Border guard

A border guard of a country is a national security agency that performs border security, i.e., enforces the security of the country's national borders. Some of the national border guard agencies also perform coast guard (as in Germany or Ukraine) and rescue service duties.

RIAN archive 482282 Mounted guards at frontier's alpine section
Soviet Border Troops riding horses patrol a mountainous section of the border in 1984.

Name and uniform

In different countries, names of particular border guard services vary significantly. The service may be called "police", "guard", "troops" or "sentinel" and the name would refer to the nation's official term for the state border - whether it is "frontier" or "border".

Most border guards of the world use dark green-colored elements on their uniform, insignia or flags.

Tasks

Peacetime duties

Zhuhai-Qinglu-border-guards-booth-0631
Chinese border guards' booth on the sea coast in Guangdong.

Typical tasks of a Border Guard are:

  • Controlling and guarding a nation's borders;
  • Controlling border crossing persons, vehicles, and travel documents;
  • Preventing illegal border crossing of persons, vehicles, cargoes and other goods;
  • Controlling transportation of prohibited and limited items (e.g. weapons, ammunition, toxic substances, narcotics) over the national border;
  • Supervising and controlling the observation of foreigner residence regulations, visa regime;
  • Preventing the movement of goods and other articles over national borders, bypassing the customs control;
  • Investigating cases related to offenses against the national border.
  • Systematic and permanent observation of the state border space, from land, sea or air, by visual, electronic or other modern means of surveillance and protection, with the purpose of detecting, alerting and / or preventing possible violations in the international limit; It also involves verification and reporting on the maintenance and conservation of the Border Landmarks.
  • Prevent to criminals, escapees from prisons or fugitives from the internal justice of the country evade and flee to other nations to evade the action of national justice
  • Exchange all types of information and cooperate with other national agencies and counterparts in other countries, as well as with international organizations specializing in migration, border control, customs control, sanitary control, phytosanitary control and security to assist in the implementation of actions against the illicit trafficking of migrants, trafficking in persons, crimes related to transnational organized crime, terrorism, illegal trafficking in arms and explosives, corruption, drug trafficking and against the diversion, for illegal purposes, of dual-use goods and other activities related
  • The Border Guard may also perform delegated customs and immigration control duties.

Wartime duties

During wartime more militarized Border Guard services may be transferred to be under the control of a country's armed forces, if it is not so already.

Border guards by country

Australia

The Australian Border Force (ABF), is a part of the Department of Home Affairs, responsible for offshore and onshore border control enforcement, investigations, compliance and detention operations in Australia. The Force was established on 1 July 2015 merging the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service with the immigration detention and compliance functions of the then Department of Immigration and Border Protection.

The ABF is a law enforcement agency operating under the Australian Border Force Act 2015 with broadened legislative powers including the introduction of sworn officers.[1] A new uniform was introduced and following the transition there was increase in the number of officers authorised to carry firearms.[2][3]

Bangladesh

Bangladeshi Rifles training
A Border Guard Bangladesh Senior Warrant Officer (left in yellow/green outfit) applies a mechanical advantage control/hold to a US Marine during training.

Border Guards Bangladesh is a paramilitary border security and anti-smuggling force under the Ministry of Home Affairs of Bangladesh. BGB can trace back its origin to the establishment of the Ramgarh Local Battalion in 1695. This force is lightly armed and although its primary duty is to protect the border, during national emergencies it can also be called upon to aid the government.

Canada

Canada Border Services Agency is a law enforcement agency of the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Created in 2003, it amalgamated the enforcement activities performed by three separate government entities (Canada Customs and Revenue Agency, Citizenship and Immigration Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency). Traditionally unarmed, the arming of Border Services Officers, Investigators, and Inland Enforcement Officers began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by 2016. Officers are found at entry points to Canada (airports, marine entry points, and land crossing points with the United States. Along with United States Border Patrol, the CBSA is responsible for guarding the longest border in the world.

Czech Republic

Alien Police Service is a highly specialized unit of the police of the Czech Republic, which carries out functions relating to the detection of illegal migration, application of punitive measures against foreigners staying in the Czech Republic in violation of the law no. 326/1999 Coll. On the residence of foreigners in the Czech Republic and amending certain laws, as amended laws, the tasks arising from international agreements and directly applicable European Community legislation and solving the crimes committed in connection with the crossing of the state border and cross-border crime. The Alien Police Service was established by the Ministry of Interior no. 67/2008 establishing units of the Police of the Czech Republic nationwide.

