The Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Russian: Пограничная служба Федеральной службы безопасности Российской Федерации) is a branch of Federal Security Service of Russia tasked with patrol of the Russian border.
The terms Border Service of Russia (Russian: Пограничная служба России) and Border Force of Russia (Russian: Пограничные войска России) are also common, while in English, the terms "Border Guards" and "Border Troops" are frequently used to designate this service. The Border service numbers around 170,000 active members, which includes the Russian maritime border guard units (i.e., the coast guard).
|Border Service of the FSB of the Russian Federation|
Пограничная служба Федеральной службы безопасности Российской Федерации
|Formed||June 12, 1992|
|Size||20,241 lineal kilometers|
|Parent agency||Federal Security Service (Russia)|
One can trace the origin of the Russian border service to 1571 and the work of Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky (died 1573) and his Great Abatis Border built along the southern boundaries of the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century. In 1782 the Empress Catherine II of Russia established Border Customs Guard units, originally manned by Russian Cossacks as well as by low-ranking cavalry troops. In 1810 General Mikhail Barklay de Tolly organized numerous border posts along the entire western Russian border, manned by 11 regiments of Don and Bug Cossacks . Within two years Russian Border Guards became the first to oppose Napoleon's invasion of Russia (June 1812). In 1832 Cossacks and cavalry were replaced by armed customs officials subordinate to the Ministry of Finance in peacetime (in wartime the border guards were automatically transferred to the army). In the same year the government of Emperor Nicholas I established a coast guard - originally to observe coasts of the Black Sea and of the Sea of Azov.
Count Sergei Witte, the Russian Minister of Finance (1892-1903) in the government of Alexander III (reigned 1881-1894), reformed the service on 13 October 1893 into the Independent Border Guards Corps (IBGC - a para-military rather than a civilian organization) headed by an army general and reporting directly to the ministry.
In 1906 about 40,000 soldiers and officers served in the IBGC - maintaining the defence of the lengthy Imperial border. They served in 8 division-sized districts as well as in the Saint Petersburg headquarters unit.
Soviet Border Troops, (Russian: Пограничные войска СССР, Pogranichnyie Voiska SSSR) were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka/OGPU, then to NKVD/MGB and, finally, to KGB. Accordingly, they were known as NKVD Border Troops and KGB Border Troops (with Russian abbreviations - НКВД СССР/- КГБ СССР added on the end of official names). Unlike border guards of many other countries, Soviet Border Troops were a centralized force including also the maritime border guard units (i.e., a coast guard).
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Federal Border Guard Service of Russia was created on December 30, 1993 as a separate government agency. The agency retained some old traditions, most notably the dark green-colored uniform and "Border Guarder's Day" (an official holiday commemorated by celebrations of ex-servicemen). First minister of FBS (Federal Border Service) was Andrei Nikolayev, young and outspoken general who later became deputy of the State Duma. Russian Border Guards were also stationed outside of Russia most notably in southern Tajikistan, in order to guard the border with Afghanistan, until summer 2005. On Afghan-Tajik border on many occasions they were engaged in heavy fighting with drug-traffickers and Islamic extremists. Armenia's closed border with Turkey and open border with Iran is also still guarded by the Russians. On March 11, 2003, Russian president Vladimir Putin changed the status of Border Guard Service from a separate agency into a branch of Russian Federal Security Service. The current head of Border Guard Service of Russia is General Vladimir Pronichev. Border Guard Service of Russia is tasked with a defence of the longest national border in the world.
In April 2012 Vladimir Pronichev announced that the country was planning to build 20 frontier posts in the Arctic region. Reasons for this development can be found in the increased abilities to explore hydrocarbon deposits in the north. It will also give Russia an ability to patrol and service the Northern Sea Route.
In July 2014 Ukraine opened a criminal case against the head of the Border Guard Service Vladimir Kulishov; he was accused of financing “illegal military groups” in Eastern Ukraine who at the time fought against the Ukrainian army.
Responsibilities of Border Guard Service of Russia include:
FPS Russia, the Federal Border Service (Russian: Федеральная пограничная служба, Federal'naya Pogranichnaya Sluzhba), active from 30 December 1994 to 30 June 2003, was headed by a single centralized system, which included:
Changes in the regional structure of the Border Service, instead of ten regional border (see the old structures FPS) for the new scheme includes regional offices of the border (in the federal districts) and 30 border offices. Includes the Maritime Border Guard.
Regional border districts:
The military educational institutions, vocational education:
As adopted by presidential decree No. 457, dated April 23, 2001:
Enterprises, institutions and organizations which are subordinate to the Border Service:
From 1938 to 1957:
The border troops (Guard):
The Moscow Victory Day Parade of 1965 (Russian: Парад Победы, tr. Parad Pobedy) was held on 9 May 1965 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marks the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War.
