhan, where he forcefully and successfully repressed the Cossack Astrakhan revolt of 1707-1708.

In the course of the Great Northern War, Sheremetev clashed with the Swedish general Lewenhaupt, who beat him at Gemäuerthof in July 1705, and Charles XII, who defeated him at Holowczyn (July 1708). Sheremetev's revenge came at the Battle of Poltava in 1709, where he functioned as the senior Russian commander of the forces which soundly defeated the Swedish army. Armies under his command conquered Riga in 1710. Sheremetev then led the main forces of the army against the Ottomans in the Prut campaign of 1710-1711. Fighting against Turkey in 1711, he suffered encirclement at the Battle of Stănileşti on the Prut (July 1711). In 1715–17 Sheremetev commanded armies in Pomerania and in Mecklenburg.

Although sympathetic to Peter I's policy of Westernising Russia, Sheremetev never became close to the tsar. He died in 1719 in Moscow; Peter I had him buried in the Lazarev cemetery in St. Petersburg.

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2008-02-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Hughes 2004, p. 131.

Sources

  • Hughes, Lindsey (2004). "Catherine I of Russia, Consort to Peter the Great". In Campbell Orr, Clarissa. Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–154. ISBN 0-521-81422-7.
1652

1652 (MDCLII)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Azov campaigns (1695–96)

The Azov campaigns of 1695–96 (Russian: Азо́вские похо́ды, Azovskiye Pokhody), were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000 men), which had been blocking Russia's access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea. Since the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 had failed because of the difficulty of moving a large army across the steppe, Peter decided to try a river approach.

Battle of Erastfer

The battle of Erastfer (also Battle of Errestfer, Battle of Erastvere) took place on 29 December 1701 (O.S.) / 30 December 1701 (Swedish calendar) / 9 January / 1702 (N.S.) near Erastfer in eastern Swedish Livonia (present-day Erastvere in Estonia) between a Russian force of around 13,000 regulars along with 6,000 irregulars led by general Boris Sheremetev and a Swedish force of about 3,470 men (at least 1,000 men were absent from the ranks for various reasons on the day of the battle, resulting in an actual fighting force of about 2,200–2,470 men), under the command of Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach. The Swedes were defeated, with a loss of 1,000 men killed and captured along with all their artillery pieces. The Russians sustained about 1,000 killed along with another 2,000 wounded (according to a Russian soldier who later admitted, after being captured by the Swedes, to 3,000 total losses). It was the first significant Russian victory in the Great Northern War.

Before invading Ingria, Peter the Great secured Poland's continued participation in the war against Sweden by promising King Augustus II of Poland, 20,000 Russian troops, 100,000 pounds of gunpowder, and 100,000 rubles per year over three years.

Battle of Hummelshof

Battle of Hummelshof took place on July 19, 1702 (O.S.) near the small town Hummelshof in Swedish Livonia (present-day Estonia). It was the second significant Russian victory in the Great Northern War.

Battle of Petschora

The Battle of Petschora took place on February 23, 1701 near the village of Pechory, Russia during the second year of the Great Northern War. The Swedish army of about 2,100 men assisted by approximately 2,000 peasants under the command of Jacob Spens defeated a Russian force of about 6,000 men.

Battle of Systerbäck

The Battle of Systerbäck took place on July 19, 1703 near the Sestra River during the Great Northern War. The Swedish army under the command of Abraham Cronhjort had to pull back to escape encirclement of the much larger Russian force under Boris Sheremetev. The two sides estimated their losses to 390 Swedish dead and wounded and 150 Russians dead and wounded.

Boris Sheremetev (composer)

Boris Sergeevich Sheremetev (Борис Сергеевич Шереметев; 1822–1906) was a Russian composer. His best known work today is the setting of Pushkin's poem "I Loved You", which has been recorded by artists including Dmitri Hvorostovsky.

Borisovka, Borisovsky District, Belgorod Oblast

Borisovka (Russian: Борисовка) is an urban locality (a settlement) in Belgorod Oblast, Russia. It is the administrative center of Borisovsky District.