Alien Police of the Czech Republic is divided into:

Alien Police Service Directorate - is within the specified range managing, methodological and control department with jurisdiction throughout the Czech Republic and is directly subordinate to the Police Presidium of the Czech Republic

Alien Police Unions in the regional directorates of individual regions

  • Department of residence controls, search and escort
  • Department of residence matters
  • Department documents and specialized activities
  • Documentation Department
  • Department of International Relations (only in border areas)

Egypt

The Egyptian Border Guard is under the control of the Ministry of Defence (Egypt). The Border Guard is a lightly armed paramilitary unit of about 25,000 personnel, responsible for border surveillance, general peacekeeping, drug interdiction, and prevention of smuggling. During the late 1980s, the force was equipped with remote sensors, night-vision binoculars, communications vehicles, and high-speed motorboats.

Finland

The Finnish Border Guard (Finnish: Rajavartiolaitos; Swedish: Gränsbevakningsväsendet), including the coast guard, is the agency responsible for border control related to persons, including passport control and border patrol. The Border Guard is a paramilitary organization, subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior in administrative issues and to the President of the Republic in issues pertaining to the president's authority as Commander-in-Chief (e.g. officer promotions). The Finland-Russia border is a controlled border, routinely patrolled and protected by a border zone enforced by the Border Guard. Borders to Norway and Sweden are open borders, but the Border Guard maintains personnel in the area owing to its search and rescue (SAR) duties. There are two coast guard districts for patrolling maritime borders. The Border Guard has also detachments posted at ports and airports. In peacetime, the Border Guard trains special forces and light infantry and can be incorporated fully or in part into the Finnish Defence Forces when required by defence readiness. The Border Guard has police and investigative powers in immigration matters and can independently investigate immigration violations. The Border Guard has search and rescue (SAR) duties, both maritime and inland. The Guard operates SAR helicopters that are often used in inland SAR, in assistance of a local fire and rescue department or other authorities. The Border Guard shares border control duties with Finnish Customs, which inspects arriving goods, and the Finnish Police, which enforces immigration decisions such as removal.

France

The French Direction générale des douanes et droits indirects, Directorate-General of Customs and Indirect Taxes is a law enforcement civilian agency responsible for levying indirect taxes, preventing smuggling, surveilling borders and investigating counterfeit money. The agency acts as a coast guard, border guard, sea rescue organisation and a customs service. Though it is a civilian service, agents are armed. In France, it is commonly known as "les douanes", which means customs ("la douane" is a border checkpoint). Agents are referred to as "douaniers", which means customs officers. In the French legal standards, the prosecution carries the burden of proof since the defendant is presumed innocent ; but in customs procedures, the defendant carries the burden of proof.

French Border Police, Police aux frontières or PAF (former Police de l'air et des frontières), also have to monitor the borders and conduct checks in some parts.

Germany

In Germany, the Federal Police, a civilian agency subordinated to the Ministry of Interior, is - besides other duties - responsible for border control tasks. Until 2005, the Federal Police was called Federal Border Guard, and originally was a paramilitary organisation having mandatory service in the 1970s, but had its military rank structure changed into a civilian one in the 1970s and lost its wartime combatant status in the 1990s.

East German Guard - Flickr - The Central Intelligence Agency (cropped)
East German Border Guard Conrad Schumann jumping the border in 1961

State Border Guard

The German state of Bavaria reestablished its State Border Police in the aftermath of the European migrant crisis in 2018 again, after it was merged into the Bavarian State Police in 1998 because of the Schengen Agreement.

Hong Kong

Border guards in Hong Kong consists of two civilian agencies:

  • Customs and Excise officers handling customs duties at ports, airports and land crossing.
  • Immigration officers handle people entering ports, airport (1) and land crossings (6) with mainland China.

Hong Kong Police Force officers patrol the border with mainland China, but they are not border guards at entry points. Prior to 1995, this role was performed by British Army units stationed in Hong Kong.

