Borders of China

China shares international borders with 14 sovereign states. In addition, there is a 30-kilometre (19 mi) border with the special administrative region of Hong Kong, which was a British dependency before 1997, and a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) border with Macau, a Portuguese territory until 1999. With a land border of 22,117 kilometres (13,743 mi) in total it also has the longest land border of any country.

ROC Administrative and Claims
Map showing the ROC and PRC claims.

Countries sharing borders with China

Boundary marker of China
Border marker of China.

The table below, is a table of countries and territories who share a land border with China around its perimeter. The numbers in parenthesis are their lengths in miles.[1]

Country Length (km) and (mi) Notes
 Afghanistan 76 (47)
 Bhutan 470 (292) Disputed; depends on the resolution of various territorial conflicts between India and China, and also between Bhutan and China
 India 3,380 (2,100) Disputed; in three sections, separated by Nepal and Bhutan depends on the resolution of territorial conflicts between India and China, and between India and Pakistan
 Kazakhstan 1,533 (952)
 Kyrgyzstan 858 (533)
 Laos 423 (262)
 Mongolia 4,677 (2,906)
 Myanmar 2,185 (1,357) Disputed; depends on the resolution of the territorial conflict between India and China over Arunachal Pradesh
   Nepal 1,440 (895) Depends on the resolution of the territorial conflict between Nepal and India over the Kalapani territory
 North Korea 1,416 (879) Depends on the resolution of the territorial conflict between China and North Korea over Mount Paektu and Jiandao
 Pakistan 523 (324) Depends on the resolution of territorial conflicts between India and Pakistan
 Russia 3,645 (2,264) In two sections, separated by Mongolia
 Tajikistan 414 (257)
 Vietnam 1,283 (795)

See also

References

  1. ^ CIA: The World Factbook, China
Afghanistan–China border

The border between China and Afghanistan is a 76-kilometre-long (47 mi) boundary, beginning at the tripoint of both countries with Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan) and ending at the tripoint with Tajikistan. This short border is in the far northeast of Afghanistan, distant from much of the country or urban areas, at the end of the Wakhan Corridor. The Chinese side of the border is located in the Chalachigu Valley. Both sides of the border are nature reserves: Wakhan Corridor Nature Refuge on the Afghan side and Taxkorgan Nature Reserve on the Chinese side. The border is crossed by Wakhjir Pass.

The border marks the greatest terrestrial time zone difference on Earth, with a 3.5 hour difference between Afghanistan's UTC+4:30 and China's UTC+08:00.

Bhutan–China border

The border between Bhutan and China is a sinuous line of 470 km (290 mi) long, in a north-south-east direction, which separates Bhutan to the south from Tibet, an autonomous region of China, to the north. It lies between two tripoints formed by the two countries with India. It is nearby the parallels 28° and 29° N, in the eastern part of the Himalayas.

Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs

The Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, or Xuanzheng Yuan (Chinese: 宣政院; pinyin: Xuānzhèngyuàn; literally: 'Court for the Spread of Governance') was a government agency and top-level administrative department set up in Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) that supervised Buddhist monks in addition to managing the territory of Tibet during the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) established by Kublai Khan. It was originally set up in 1264 as an autonomous office named Zongzhi Yuan (simplified Chinese: 总制院; traditional Chinese: 總制院; pinyin: Zǒngzhìyuàn) or the Bureau of General Regulation, before it was renamed in 1288, which was named after the Xuanzheng Hall where Tibetan envoys were received in the Tang dynasty. In the Mongol Empire, Tibet was managed by the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, separate from the other provinces of the Yuan dynasty such as those governed the former Song dynasty of China, but still under the administrative rule of the Yuan. While no modern equivalents remain, the political functions of the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs might have been analogous to the India Office in London during the British Raj. Besides holding the title of Imperial Preceptor or Dishi, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, the fifth leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, was concurrently named the director of the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. One of the department's purposes was to select a dpon-chen ('great administrator', a civilian administrator who governed Tibet when Sakya Lama was away), usually appointed by the lama and confirmed by the Mongol emperor in Beijing. Tibetan Buddhism was not only practiced within the capital Beijing but throughout the country. Apart from Tibetan affairs, the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs managed the entire Buddhist clergy throughout the realm (whether they were Han Chinese, Tibetan or Korean etc.), and supervised all temples, monasteries, and other Buddhist properties in the empire, at least in name. According to scholar Evelyn Rawski, it supervised 360 Buddhist monasteries. To emphasize its importance for Hangzhou, capital of the former Southern Song dynasty and the largest city in the Yuan realm, a branch (行, Xing, "acting") Xuanzheng Yuan was established in that city in 1291, although Tibetan Buddhism took public or official precedence over Han Chinese Buddhism.The Lifan Yuan (also known as the Board for the Administration of Outlying Regions and Office of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs etc.) established by the Manchus was roughly a Qing dynasty version of Xuanzheng Yuan, instituted by the Yuan state for administering affairs beyond the borders of China proper.

