You et al., 2004
The type and only species is Borealosaurus wimani, based on fragmentary remains from the Sunjiawan Formation of Liaoning. It has been estimated that this creature measured 12 metres in length, with a weight of 10 tonnes. The morphology of a mid-distal caudal vertebra was considered suggestive of a relationship with the Mongolian titanosaur Opisthocoelicaudia. However, in their overview of Cretaceous sauropod remains from Central Asia, Averianov and Sues considered Borealosaurus a non-lithostrotian titanosaur due to the lack of procoely in the middle caudal vertebrae.
It was described by Hailu, Qiang, Lamanna, Jinglu and Yinxiang, in 2004. It was named from Greek Βορεας (the North wind) and σαυρος (lizard), with its specific name being given in honor of Swedish paleontologist Carl Wiman, who named the first Chinese dinosaur.
Apatosaurinae is the name of a subfamily of diplodocid sauropods that existed between 157 and 150 million years ago in North America. The group includes two genera for certain, Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus, with at least five species. Atlantosaurus and Amphicoelias might also belong to this group.Below is a cladogram of apatosaurinae interrelationships based on Tschopp et al., 2015.Argyrosauridae
Argyrosauridae is a family of large titanosaurian dinosaurs known from the late Cretaceous period of Argentina and Egypt. The group has been recovered as monophyletic, including the type genus Argyrosaurus as well as Paralititan.Brasilotitan
Brasilotitan is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian) Adamantina Formation of Brazil. The type species is Brasilotitan nemophagus.Carl Wiman
Carl Johan Josef Ernst Wiman (1867–1944) was a Swedish paleontologist and the first professor of paleontology at Uppsala University. He published on a variety of topics, including extinct penguins, and dinosaur fossils sent to Sweden from China and the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (U.S.A.). He is responsible for naming the genera Helopus (renamed Euhelopus because Helopus was already in use) and Tanius, and the species Pentaceratops fenestratus and Parasaurolophus tubicen. He was also the first to suggest that the hollow cranial crests of lambeosaurine duckbill dinosaurs could be used as a horn-like noisemaker. "Wiman's Law" states that the stolon of dendroid graptolites divides in groups of three: "one branch went into the bitheca, one into the autotheca, and one continued up along the stipe."He is recognized for his contributions to paleontology in the names of the extinct penguins Archaeospheniscus wimani and Palaeospheniscus wimani, the fossil turtle Dracochelys wimani, the ichthyosaur Wimanius and the sauropod dinosaur Borealosaurus wimani.Cetiosauridae
Cetiosauridae is a family of sauropod dinosaurs. While traditionally a wastebasket taxon containing various unrelated species, some recent studies have found that it may represent a natural clade. Additionally, at least one study has suggested that the mamenchisaurids may represent a sub-group of the cetiosaurids, which would be termed Mamenchisaurinae.Diplodocinae
Diplodocinae is an extinct subfamily of diplodocid sauropods that existed from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous of North America, Europe and South America, about 161.2 to 136.4 million years ago. Genera within the subfamily include Tornieria, Supersaurus, Leinkupal, Galeamopus, Diplodocus, Kaatedocus and Barosaurus.Cladogram of the Diplodocidae after Tschopp, Mateus, and Benson (2015).Eomamenchisaurus
Eomamenchisaurus (meaning "dawn Mamenchisaurus") is a genus of mamenchisaurid sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China. The type species is E. yuanmouensis, described by Lü Junchang et al. in 2008.Ferganasaurus
Ferganasaurus was a genus of dinosaur first formally described in 2003 by Alifanov and Averianov. The type species is Ferganasaurus verzilini. It was a sauropod similar to Rhoetosaurus. The fossils were discovered in 1966 in Kyrgyzstan from the Balabansai Formation and date to the Callovian stage of the Middle Jurassic.Flagellicaudata
Flagellicaudata is a clade of Dinosauria. It belongs to Sauropoda and includes two families, the Dicraeosauridae and the Diplodocidae.Gravisauria
Gravisauria is a clade of sauropod dinosaurs consisting of some genera, Vulcanodontidae and Eusauropoda.Huangshanlong
Huangshanlong is a genus of mamenchisaurid dinosaurs native to the Anhui province of China. It contains a single species, Huangshanlong anhuiensis. H. anhuiensis represents, along with Anhuilong and Wannanosaurus, one of three dinosaurs fround in Anhui province.Kaijutitan
Kaijutitan (meaning "Kaiju titan" after the type of Japanese movie monsters) is a genus of basal titanosaur dinosaur from the Sierra Barrosa Formation from Neuquén Province in Argentina. The type and only species is Kaijutitan maui.Opisthocoelicaudiinae
Opisthocoelicaudiinae is a clade of titanosaurian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous, ranked as a subfamily. Opisthocoelicaudiines are known from China, Mongolia, and the United States (New Mexico, Texas, and Utah). Three genera have been assigned to Opisthocoelicaudiinae: Alamosaurus, Borealosaurus, and Opisthocoelicaudia (the type genus). It was named by John S. McIntosh in 1990. The hands of opisthocoelicaudiines lacked wrist bones and phalanges.Pilmatueia
Pilmatueia is a diplodocoid sauropod belonging to the family Dicraeosauridae that lived in Argentina during the Early Cretaceous.Tambatitanis
Tambatitanis is an extinct genus of titanosauriform dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (probably early Albian) of Japan. It is known from a single type species, Tambatitanis amicitiae. It was probably around 14 meters long and its mass was estimated at some 4 tonnes. It was a basal titanosauriform and possibly belonged to the Euhelopodidae.Tastavinsaurus
Tastavinsaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur belonging to the Titanosauriformes. It is based on a partial skeleton from the Early Cretaceous of Spain. The type species is Tastavinsaurus sanzi, named in honor of the Rio Tastavins in Spain and Spanish paleontologist José Luis Sanz.Tengrisaurus
Tengrisaurus (meaning "Tengri lizard") is a genus of lithostrotian sauropod, from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian), of the Murtoi Formation, Russia. It was described in 2017 by Averianov & Skutschas. The type species is T. starkovi.Vulcanodontidae
The Early Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs Zizhongosaurus, Barapasaurus, Tazoudasaurus, and Vulcanodon may form a natural group of basal sauropods called the Vulcanodontidae. Basal vulcanodonts include some of the earliest known examples of sauropods. The family-level name Vulcanodontidae was erected by M.R. Cooper in 1984. In 1995 Hunt et al. published the opinion that the family is synonymous with the Barapasauridae. One of the key morphological features specific to the family is an unusually narrow sacrum.Zhuchengtitan
Zhuchengtitan (meaning "Zhucheng titan") is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Shandong, China. It contains a single species, Z. zangjiazhuangensis, named by Mo Jinyou and colleagues in 2017 from a single humerus. Zhuchengtitan can be identified by the extreme width of the top end of its humerus, as well as the expansion of the deltopectoral crest on its humerus; both of these characteristics indicate that it was likely closely related to Opisthocoelicaudia. However, it differs from the latter by the flatter bottom articulating surface of its humerus. Zhuchengtitan lived in a floodplain environment alongside Shantungosaurus, Zhuchengtyrannus, and Sinoceratops.