Various police checkpoint booths (boundary crossing) are found along roads and are in the outside Closed Areas. Manned by uniformed Hong Kong Police officers, vehicle occupants must present papers and/or permits in order to proceed to the border. These officers act as informal border guards, which do not exist in Hong Kong as there is no international boundary with mainland China.

All three border agencies are responsibilities of the Security Bureau.

Hungary

In Hungary border control belongs to police since 2007. There is no different organization for this role. Policemen serving on the border have the very same uniform as those inside the country.

Kyrgyzstan

The Frontier Forces are responsible for the border security of Kyrgyzstan. The Frontier Forces are commanded by the interior ministry, but are officially part of the military of Kyrgyzstan. They had many disagreements of the Frontier Service of Uzbekistan and had a military drill with China in August 2013.

India

BSF officer inspecting guard of honor
BSF officer inspecting guard of honour

The Border Security Force (BSF) is the primary border patrol agency of the Government of India and is presently the largest Border Guarding force of the world.. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a component of the paramilitary forces of India (PMF) and its primary role is to guard India's international borders during peacetime and also prevent transnational crime. Like most paramilitary units of India, the BSF is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs and is headed by an Indian Police Service Officer. It is one of the many law enforcement agencies of India.

The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is an Indian paramilitary force conceived on October 24, 1962 for security along the India's border with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, border covering 2115 kilometers.

The Sashastra Seema Bal guards the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders.

Indonesia

Border guards in Indonesia are responsibility of the following:

Iran

Iranian border to Iraq
An Iranian border guard supervising trucks entering "Shalamsha Port of Entry" in Iran–Iraq border

The Islamic Republic of Iran Border Guard Command is the sole agency responsible for border patrol and control, acting under Law Enforcement Force (which itself is part of Armed Forces of Iran) since 2000. The agency also has coast guard duties in maritime borders. The control of entry points in airports are conducted by Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

Israel

The Israel Border Police operates as a gendarmerie under the supervision of the Israel Police and was founded as part of the frontier corps before it became the Border Police. While its main duty is protecting the borders of Israel, it has also been deployed to be used in helping the Israel Defense Forces in some conflicts, such as the Six-Day War.[5]

Italy

Guardia di Finanza - Cinofili (K9) - Malpensa
Italian Guardia di Finanza K9 unit at Malpensa airport.

In Italy the border police service is covered by the Guardia di Finanza, an Italian law enforcement unit under the command of the Finance Minister; but there is also the Italian Customs Agency, a civilian administration that have the role of Customs Authority. Mostly, the Guardia di Finanza (or Fiamme Gialle) fight against smuggling, illegal drug trafficking, tax evasion and other financial crimes, even jointly to the Customs Agency. Also, many border posts are staffed by Carabinieri. The Immigration and Border Police also performs border police duties.

Lithuania

The State Border Guard Service is the organisation charged with controlling and maintaining the Lithuanian Border. The State Border Guard Service falls under authority of the Ministry of the Interior, which supervises and controls the implementation of border guard policy.

Macau

Border patrol and immigration control in Macau are conducted by Public Security Police Force of Macau at land entries (4) with China and at Macau International Airport. Customs duties are performed by Macau Customs agency. Both border guards and customs officers are responsibilities of the Secretariat for Security.

Malaysia

The Border Security Agency is part of the Malaysian government agency that was recently established in 2015 to guard the country’s entry and exit points from illegal activities such as smuggling, illegal migration and human trafficking. Before the establishment of the agency, Malaysian borders was guarded by the Malaysian Armed Forces and Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency.

Netherlands

The Royal Marechaussee is the fourth organization within the Dutch Royal Army, besides Army, Navy and Air Force. Besides patrolling the border it also has the function of Military Police and protects the Royal Family.

North Korea

Border Security Command and Coastal Security Bureau are collectively responsible for restricting unauthorized cross-border (land and sea) entries and exits, in the early 1990s the bureaus responsible for border security and coastal security were transferred from the State Security Department to the Ministry of People's Armed Forces. Sometime thereafter, the Border Security Bureau was enlarged to corps level and renamed the Border Security Command. Previously headquartered in Chagang Province, the Border Security Command was relocated to P’yŏngyang in 2002.[6]

Pakistan

Soldiers at Wagah border
Two Pakistan Rangers soldiers at Wagah border.