It had a population of 13,743 people in 2016. The village is included in the list of historical cities of Russia in 2002.

Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia

With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian Empire following their conquest during the Great Northern War. The Livonian nobility and the city of Riga capitulated on 4 July (O.S.) / 15 July 1710 (N.S.), Pernau (Pärnu) in August, and the Estonian nobility and the city of Reval (Tallinn) on 29 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.). Russia left the local institutions in place and confirmed the traditional privileges of the German nobles and burghers as was established in Privilegium Sigismundi Augusti, especially with respect to the Protestant faith. The land reform of the so-called reduction which had been introduced by the Swedish king Charles XI, and transformed many serfs to subjects of the Crown, was reversed.

The Swedish Empire formally accepted the capitulations in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. The transfer of the Baltic provinces marked the end of Sweden's and the beginning of Russia's time as a great power. The Baltic provinces retained their special status until the late 19th century.

I Loved You (poem)

"I Loved You" (Russian: Я вас любил - Ya vas lyubíl) is a poem by Alexander Pushkin written in 1829 and published in 1830. It has been described as "the quintessential statement of the theme of lost love" in Russian poetry, and an example of Pushkin's respectful attitude towards women.

Koporye

Koporye (Russian: Копорье; Finnish: Kaprio; Swedish: Koporje) is a historic village (selo) in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located about 100 km (62 mi) to the west of St. Petersburg and 12 km (7.5 mi) south of the Koporye Bay of the Baltic Sea. It contains some of the most impressive medieval ruins in Russia.

The first wooden fortress on the coast of the Koporye Bay was built by the Teutonic Knights in 1240, only to be destroyed by Alexander Nevsky the next year. The second fortress was built in stone by Alexander's son Dmitry Alexandrovich in 1280. Enraged by the prince's independence, the Novgorodians razed the fortress two years later.

The Swedes took advantage of the lack of a fortress and occupied the banks of the Narova river. The Novgorodians had to restore the stone fort in 1297. Koporye was the strongest stronghold in the region and survived numerous attacks during the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars.

After Novgorod's incorporation into Muscovy, the fortress was strengthened and rebuilt to withstand cannon fire. Most extant structures belong to that period. Russian forces surrendered Koporye during the Livonian War but regained it under the Treaty of Tyavzino.

During the Time of Troubles Koporye was attacked by 2,500 Swedes, ten times more than the defenders. The Russian garrison had to surrender, and Koporye remained Swedish until 1703, known as Koporje or Caporie/Capurien, a residential town of the län of Caporie, constituting an important part of Swedish Ingria.

As the Gulf of Finland grew shallow and receded to the north, the site began to lose its maritime importance. In 1703, during the Great Northern War, a major Russian army under Boris Sheremetev regained Koporye, which was defended by 80 Swedish soldiers under the commandant, Captain Wasili Apolloff. Huge gaps in the walls from the disastrous fire of the Russian artillery may still be seen.

Despite some repairs undertaken in the 19th century, the fortress survives in a ruined state. The 15th century Church of the Transfiguration within the fortress is also in ruins.

The painter Orest Kiprensky was a native of Koporye.

List of Russian royal mistresses and lovers

List of Russian royal mistresses and lovers includes mistresses, minions, favourites and simply lovers of the Russian emperors and reigning empresses before and after coronation.

Natalia Sheremeteva

Princess Natalia Borisovna Dolgorukova, née Sheremeteva (Наталья Борисовна Шереметева; 1714–1771), was one of the first Russian women writers. She has been called the most accomplished Russian memoirist of the 18th century.Natalia's father was Count Boris Sheremetev, Russia's first native Field Marshal. He died when she was 4. She was betrothed to Prince Ivan Dolgorukov, a bosom friend of young Peter II of Russia and his prospective brother-in-law. After the Emperor's sudden death, Dolgorukov fell into disgrace, but Natalia did not desert her lover, and insisted on getting married. She was 16 at the time.