Prior to 1965 Victory Day was not a major holiday and parades were not held, with the exception of the 1945 Victory Day Parade. The Victory Parade of 1965 was the second made after 1945 Victory Day Parade. After this parade next would be held recently in 1985.
The parade was observed by Soviet leaders from Lenin´s Mausoleum. Major political figures attending were General Secretary of the Communist Party Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin, and Minister of Defence Marshal Rodion Malinovsky among others. The parade was commanded by Moscow Military District Commander General of the Army Afanasy Beloborodov. It was on that very parade that Mikhail Yegorov and Meliton Kantaria, the then two surviving raisers of the Victory Banner, escorted it as the color party of the banner marched past the dignitaries on Red Square with retired Col. Konstantin Samsonov carrying the banner.
On this parade what is now the 1st Honor Guard Company of the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment made its parade debut. Several of the then living officers from the war bearing the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union, including Georgy Zhukov, the parade inspector of the original 1945 Victory Parade, attended the event.1995 Moscow Victory Day Parades
The Moscow Victory Day Parades of 1995 (Russian: Парад Победы, tr. Parad Pobedy) were two military parades held on 9 May 1995 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union in 1945. The parades marked the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War. These were the first post-Soviet military parades held in Russia the first one being in Poklonnaya Hill and the second one being held for veterans in Red Square.1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The 1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade held in Red Square on 9 May 1996 to commemorate the 51st anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in the Great Patriotic War on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight 9 May 1945 (Russian time).The Supreme Commander of Russian Armed Forces, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, as well as government officials stood on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum. It would be the last time the Mausoleum would be used in a Moscow parade. The parade commander was the commander of the Moscow Military District, Colonel-General Leonid Kuznetsov. The parade was inspected by the Defense Minister of Russia, General of the Army Pavel Grachev. 7,370 military personnel took part in the parade. Military equipment did not participate in the parade. The parade is also the first time the Victory Banner was trooped on Red Square before the parade.1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The 1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade held in Red Square on 9 May 1997 to commemorate the 52nd anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in the Great Patriotic War on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight 9 May 1945 (Russian time).
Together with the Supreme Commander of Russian Armed Forces, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, the Russian army generals and other officials stood on a temporary grandstand, erected in front of Lenin's Mausoleum. The parade was attended by 5,000 officers and men, the parade went off without a demonstration of military equipment. The parade commander was deputy commander of the Moscow Military District, Lieutenant-General Igor Puzanov. Passage of the troops took 20 minutes.2000 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Day Parade of 2000 was held on 9 May 2000 to commemorate the 55th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marks the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War. The parade was commanded by Colonel General Ivan E Puzanov, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by the Minister of Defence, Marshal of the Russian Federation Igor Sergeyev. The historical part of the parade was commanded by the former Moscow Military District commander General of the Army Vladimir Govorov. A speech was made by the newly elected president Vladimir Putin.
This parade was the last to feature the old national anthem of Russia (used 1990-1991 by the Russian SFSR and 1991-2000 by the Russian Federation). It was also the last parade to feature veterans on foot.2001 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Parade of 2001 was a celebration of the 56th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. The commander of the parade was the acting head of the Moscow Garrison Colonel General Nikolai Makarov. Reviewing the parade was Minister of Defence Sergei Ivanov. Music was performed by the Moscow Garrison's Central Orchestra under Colonel Valery Khalilov. This was the very first parade that was inspected by a civilian defense minister.2005 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The 2005 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a military parade which took place in Red Square in Moscow on 9 May 2005 to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade was inspected by the Minister of Defence General of the Army Sergei Ivanov and it was commanded by Moscow Military District Commander Ivan Efremov.
Music was performed by the Massed Bands of the Moscow Garrison directed by Colonel Valery Khalilov on his 3rd national parade, the first to include 4 international marching bands.
After the inspection of the troops, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin gave his 6th holiday address to the nation.
Among the International Heads of state attending were President of the United States George W. Bush, Japanese Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi, and President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov.
This was the last time veterans took part directly as participants. This time through, reenacting the motorized infantry of the original 1945 parade mobile column, many veterans of the fronts rode in the very trucks which carried infantry to the front lines of the war, arranged accordingly by the fronts they took part at war's end.2007 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Parade of 2007 was a celebration of the 62nd anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. It was the last time Vladimir Putin made a holiday address in his first term as president.The parade was commanded by the head of the Moscow Garrison General of the army Vladimir Bakin, and reviewing the parade was Minister of Defence Anatoliy Serdyukov.Music was performed by the Moscow Garrison's Central Orchestra under Major General Valery Khalilov.This was the very first parade that was watched by people online outside of Russia.2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Parade of 2008 was held on the Victory Day on the 63rd anniversary of the Great Patriotic War ending in the defeat of Nazi Germany. This was the first time the Russian Federation opened its vehicle showcase since 1991, and the airshow since the Cold War.