The Frontier Corps (FC) (Urdu: فرنٹیئرکور‎) is a federal paramilitary force recruited mostly by people from the tribal areas and led by officers from the Pakistan Army. The FC is stationed in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan Province, are known as FC NWFP and FC Balochistan, respectively. Both distinct provincial groups are run traditionally by an "inspector general" who is a regular Pakistani Army officer of at least major-general rank, although the force itself is part of the Interior Ministry, not the army.[7]

The Pakistan Rangers are a paramilitary force under the control of the Ministry of the Interior of the Pakistani government. In 1995 the Pakistan Rangers divided into two parts; the Pakistan Rangers Punjab headquartered in Lahore and the Pakistan Rangers Sindh headquartered in Karachi. The two divisions have different uniforms and chains of command.

Russia

RIAN archive 144538 Sentries posting
A border guard outpost in Dagestan, Russia

The Border Guard Service of Russia is (since 2003) an agency of the Federal Security Service. The agency considers itself a direct successor of the Soviet Border Troops, and regularly celebrates the anniversary of the founding of the latter (May 28, 1918).[8] This annual event, known as the Border Guards Day, is celebrated every year by the guards in active service as well as former servicemen in Moscow and throughout the country.[8]

Future world champion and Olympic sport shooter Boris Polak served as a border guard in the Red Army on a mountain top near China, attaining the rank of Colonel.[9]

Singapore

As an island, Singapore is surrounded by water and does not share land borders with other countries. Hence, border security is the responsibility of the Police Coast Guard, a specialised division of the Singapore Police Force that monitors and enforces its maritime borders.

Spain

In Spain, the paramilitary Guardia Civil is responsible for protecting the borders. There is also a specialized service of the Department of Customs and Special Taxes, the Servicio de Vigilancia Aduanera, that has some general border guard duties.

Tajikistan

The Border Troops of Tajikistan, also called the Border Service, are part of the Military of Tajikistan and answer to the Interior Ministry. They often train with the Afghan Border Police, and jointly trained with the military of Kyrgyzstan in 2011.

Thailand

The Border Patrol Police is Thailand's police force responsible for border security and counter-insurgency, and operates as the law-enforcement arm in conjunction with Thahan Phran, the ranger paramilitary arm of the Royal Thai Army.

United Kingdom

Border guard services are provided by the Border Force. The agency is responsible for visa controls, passport checks and customs enforcement at ports of entry into the UK, criminal cases.

The UK's only land border, that with the Republic of Ireland, is not regularly patrolled by the UKBA, but is the responsibility of the Police Service of Northern Ireland.

United States

United States Border Patrol Mexico
Border Patrol Agents with a Hummer and Astar patrol for illegal entry into U.S.

In the United States, border control is the responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security. This jurisdictional authority is shared by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (the primary inspection and enforcement component), the U.S. Coast Guard (the primary interdiction components) and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (the investigative component).

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is composed of three distinct enforcement arms: the Office of Border Patrol (OBP, otherwise known as the United States Border Patrol), the Office of Field Operations (OFO; commonly called by its former name 'Customs') and the Office of Air and Marine (OAM). OBP is tasked with securing the international border in-between the Ports of Entry (POE) and is a mobile enforcement agency that is structured and employed like any other uniformed police department in the United States. OFO is the federal law enforcement branch tasked with administering the POE's (air, land or sea) and is responsible for determining the admissibility of all persons and goods into the United States. The OAM operates all aircraft and watercraft for CBP and coordinates their interdiction efforts with either OBP, U.S. Coast Guard and/or with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

The U.S. Coast Guard is the only branch of military in the United States that is not subject to the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878. The reason being that both commissioned and petty officers are considered law enforcement officers with limited customs authority pursuant to 19 USC 1401.[10] U.S. Coast Guard has jurisdiction in both domestic and international waters.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement has the same authority as both U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the U.S. Coast Guard, with the added jurisdiction of investigating violations that occur at both the border and the interior of the United States.