China Relief Expedition Medal

The China Relief Expedition Medal was a decoration of the United States military which was issued to members of both the United States Navy and the United States Marines for service in the China Relief Expedition between 1900 and 1901 during the Boxer Rebellion. The medal was authorized by General Orders of the Department of the Navy on June 27, 1908. General Order 81 established the medal authorized for Naval personnel while General Order 82 authorized the medal for the Marine Corps.

China–Kazakhstan border

The China–Kazakhstan border, or the Sino-Kazakhstan border (Kazakh: Қазақстан-Қытай мемлекеттiк шекарасы, Russian: Казахстанско-китайская государственная граница, Chinese: 中哈边界; pinyin: Zhōng-Hā biānjiè) is the international border between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The border line between the two countries has been largely inherited from the border existing between the Soviet Union and the PRC, and, earlier, between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire; however, it has been fully demarcated only in the late 20th and early 21st century. According to the international boundary commissions that have carried out the border demarcation, the border is 1,782.75 km (1,107.75 mi) long.

China–Kyrgyzstan border

The China-Kyrgyzstan border is 1,063km (660m) in length and runs from the tripoint with Kazakhstan following a roughly south-west line across various mountain ridges and peaks of the Tian Shan range down to the tripoint with Tajikistan.

China–Laos border

The border between China and Laos is a 423 km long line separating the northern Laotian provinces of Luang Namtha , Oudomxai and Phongsali from the southern Chinese province of Yunnan . On the east begins in the triple border as Vietnam , heading west, go south and follow west to triple border of the two countries with Myanmar.

Laos obtained a partial independence from France in 1949, around the time when Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China after defeating Chiang Kai Shek's nationalist government in the Chinese Civil War. Consequently, China's adaptation of Stalinist principles in the form of Maoism influenced Laotian politics, fuelling demands for total independence from France, which was granted in 1953. Along with China, Laos was involved in the Vietnam War from 1964. The border between the country and the People's Republic of China at that time was officially set.

China–Mongolia border

The border between China and Mongolia is the line that limits the territory of People's Republic of China and Mongolia; it stretches 4677 kilometers from east to west and touches both the China–Russia border and the Mongolia–Russia border.

The western end is located 55 km from the beginning of the Kazakhstan–Russia border and is marked by the Altai Mountains in Xinjiang. The eastern end of the border includes the Gobi Desert in Hulunbei'er, formerly of Heilongjiang.

China–Myanmar border

The China–Myanmar border is the international border that limits the territory of the People's Republic of China and Myanmar (formerly Burma). The border begins at Hkakabo Razi (5881 m), the highest mountain in Southeast Asia, passing through the mountain ranges of Jigongshan and Jiangaosh (3302 m). It continues through mountainous areas and a small northern section of the Mekong River, before ending at the border with Laos.

China–Nepal border

The border between China and Nepal is 1,414 kilometres (879 mi) in length, along the mountain range the Himalayas, extends northwest-southeast direction, separating the south of Tibet Autonomous Region of China and the territory of Nepal. This border passes through the highest peak in the world, Mount Everest.