Several days after the wedding, the entire Dolgorukov family was exiled to Beryozov, a remote Arctic town. She gave birth to two sons in exile but was allowed to return to Moscow ten years later, after her husband's execution. She took the veil in Florovsky Convent of Kiev, but not before her children had grown up and married. Her short memoir was written shortly before that date. It appeared in print in 1810.

Pruth River Campaign

The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender. Incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction were met with refusal from Sultan Ahmed III, prompting Peter to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Peter the Great signed the Treaty of Lutsk (13 April 1711), by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invade the Balkan peninsula.

Pyotr Sheremetev

Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev (Russian: Пётр Бори́сович Шереме́тев) (1713–1788) was a Russian nobleman and courtier, the richest man in Russia aside from the tsar; he was the son of Boris Sheremetev.

When his father Boris died in 1719, tsar Peter promised to be "like a father" to Boris's children, and young Pyotr was brought up at court as a companion to the heir to the throne, who became tsar Peter II.

After a teenage career in the Guards, Sheremetev became a chamberlain to the Empress Anna, and then to the Empress Elizabeth. Under Catherine the Great, he became a senator and was the first elected Marshal of the Nobility. Unlike other court favourites, who rose and fell with the change of sovereign, Sheremetev remained in office for six consecutive reigns. ... He was one of Russia's first noblemen to be independent in the European sense.

He was a lover of art and theater, using his vast wealth to remodel the Sheremetev Palace (known as the "Fountain House") on the Fontanka Embankment and the family estate at Kuskovo, where he collected a gallery of portraits, and to create a famous serf orchestra.

He married Varvara Alekseevna Cherkasskaya, daughter of an important court official, who brought him an expensive dowry. Their son was Nikolai Sheremetev.

Sheremetev

The Sheremetev family (Russian: Шереме́тевы) was one of the wealthiest and most influential noble families in Russia.The family held many high commanding ranks in the Russian military, governorships and eventually the rank of Count of the Russian Empire. Notable members of the family include:

Yelena Sheremeteva, third wife of Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich (1554–1581), son of Ivan the Terrible.

Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev (1622-1682) fought in Ukraine

Count Boris Sheremetev (1652–1719) military leader and diplomat during the Great Northern War

Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev (1713—1788) son of Boris; courtier and noted patron of Russian theater

Princess Natalia Borisovna Dolgorukova, daughter of Boris and wife of Prince Ivan Dolgorukov

Count Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev (1751–1809) son of Pyotr; noted patron of Russian theater

Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova, a serf woman belonging to the Sheremetev family, who became an actress in the Sheremetev Serf Theatre and later married Nikolai Sheremetev

Count Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Sheremetev (1859–1931) grandson of Nikolai and son of Dmitri; conductor, composer and entrepreneur

Count Pierre Sheremetev, noted patron of the Conservatoire Rachmaninoff in ParisThe village of Sheremetevo, which in turn gave name to the Sheremetyevo International Airport, is named after the family.

Siege of Nöteborg (1702)

The Siege of Nöteborg was one of the first sieges of the Great Northern War, when Russian forces captured the Swedish fortress of Nöteborg (later renamed Shlisselburg) in October 1702. Peter the Great had assembled a force of 20,000 men for this task, and marched for ten days to his destination. About 12,000 of these men were positioned on the banks of the Neva river, where they camped until 6 October (N.S.). On that day, after giving command of the main force to Boris Sheremetev, he moved toward Nöteborg. After the Swedish commander, Wilhelm von Schlippenbach, refused to give up the fort immediately, the Russians began bombarding it. A final Russian assault on the fort was tactically unsuccessful, resulting in heavy casualties, but forced the fort's defenders to surrender on 22 October 1702. After taking control, Peter immediately began reconstructing the fort for his own purposes, renaming it Shlisselburg.

Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach

Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach (1653–1721) was Governor General of Swedish Estonia from 1704 to 1706.

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