Vietnam

Vietnam Border Defence Force (Biên phòng Việt Nam) is a branch of Vietnam People's Army and is under command of Ministry of Defence (Vietnam). It has important roles in protecting Vietnam's sovereignty, maintaining security at land and sea borders. Vietnam Border Defence Force is established on 3 March 1959. It is organised into three levels: National Command, Provincial Command, and Local Post.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Australian Border Force Act 2015". Austlii.
  2. ^ "Carriage of Operational Equipment by Officers of the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service – Fact" (PDF). Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Australian Customs and Border Protection. 12 March 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  3. ^ "Immigration and Border Protection Portfolio – Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee". Parliament of Australia. Senate – Estimates. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  4. ^ https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3501532/1350-prajurit-tni-tiba-di-papua-untuk-pengamanan-perbatasan
  5. ^ "Six Day War". Israeli-weapons.com. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
  6. ^ "About this Collection - Country Studies" (PDF).
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2010-09-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Abbas, Hassan, "Transforming Pakistan's Frontier Corps", article in Terrorism Monitor, Volume 5, Issue 6, a publication of the Jamestown Foundation, March 29, 2007, accessed November 7, 2007
  8. ^ a b "Breaking News, Boston Weather, World and US News Stories - Get the Latest Business, Health, Entertainment, Sports". NECN. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
  9. ^ ""Boris Polak"".
  10. ^ United States Coast Guard

External links

Border Guard (Poland)

The Polish Border Guard (Polish Straż Graniczna, also abbreviated as SG) is a state security agency tasked with patrolling the Polish border. It existed in the Second Republic era from 1928 to 1939 and was reestablished in the modern-day Third Republic in 1990, going into operation the following year. During the communist era lasting from 1945 to 1989, the role of the border guard was carried out by the Border Protection Troops (Wojska Ochrony Pogranicza).

Border Guard Unit

The Border Guard Unit (reporting name: BGU) is a national security and paramilitary unit of the Customs Excise and Preventive Service Division of the Ghana Revenue Authority and the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF). Established in October 1964, BGU's primary role is to guard Ghana's international borders during peacetime and prevent trans-border crime.

Border Guards Bangladesh

The Border Guards Bangladesh (Bengali transliteration: বর্ডার গার্ড বাংলাদেশ; translated from English: বাংলাদেশ সীমান্ত রক্ষক; BGB), formerly known as the Bangladesh Rifles, is the oldest uniformed force of Bangladesh. It is a paramilitary force under the Ministry of Home Affairs. BGB is primarily responsible for the border security of the country, in Bangladesh the force is known as "The Vigilant Sentinels of the National Frontier". The Present Director General is Maj. Gen. Shafeenul Islam.Border Guards Bangladesh, as a paramilitary force, is entrusted with the responsibility to defend the 4,427 kilometres (2,751 mi) border of Bangladesh. BGB boasts a military history spanning over two centuries. During peacetime this force is also responsible for anti-smuggling operations, investigating cross border crime and extending governmental authority to remote and isolated areas. From time to time BGB has also been called upon to assist the administration in the maintenance of internal law & order, relief and rehabilitation work after any kind of natural disaster. During wartime BGB comes under the control of the Ministry of Defence as an auxiliary force to the Bangladesh Army.

Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation

The Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Russian: Пограничная служба Федеральной службы безопасности Российской Федерации) is a branch of Federal Security Service of Russia tasked with patrol of the Russian border.

The terms Border Service of Russia (Russian: Пограничная служба России) and Border Force of Russia (Russian: Пограничные войска России) are also common, while in English, the terms "Border Guards" and "Border Troops" are frequently used to designate this service. The Border service numbers around 170,000 active members, which includes the Russian maritime border guard units (i.e., the coast guard).

European Border and Coast Guard Agency

The European Border and Coast Guard Agency, also known as Frontex (from French: Frontières extérieures for "external borders"), is an agency of the European Union headquartered in Warsaw, Poland, tasked with border control of the European Schengen Area, in coordination with the border and coast guards of Schengen Area member states.