The parade was commanded by Army General Vladimir Bakin, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Anatoliy Serdyukov of the Russian Ministry of Defence.
A speech was made by the third president of Russia Dmitry Medvedev. This would be notable to be the first ever major Russian military parade seen on television worldwide when RT carried a live broadcast of the parade for the first time in its history.2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Parade of 2009 was held on Victory Day on the 64th anniversary of the Great Patriotic War, which ended in the defeat of Nazi Germany.
The parade was commanded by Valery Gerasimov, commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Anatoliy Serdyukov of the Russian Ministry of Defence.
A speech was made by the third president of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev, in which he warned other countries against embarking on military adventures. This was thought to be a veiled warning directed at Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili.2011 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Day Parade in Moscow was held on 9 May, 2011 to commemorate the 66th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marked the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War.2012 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Day Parade in Moscow's Red Square was held on 9 May 2012 to commemorate the 67th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marked the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War on the very day on the signing of the German act of capitulation, on the very midnight of May 9, 1945 (Russian time). Newly inaugurated President of Russia Vladimir Putin made his first holiday address in this parade.Berkuts
The Berkuts (English: Golden eagles) are a Soviet and later Russian aerobatic performance demonstrator team connected with the Russian Air Force.Big Diomede
Big Diomede Island (Russian: о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); Inupiat: Imaqłiq) or "Tomorrow Island" (due to the International Date Line) is the western island of the two Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait. The island is a part of the Chukotsky District of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of Russia. The border separating Russia and the United States runs north-south between the Diomede Islands.Grachonok-class anti-saboteur ship
The counter sabotage Project 21980 ("Grachonok" code) is a class of boats of water region patrol, designed for the Russian Navy. Project 21980 is designed to combat sabotage and terrorist forces and means in the waters off bases and near the approaches to them, as well as to assist the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in solving the problems of preservation and protection of the state border of Russia. Seventeen boats were built in 2009-2019.Moscow Victory Day Parade
Moscow Victory Day Parade may refer to:
Moscow Victory Parade of 1945
1965 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1985 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1990 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1995 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1998 Moscow Victory Day Parade
1999 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2000 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2001 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2002 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2003 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2004 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2005 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2006 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2007 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2011 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2012 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2013 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2014 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2016 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2017 Moscow Victory Day Parade
2018 Moscow Victory Day ParadeRussian Knights
The Russian Knights (Russian: Русские Витязи, Russkiye Vityazi) is an aerobatic demonstration team of the Russian Air Force. Originally formed on April 5, 1991 at the Kubinka Air Base as a team of six Sukhoi Su-27s, the team was the first to perform outside the Soviet Union in September 1991 when they toured the United Kingdom. On December 12, 1995, disaster struck as three team jets flew in-formation into a mountainside near Cam Ranh, Vietnam during approach while en route to home from a Malaysian airshow during adverse weather conditions. The team now performs with eight Su-30SM with numbers "30", "31", "32", "33", "34", "35", "36" and "37".Soviet Border Troops
Soviet Border Troops (Russian: Пограничные войска СССР, Pograníchnyye Voiská SSSR) were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka/OGPU, then to NKVD/MGB and, finally, to KGB. Accordingly, they were known as NKVD Border Troops and KGB Border Troops (with Russian abbreviations – НКВД СССР/- КГБ СССР added on the end of official names). Unlike border guards of many other countries, Soviet Border Troops also included the maritime border guarding units (i.e., a coast guard).
The mission of the Border Troops included repulsing armed incursions into Soviet territory; preventing illegal crossings of the border or the transport of weapons, explosives, contraband or subversive literature across the border; monitoring the observance of established procedures at border crossing points; monitoring the observance by Soviet and foreign ships of navigation procedures in Soviet territorial waters; and assisting state agencies in the preservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment from pollution. Border guards were authorized to examine documents and possessions of persons crossing the borders and to confiscate articles; to conduct inquiries in cases of violations of the state border; and to take such actions as arrest, search and interrogation of individuals suspected of border violations.
They became the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation on December 30, 1993.Swifts (aerobatic team)
The Swifts (Russian: Стрижи, Strizhi) is an aerobatic demonstrator team of the Russian Air Force, formed on 6 May 1991. The team currently performs with 6 MiG-29/29UB aircraft.