The line extends between two tripoints China–Nepal–India. The tripoint in the west is in the Nepalese district of Mahakali Zone. The tripoint in the east is in the region of Mechi.

China–North Korea border

The China–North Korea border is the international border separating the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

China–Pakistan border

The China–Pakistan border is 535 kilometres (332 mi) and runs west-east from the tripoint with Afghanistan to the disputed tripoint with India in the vicinity of the Siachen Glacier. It traverses the Karakorum Mountains, one of the world's tallest mountain ranges.

China–Russia border

The Chinese–Russian border or the Sino–Russian border is the international border between China and Russia (CIS member). After the final demarcation carried out in the early 2000s, it measures 4,209.3 kilometres (2,615.5 mi), and is the world's sixth-longest international border.

The China–Russian border consists of two non-contiguous sections: the long eastern section and the much shorter western section.

China–Tajikistan border

The China-Tajikistan border is 477km (296m) in length and runs from the tripoint with Kyrgyzstan following a roughly north-south line across various mountain ridges and peaks of the Pamir range down to the tripoint with Afghanistan.

China–Vietnam border

The border between China and Vietnam is the line that limits the territories of China and Vietnam.

Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are often referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China.

Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China (Chinese: 萬里長城; pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng, Mongolian: Цагаан хэрэм, Manchu: šanggiyan jase) is the collective name of a series of fortification systems generally built across the historical northern borders of China to protect and consolidate territories of Chinese states and empires against various nomadic groups of the steppe and their polities. Several walls were being built from as early as the 7th century BC by ancient Chinese states; selective stretches were later joined together by Qin Shi Huang (220–206 BC), the first Emperor of China. Little of the Qin wall remains. Later on, many successive dynasties have built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The most currently well-known of the walls were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Taohe River in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of Mongolian steppe. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the walls built by the Ming dynasty measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi). This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measures out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi). Today, the defensive system of Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.

Hunchun

Hunchun is a county-level city in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, far eastern Jilin province. It borders North Korea (North Hamgyong province) and Russia (Primorsky Krai), has over 250,000 inhabitants, and covers 5,145 square kilometers. It was the capital of Balhae/Bohai Kingdom between 785-793 as "Dongyang".

The city's name Hunchun comes from Huncun in Manchu language. (Manchu: ᡥᡠᠨᠴᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: huncun; Abkai: hunqun).The city and the village Fangchuan is located near the point of junction of the borders of China, Russia, and North Korea; provided with an observation platform, it is a popular tourist attraction.

Scythia

Scythia (UK: , US: ; from Greek Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks. The Ancient Greeks gave the name Scythia (or Great Scythia) to all the lands north-east of Europe and the northern coast of the Black Sea.The Scythians – the Greeks' name for this initially nomadic people – inhabited Scythia from at least the 11th century BC to the 2nd century AD. In the seventh century BC, the Scythians controlled large swaths of territory throughout Eurasia, from the Black Sea across Siberia to the borders of China.

Its location and extent varied over time, but it usually extended farther to the west and significantly farther to the east than is indicated on the map. Some sources document that the Scythians were energetic but peaceful people. Not much is known about them.

Scythia was a loose nomadic empire that originated as early as 8th century BC. The core of Scythians preferred a free-riding way of life. No writing system that dates to the period has ever been attested, so majority of written information available today about the region and its inhabitants at the time stems from protohistorical writings of ancient civilizations which had connections to the region, primarily those of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and Ancient Persia. The most detailed western description is by Herodotus. He may not have travelled in Scythia and there is scholarly debate as to the accuracy of his knowledge, but modern archaeological finds have confirmed some of his ancient claims and he remains one of the most useful writers on ancient Scythia. He says the Scythians' own name for themselves was "Scoloti". Probably a part of Scythians became increasingly settled and wealthy on their western frontier with Greco-Roman civilization.

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