Frontex was established in 2005 as the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders, and primarily responsible for coordinating border control efforts. In response to the European migrant crisis of 2015–2016, the European Commission proposed on 15 December 2015, to extend Frontex's mandate and to transform it into a fully-fledged European Border and Coast Guard Agency. On 18 December 2015, the European Council roundly supported the proposal, and after a vote by the European Parliament, the European Border and Coast Guard was officially launched on 6 October 2016 at the Bulgarian external border with Turkey.To enable the agency to carry out its tasks, its budget would be gradually increased from the €143 million originally planned for 2015 up to €238 million in 2016, €281 million in 2017, and will reach €322 million (about US$350 million) in 2020. The staff of the agency would gradually increase from 402 members in 2016 to 1,000 by 2020.

Finnish Border Guard

The Finnish Border Guard (Finnish: Rajavartiolaitos; Swedish: Gränsbevakningsväsendet) is the national security agency responsible for enforcing the security of Finland's borders. It is a paramilitary organization, subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior in administrative issues and to the President of the Republic in issues pertaining to the president's authority as Commander-in-Chief (e.g. officer promotions). The Border Guard has police and investigative powers in immigration matters and can independently investigate immigration violations. The Border Guard has search and rescue (SAR) duties, both maritime and inland. The Guard operates SAR helicopters that are often used in inland SAR, in assistance of a local fire and rescue department or other authorities.

The border guard's active duty personnel consists of 3,800 men and women. The Finnish Border Guard has also 500 conscripts who are not used for border control during peace time. Upon mobilisation the Border Guard would be wholly or partly incorporated into the Finnish Defence Forces and its strength increased with reservists who have served their conscription in the border guard. The mobilized strength of the Border Guard is 12 600 servicemen. The Finnish-Russian border is actively monitored and patrolled by the Border Guard. The western sea borders and the western and northern land borders to Sweden and Norway are free to cross under the Nordic passport union, however the Border Guard does maintain personnel in these regions owing to its SAR duties.

There is a separate Finnish Customs agency, and immigration is handled also by the local police and Finnish Directorate of Immigration. PTR (police, customs and border guard) cooperation is well-developed and allows the authorities to conduct each other's duties as necessary.

Frontier Service (Uzbekistan)

The Frontier Service, also called the Committee for State Border Protection of the National Security Service and the National Border Guard, is a department of the military and National Security Service of Uzbekistan responsible for border security, part of the Security Service since 2005. It has had many disagreements with the Frontier Forces of Kyrgyzstan since 2011.

Islamic Republic of Iran Border Guard Command

Islamic Republic of Iran Border Guard Command (Persian: فرماندهی مرزبانی جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎), commonly known as NAJA Border Guard (Persian: مرزبانی ناجا‎), is a subdivision of Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran (NAJA) and Iran's sole agency that performs border guard and control in land borders, and coast guard in maritime borders. The unit was founded in 2000, and from 1991 to 2000, the unit's duties was done by of Security deputy of NAJA. Before 1991, border control was Gendarmerie's duty.

Israel Border Police

The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: מִשְׁמַר הַגְּבוּל‬, Mišmar Ha-Gvul) is the gendarmerie and border security branch of the Israel National Police. It is also commonly known by its Hebrew abbreviation Magav (מג"ב‬), meaning border guard; its members are colloquially known as Magavnikim (מג"בניקים‬). Border Guard is often used as the official name of the Israel Border Police in English. While its main task is securing Israel's borders, it has also been deployed in assisting the Israel Defense Forces, and for counter-terrorism and law enforcement operations in the West Bank, as well as in Jerusalem.

The Israeli Border Police is renowned for including a large number of soldiers from minority backgrounds, being a particularly popular choice with Druze recruits, but also includes many soldiers from Circassian, Arab Christian and Bedouin background.

Law enforcement in Finland

Law enforcement in Finland is the responsibility of several agencies. The Police of Finland, a national police agency, is responsible for most tasks. The two other main agencies are the Finnish Border Guard and the Finnish Customs. Examples of other agencies with limited policing powers are the Finnish Defence Forces, municipal parking inspectors and railway staff.

List of Russian navy flags

This is a List of naval flags of the Russian Federation, from independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 onward, for Soviet naval flags see List of USSR navy flags.

List of Soviet navy flags

This is a list of naval flags of the Soviet Union. The part of translation is made by the robot In the column «Date» dates of issue of flags are given.

Lithuanian State Border Guard Service

The State Border Guard Service or SBGS (Lithuanian: Valstybės sienos apsaugos tarnyba) is the organisation under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior charged with controlling and maintaining the security of Lithuanian borders on land, in the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Lagoon. Since December 21, 2007, Lithuania is part of the Schengen Area and SBGS, partner of Frontex, controls about 1,070 kilometres (660 mi) of Area's external land border with Kaliningrad Oblast and Belarus.

Police and Border Guard Board

The Police and Border Guard Board (Estonian: Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet) is a unified governmental agency within the Estonian Ministry of Interior and is responsible for law enforcement and homeland security in the Republic of Estonia.

The main tasks of the agency are to ensure and protect the integrity of the Estonian state and, since May 1, 2004, also the European Union border within the territories of the Republic of Estonia; to secure the state borders and the European Union outer border within the territories of the Republic of Estonia, to monitor and identify citizenship, along with handling the documentation, to preserve law and civil order within the borders of the Republic of Estonia and to detect and prevent crime.

Soviet Border Troops

Soviet Border Troops (Russian: Пограничные войска СССР, Pograníchnyye Voiská SSSR) were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka/OGPU, then to NKVD/MGB and, finally, to KGB. Accordingly, they were known as NKVD Border Troops and KGB Border Troops (with Russian abbreviations – НКВД СССР/- КГБ СССР added on the end of official names). Unlike border guards of many other countries, Soviet Border Troops also included the maritime border guarding units (i.e., a coast guard).

The mission of the Border Troops included repulsing armed incursions into Soviet territory; preventing illegal crossings of the border or the transport of weapons, explosives, contraband or subversive literature across the border; monitoring the observance of established procedures at border crossing points; monitoring the observance by Soviet and foreign ships of navigation procedures in Soviet territorial waters; and assisting state agencies in the preservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment from pollution. Border guards were authorized to examine documents and possessions of persons crossing the borders and to confiscate articles; to conduct inquiries in cases of violations of the state border; and to take such actions as arrest, search and interrogation of individuals suspected of border violations.

They became the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation on December 30, 1993.

State Border Guard

The State Border Guard (Latvian: Valsts Robežsardze) is the border guard of Latvia.The State Border Guard is an institution subordinated to the Minister of the Interior. The State Border Guard is an armed institution and it serves to ensure the security of the state border and to prevent illegal migration.

Every day more than 2000 border guards and employees of the State Border Guard fulfil their duties of service. Currently the State Border Guard comprises the Central Board, territorial boards, including the Aviation Board. The State Border Guard College is an institution of higher education under the authority of the State Border Guard.

The State Border Guard ensures surveillance of 276 km long border between the Republic of Latvia and Russian Federation, 172,9 km long border between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Belarus, and 498 km long sea border (external EU border), as well as monitoring of 343 km long border between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia and 588 km long border between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania (internal EU border).

State Border Guard Service of Ukraine

State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Державна Прикордонна Служба України, Derzhavna Prykordonna Sluzhba Ukrayiny; abbr. ДПСУ, DPSU) or SBGS is the border guard of Ukraine. It is an independent law enforcement agency of special assignment, the head of which is subordinated to the President of Ukraine.

The Service was created on July 31, 2003 after the reorganization of the State Committee in Affairs for Protection the State Border. During wartime, units of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine fall under the command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. The State Border Guard Service of Ukraine includes the Ukrainian Sea Guard (the country's coast guard). It is also responsible for running "Temporary Detention Centres", in which refugees are held.

State Border Service (Azerbaijan)

The State Border Service of Azerbaijan Republic (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət Sərhəd Xidməti) also known as Border Guard of Azerbaijan is a governmental law enforcement agency in charge of protecting the borders of Azerbaijan.

Swiss Border Guard

Swiss Border Guard (French: Corps des gardes-frontière, German: Grenzwachtkorps, Italian: Corpo delle guardie di confine) are a federal law enforcement agency, which acts as both the border guard and customs service for Switzerland. It is a uniformed and armed section of the Federal Customs Administration, which is attached to the Federal Department of Finance. It is the largest civilian security agency on a federal level. Its members are subjected to military criminal law.

The Swiss Border Guard takes care of the prevention, intervention and repression concerning customs and migration related matters. It enforces border security and national compensating measures under the Schengen Agreement. The guard participates in international missions of the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (Frontex).

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